In order to investigate the acoustical problems in open-plan type elementary schools, field measurements and observation/inquiring surveys were performed for several schools of this type. From the results, it has been found that the sound environment in classrooms is determined by such factors as the acoustical properties of school buildings, situation and characteristic of each school, the activity of class works, and awareness of the teachers and children to the sound environment. Based on these findings, questionnaire survey was designed and conducted with teachers in eight schools. From the results, the acoustical conditions in open-type classrooms are discussed and the way of improving them is considered.
The sound level data is the most important datum among the appraised data of environmental noise. The object of this study is to clarify, by some experiments, that there would be a different response and that subjective appraisal differs when audible sound types change even under the same sound level. So far, various methods that we, appraise sound environment by our subjectivity, have been proposed and utilized. But we have seen few study cases about the correlation between sound types, subjective appraisal and moreover sound level. In this research, we have surveyed environmental noise in terms of data obtained by physical quantity (L^<Aeq>), and subjective appraisal and audible noise types, then examined the correlation between them. Consequently we could confirm that their audible sound types might influence noise level and subjective appraisal. Moreover as a result of the surveillance of noise environment along boulevards, commercial and residential areas, the type of sound heard in each area constitutes of the same ratios. In regards to the cause for the difference in relationship between noise measurement values and appraisal scaling for principal roads, commercial areas and residential areas, the possibility of the sound types (mainly the traffic sounds) influencing the relationship was indicated.
This report shows the relationship among legibility, individual visual ability and age by introducing Relative Acuity (RA), that is the ratio of Maximum Visual Acuity (MVA) to visual acuity necessary for distinguishing characters. 86 Subjects (Young and the Aged) evaluate the legibility of documents. Experimental variables are background luminance, luminance contrast, character size, MVA and age. If MVA is equal, the relationship between factors of visibility and legibility is equal for each age group. The legibility under the same RA can be treated equally regardless the combination of MVA and character size, if the ratio of character size is from 2/5 to 5/2. Background luminance and luminance contrast does not have effects on RA under the condition of this examination. Also the difference in aees does not have effects on RA, except for the high visibility conditions under which the Aged evaluates "easy to read".
A survey and analysis on thermal environment of an alley and houses in a densely populated area in Osaka, known for the severely hot climate in summer, were carried out. It was found that the incident solar radiation had a significant influence on the thermal conditions and energy consumption, and the cooling effect by water-evaporation was high. Several techniques to improve the thermal environment in summer were examined. Appropriate (movable) eaves, high-albedo material for roof and water sprinkle on the ground or roof were found to be very effective. When these all are introduced together, a cooler environment and reduction in energy consumption for cooling could be achieved.
This study aims to experimentally evaluate the compression of snow during storage in a deep storage tank. First, small scale experiments related to acceleration of the compression of snow by means of water addition for three hours were carried out. Results showed that the addition of 20 wt% water was suitable. In addition, coefficients of viscosity of the compression for wet snow in a short term compression were evaluated. Next, long term experiments concerned with compression of dry snow for the wide range of snow density were done. When the initial snow density was high, the changes of coefficients of viscosity of compression with snow density were quite different from the previous empirical equation for the natural fallen snow. It was shown that the maximum dry snow densities were limited and each maximum density reached about 562 kg/m^3 independent of the initial density. Coefficient of viscosity of the compression was approximately 9.0 × 10^<11> Pas at this maximum density. A calculation method of coefficient of viscosity of the compression was proposed using this point for the wide range of the initial snow density.
This paper describes field performance of air conditioning with an energy pile system, which was applied to pile foundations of an actual building, for the purpose of the cost reduction of an underground heat exchanger. Firstly, the building for both office and residential use, for which a space heating and cooling system using friction piles was installed, was built in Sapporo in December, 2000. Secondly, three tests were carried out in order to specify the design of a heat exchanger inside the pile, and U-tube type underground heat exchanger was adopted from the viewpoint of energy efficiency and installation cost. As a result of long term measuring on space heating operation, the seasonal average temperatures of brine's return from the underground and pile surface were 2.4℃ and 6.7℃, respectively. The average coefficient of performance was quite high ; 3.9 and the primary energy reduction rate relative to a typical air conditioning system reached 23.2%.
Since contaminant in a room is not always uniformly distributed, an index for measuring ventilation efficiency in an occupied zone is required for effective ventilation design. Local ventilation efficiency is often represented by the ratio of the averaged concentration of the local domain to that of exhausted air from the room. This index is called Normalized Concentration (Cn) in an Occupied Zone. In this research, the values of Cn in an occupied zone in office space are calculated by CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation technique in five different ventilation systems. Furthermore, the supply-air conditions are chosen according to the change of Archimedes number (Ar) and Reynolds number (Re) under constant heat load and also the changes in the property of the Cn are evaluated by the parameter of Ar and Re of supply-air. For most cases of ventilation systems, the Cn becomes around 1.0, but the Cn changes greatly depending on Ar and Re in the case of displacement ventilation system.
This paper aims to examine the optimization of a heat supply system for newly planned area S in Tokyo Station Area. Five cases combining boiler system, co-generation system and heat source network system are evaluated on energy saving, CO2, SOx, NOx emission, economical efficiency and technological possibility of network by multivariate analysis. The results show : compared with a new boiler system or a new boiler system with heat source network, a system using surplus capacity of surrounding district heating and cooling through the way of heat source network is the most effective, the second is a co-generation system without heat source network, and the third is a co-generation system with a heat source network.
Authors have proposed a direct heat exchange system between granulated phase change materials (PCM) and air. In this paper, experiments are conducted with packed bed of granulated PCM when inlet temperature is changed periodically such as outdoor air temperature. Stabilization effects of supply air temperature are demonstrated by experiments and calculations. Results from a computer simulation program, which was shown in previous paper, can reproduce the variation of actual outlet temperature, which is always in phase change condition. Also, reduction of cooling load for ventilation is examined among 8 cities through the computer simulation. Suitable heat storage capacity is shown.
In this study, utilization of remote sensing data to urban planning focusing on Thermal environment was discussed through analysis of Albedo Number of 6 bands of wavelength by Landsat 7 ETM+ data. And their relation to land-coverage, NVI and land- use were also clarified by using GIS. The followings are concluded ; 1. Albedo of each band varies as to land coverage. 2. Relation between NVI and Albedo of each band tends to be different from each other. 3. Land-use of specified land-coverage area has influence on Albedo. 4. Both land-use and land-coverage are important as information for urban planning focusing on Thermal environment.
The authors forecasted perspective amounts of wastes coming from building demolition in three particular regions : Fukuoka Prefecture, Tokyo Metropolitan and Tottori-Shimane Prefectures. One of the most important points in the procedure is to identify the Failure Distribution Functions (FDF) of the building lifetime, which can be drawn from the Reliability Theory. The FDF is requisite in case of precise estimation of the demolished building floor area in a certain region. Then, we based on the public statistical data that the local government established in necessity of the property tax related affairs. Finally, following conclusions were obtained. The lifetime of wooden construction increases with the decrease of population density in the regions. It is observed that the lifetime of wooden construction in the areas having over 3000 persons per square meter is nearly 40 years. Whereas, the lifetime of other constructions does not recognized any significant relations to the population density. A measure to make building's lifetime long implies remarkable effect on a decrement of the demolition wastes. The crumbled concrete chunk accounts for over 50% of the entire wastes from demolished buildings, while the mixed waste reaches to 75 to 80% of all final disposal.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of interior lighting environment on the choice of position people take who are engaged in conversation. The first experiment was to observe how two subjects conversed under non-uniform lighting, and then the second experiment was to have one of the subject choose a suitable position for engaging in a conversation. As a result of these experiments, it was found that there is a tendency for people engaged in conversation to take positions a little more toward the center of the light in sharp lighting compared to lighting with a gentler tone. It was also found that the distance people keep in conversation was longer with men compared to women regardless of the condition of the lighting, and there was also a tendency for men to face one another in conversation more so than women. It was also found that under different conditions of lighting, men have the tendency to adjust the distance with the other person, and women have the tendency to adjust the direction toward the other person.
A questionnaire survey on the consciousness of the residents living in the mid-to-high-rise apartment houses in the commercial district near Kawaguchi station was administered. The sunshine hours at the same apartment houses was also measured by a computer simulation. Results shows that nearly 70% of the answerers in the commercial district demand sunshine more than now. And the priority of the convenience was not related to such residents' demands for the sunshine. Therefore, the standard for the sunshine in commercial districts is necessary. In this survey, 5 sunshine hours were found to be necessary for the residents even in commercial district.
In this report, effect of the anthropogenic waste heat upon urban thermal environment was described. (1) During night, the amount of anthropogenic waste heat is less than that during daytime, though the increase in temperature is about three times larger that during daytime. (2) Zones subject to temperature rise due to anthropogenic waste heat are clearly different in location between day and night. (3) Waste heat causes the delay of changing to land breeze especially in coastal zones. (4) Night waste heat significantly raises the air temperature, and its effect continues during the morning hours. (5) Night waste heat has a stronger effect in wider areas.
In this study, a method to estimate energy demand of dwellings according to a prefecture was suggested. From this, local energy demand structure was made clear and the increase factor was analyzed. According to an energy source, electricity is the major demand in most area, and local difference of kerosene is big. By type of building, though there is much energy demand of apartment house in Tokyo and Osaka, detached house is the major demand in other area. The energy demand of dwellings in Japan increased by 32% in these ten years, but increase slowed down in all areas from the later half of 1990's. In addition to the growth of pure energy demand, decrease of the household members is leading to increase of energy demand. By a result predicted in the future, it is expected that 5% increase in the next 10 years even if an energy consumption basic unit does not increase.
The aim of this study is to clarify the movement characteristics of styrene gas in houses. The emission rates from a straw mat with styrene boards were measured in a large chamber and the following results were obtained. 1) The pressurization of the installation of the straw mat and the walking on the mat makes the emission rate of styrene higher. The rate of increase was 350 μg/h by 1000 steps and is the same as the rate by 650 steps. 2) The emission rate does not increase linearly with the number of the steps. The peek of the emission rate after the pressurization with 1000 steps was 700μg/h. The rate was not over 700μg/h under the condition that 1000 steps are carried out everyday. 3) The emission characteristic of styrene is similar to those of the volatile organic compounds from the straw mat.
For the purpose of leading to an appropriate house planning including facilities for all human beings to have a self-supporting life, an evaluating method is proposed which is combined with two kinds of criteria. Primary one is consisted of sixteen items based on "Lifetime Homes" as Building Standards of United Kingdom. Secondary one has five levels determined through the retrofitting cost. According to the method, houses in Nagoya areas separated to five kinds by offering system were assayed. As the results, it is clarified the universal level of the houses was low regardless of the kinds, and the replacement of nonstructural elements was inquired.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the collective form of buildings and outdoor spaces, such as courtyards and streets, in Manek Chowk area in Ahmedabad, western India. The streets in this area have hierarchical tree system forming block pattern called Pol. In this study, the collective form of buildings and outdoor spaces is described to three phases such as house/group/Pol. As the result we found the two collective systems. One is the supplement system of the outdoor space between courtyard and street the other is the nesting system of each phases.
The study will propose designing dwellings to support and enrich the elderly and the aged people. This study reports on a survey on the condominium houses built about 20 years ago. In the survey, some characteristics of life style and way of living for their generation. In part 2 of this study, it is specially surveyed the human relation, life works after retire, worth living and requirements for living environment. Based on the survey, housing planning and regional planning for supporting them are proposed from the view pont of "keeping lives all day in their housing units"
This paper studied on the architectural planning of children's section in medium-sized public libraries. The survey, consisting of the questionnaire, census of space occupancy, and user's behavior, was undertaken in three representative libraries from among plans with children's section separate from adult's section or sharing as open plan area with it. The study obtained an overview of user type of libraries focusing on the utilization of the children's section ; the children's activities in relation to their accompanying parents; and the need for provision of meeting and staying place for both children and adults
This study aims at considering the interaction between children s ways of becoming members of society and space through observation of their play settings. This study revealed the following results. Children acquire sociality by trying to understand the internal environment of a building as a whole. To clarify , understanding environment means to recognize the existence of their surroundings. The interaction between nearby playgroups occurs quite often and also is a valuable method of learning. This leads to the establishment of functions of play and activation of the children. For example, sometimes they call to one another from separate settings in order to construct relationships; furthermore, they create new functions within the exsiting environment to develop their play.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics of seat arrangement in Kabuki Theatres. A questionnaire on Kabuki Theatres was prepared to evaluate the relationships between various factors and the general impressions that Kabuki Theatres users have of seat environments. By completing this form, these subjects provided a psychological evaluation of seating at various locations in typically planned Kabuki Theatres seating arrangements. In addition, physical quantities are calculated to give parameters that express the relationship between each seat and the stage or Hanamicni, and characterize the visual space at seats. Analysis of the psychological evaluation, and the correlation between this evaluation and the physical quantities and arrangement of seats, provides guide points for design and evaluation of seat arrangement by visual characteristics in Kabuki Theatres.
The purpose of this study is to clarify what the social day space for the elderly should be. To this end, this study conducts a questionnaire analysis with the elderly making use of that space and a field study to record how they behave there. The results are as follows : 1) ; According to difference of environment or buildings themselves, the elderly select their own places. 2) ; As functions of an institution. to make up of support service on daily behavior and free space for the elderly make it easy to visit and satisfy several demands for the elderly. 3) ; As for inside spaces, to prepare a space with a sence of unity and to device an arragement of furniture are important for the elderly to select a condition of activity.
This research aims to obtain a basic guideline to improve location environments of community facilities through an amalgamation of local governments with Date Envelop Analysis (DEA). Osaka prefecture was selected as the surveyed area where its public policy of amalgamation was pressed in 2001. The DEA contains various models such as BCC, CCR, IRTS, and DRTS from the view point of returns to scale and some methods called sensitivity analysis. Author studied the amalgamation policy by using those models and a sensitivity analysis to identify their features and evaluate availability of the amalgamation policy. Finally, new proposal for location strategy of public facilities by amalgamation of local government was discussed.
Based on a hypothesis that emotional changes can be analyzed by brainwaves, this study aims to continuously predict such changes induced by urban spaces and describe them on a time axis along with spatial information. Using data obtained from psychological rating by the SD method and brainwave measurement, urban spaces were grasped in terms of four dimensions of meaning, and a predictive equation was obtained from the relationship between psychological quantities and brainwave values. Moreover, a method of analyzing personal impression of the shapes and atmosphere of urban spaces was established by symbolizing the elements of the experiment space and relating the emotional changes to such spatial information on a time axis.
In Japan, measurements of body parts and compiled data on mobile function of infants hardly exist. Therefore, we developed a measurement device arid measured infants to compile data. Results revealed that : i) It is difficult to predict finger and head circumference, from height and weight of an infant, ii) A corelation was observed with age and the ability to pull and push. iii) Through all age categories, the ability to pull was maximized when the object was placed 50 cm above ground, iv) The horizontal reach differs significantly, depending on the age and the height of the table, with lower height providing a greater reach as it allows the infant to bend forward.
Urban space of Northeast China and Far East Russia could be considered as a stage where cultures and civilizations, provided by emigrants from various regions and countries, were blended and merged, then re-constructed. This study aims to distinguish the process of formation and changes of cities, referring to their historical backgrounds, which includes activities and changes of rulers. Harbin and Dalian of China, Blagoveshchensk, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok of Russia are the cities mainly investigated for this research. This paper is fundamental research based on fieldworks done from 1997. Discussion are made over the formation of urban space of northeast Asia considering changes of rulers of the time, which most of the time were also designers of each cities.
Our research, taking the Post-Earthquake Reconstruction Machizukuri Area, a general city area, as a model case, came to the following conclusion ; (1) The rule-setting of the townscape, followed and applied by the citizens, will develop, according to the community development. (2) Activities the citizens themselves practice in order to make the rules applied smoothly will promote the formation of a community. (3) As the supporting system of the rules to make the community development promoted successively and prosperously, it is effective to use both "strict rules" under the law and "flexible ones" under the leadership of the citizens
Our problematic is to clarify the conceptual emergence of urban design and the technical shift for it in the Renaissance of Paris. We make a hypothesis that the crown invents the expression<<bonne ville>>for differentiating the cities which can equip an enceinte. But in the late Renaissance, his political power becomes too absolute to abolish it and adopt the expression<<embellissement des villes>>which means the direct interventionism over the cities for showing off their beauty to the foreign countries. It is this active concept which prevents the occurrence of the expression <<paysage urbain (townscape)>>for the long time.
The purpose of this study is to develop a method to evaluate the advantage of position based on route information. First, we defined the advantage of position using the amount of route information description which considers passing on the way. Next, we calculated the expected value of the amount of route information description by solving the following three problems :  we asked for the rate of branch in the course actually used in the informed route, and made a tree using it ;  the probability that one can pass arbitrary nodes on a route is estimated ;  the expected number of the pairs of two adjoining nodes which can pass on the way is calculated by the probability acquired by  on the way obtained by . By using the above-mentioned expected value, we compared the advantage of position of several points and analyzed the feature of street network form.
The problems of local government for the human damage assessment in earthquake are : 1. The regional distribution of population cannot be identified exactly, because it differs with too many factors such as season, time and etc. And we think regional population structure is one of those important factors. 2. Main issue in regional plan of disaster prevention is to select the most hazardous district in the city and to take suitable countermeasure ; therefore selecting suitable parameters to distinguish the difference of human damage in districts is needed. In this paper, we proposed a solution of the above problem.
This study aims at renovating the actual evacuation control system against tsunami disaster into more effective one by understanding the nature of human behaviors and their interaction effects. Considering the diversity of behaviors of evacuees, this research proposes a multi agent simulation model, where each of the evacuees with different characters and properties is expressed as a computer module called an Agent with functions of communication and decision making. Applying this simulation model to the Enoshima seaside area, it has been confirmed that an appropriate evacuation control method leads to a better result in saving lives of the evacuees.
The construction industry is widely internationalized in these years. Especially, these are more and more opportunities for the foreign companies to execute the projects in the Southeast Asian region. But, a lot of confliction is generated among the stakeholders who came from various countries in these projects. So, this study aims to clarify the occurrence causes of those confliction through the comparison of the contract clauses which are used in the projects of Japan, UK, and Singapore. And, the regulation of BDAS (Buildable Design Appraisal System) in Singapore and the procurement system of Partnering in U. K., which exert the new influence on the relationship among the stakeholders of building projects, are also investigated and analyzed in this study.
This report aims to clarify the Japanese demand of the existing house through a comparative survey of the homeowners in Japan and California, which is similarly affected by earthquakes. 75% of US respondents purchased existing houses and planned to live in it for only a short time. On the contrary, 87% of the Japanese purchased a new house and planned to live in it for a long time. We clarified that in the US, people move frequently, and thus purchase houses not only to live in but also as an investment object. Older houses are considered attractive, such as the natural hard wood floor, skillful carpenter work and traditional design in the US, whereas in Japan people suppose that houses lack safety construct in quality . Therefore, they tended to avoid the existing house in Japan. In addition that Japanese desire to live permanently at the same address and they rebuild their house every 25-40 years. Rebuilding was remarkable character of Japanese people, and rebuilding tendency increase since 15 years after new construction.
This paper deals with urban formation of the Gosanken-chou at the crossing Kamitachiuri-dori street and Kokawa-dori avenue. This block was depicted as a big mansion of 'Hosokawatono' on the 'Rakuchu-rakugai-zu' in the middle of the 16th century. Later it was drawn as the dwelling area called Gosanken-cho on the 'Rakuchu-ezu' in the first part of the 17th century. The dwelling area was formed just after the fire attack of the Kamigyo district by Nobunaga Oda in 1573. The morphological transformation was shown on the plans reconstructed by the survey of houses and land in the daichuh'in archives of 1587. The dwelling area after the fire attack started to be built and had houses in a row which faced the street or crossed the stream. Then the backyards behind the'houses were gradually divided among them into the narrow stripes.
Japanease wooden buildings are treated by a lot of building activities in order to maintain the buildings, even if after construction. The purpose of this study is to clarify the types of "Hushin" in Hida-no-kuni in the 19th century. By gathering the information of architecutual application forms, I analyzed the types of "Hushin" and their trends. Treatments for buildings are classfied into 7 types 1 : Construction, 2 : Reconstruction after fire, 3 : Rebuild, 4 : Partial rebuild, 5 : Remodeling, 6 : Extension, 7 : Repair Characteristic building process was seen especially in the viewpoint of reusing of dismantled members.
In this paper, the author compared Buddhist candis with Hindu candis in southern Central Java from the point of view of the symmetricalness of temple complexes. As a comparative analysis of those temples, it was learned that the symmetricalness of temple layouts in right and left directions, or also in four compass directions is highly regarded especially in Buddhist candis. Additionally, it may be said that this kind of symmetricalness is most appropriate for the rule of positioning images based on the principle of Javanese Tantric Buddhism. Contrary, as has already been examined by the author in another paper, most of the existing Hindu candis in Java have unsymmetrical temple complexes. From the facts described above, it is considered that the unsymmetricalness of Hindu temple complexes is based on the Hinduistic theoretical ideals. On the other hand, this conclusion may support the assumption that the unsymmetrical temple complexes of Hindu candis are constructed under the influence of the Hinduistic vastupurusamandala, concepts of Indian origin.
The purpose of this study is to consider Italian Rationalism, which is one of the modern architectural movements in Italy. This paper deals with Edoardo Persico's criticism on modern architecture, especially on Italian Rationalism. To comprehend his thoughts on architecture, this paper also follows his history. As the result, he considered Italian Rationalism didn't have any strict principles and <style>. He also accused Rationalists of using slogans such as <mediterraneita> ambiguously because they denied the original meaning of <razionalismo> for such irrational using. Persico's criticism is based on Catholicism, Europeanism and some ideas reflected in his various activities. He regarded Italian Rationalism as one of the European modern architectural movements and sought the solutions of their problems comparing architecture with art.
This paper aims to clarify the architectural consciousness of the city of Florence by analyzing the characteristics of the city-images in the paintings of Giuseppe Zocchi and also by comparing with those of other painters. As a result, there are some particular places in the city where Zocchi and other painters drew, and in some paintings Zocchi's composition of the paintings was precisely imitated by other painters. It is confirmed that Zocchi's paintings took an active role in city-scape paintings. It can be also suggested that Zocchi's paintings influenced upon the people how to understand and image the city of Florence, especially when <famous sights) appeared in Florence.
The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into J. B. Fischer von Erlach' s architectural work at the preceding manuscript by form analysis of the architectural plane. In this paper, the plane is regarded as one element of the plan that contains 6 examples of "the lateral length elliptic + rectangle" and related motifs. The process that decomposes and rebuilds the cluster of the element by the conversion operation is described as a graduated analysis. That is classified as a cluster of many different basic spatial structures of the Fischer' s work. As the result, following facts were proven. 1) The large country house (1688) and Schlick's plesure house (1692) derive from the motif of the first projekt for Louvre imperial palace (1665) (designed by G. L. Bernini). 2) The triumphal arch of Josef I. (1690) and Strattmann's plesure house (1692) derive from the motif of the Chateau Vouxle-Vicomte (1657) (designed by Louis Levau). 3) After 1693, "the lateral length elliptic + rectangle" motif, which was mainly used in previous buildings, changes to "the oblong and elliptic + rectangle" motif. 4) In my opinion, Althan's plesure house (1688, 89) and the court libraly (1719) are the deformation motif.
One of the most important particularities of the Japanese early modern ages' city, its city type is called Jokamachi, is that the utility of estate and the plan of building depended on the people's rank system of the Tokugawa Shogunate. So, after the Meiji Restoration, the remarkable trans-figuration and disorganization occured on the urban space of Tokyo. At the beginning of Meiji Era, although the parts of Tokyo, for example the form of dwelling, still had similarities with the Edo period's one, the city system which organized the parts had been gradually turning to another one.