A social survey on community response to road traffic noise was carried out at sites with and without noise barriers along Kyushu Highway. The reduction of general annoyance and activity interference by the noise barriers were found while the distributions of responses regarding the demographic parameters were almost the same at both sites. By applying path analysis to the social response and noise data, the effect of TV/radio disturbance on annoyance is found stronger at the sites with noise barriers. while the effects of L_<Aeq> and sensitivity to noise are larger at the sites without noise barriers: This suggests that the listening effect is increased because of visually concealing the noise source at the site with barriers and that the attitude toward the source is emphasized as the respondents directly saw the source.
Under the objective to determine the factors which influence comprehensive evaluation of housings, we have focused on the sound environment and how the extent of its effect is perceived by the affected residents. The results of POE, a comprehensive collection of elements involved in the evaluation of dwelling environment, and responses to the survey we have recently conducted on the influence of sound environment on people living in public multi-family dwelling were compiled before being analytically evaluated under classII numerical theory. The analysis indicates that factors such as the size of the residence, privacy and commuting time, as well as level of noise heard from the floor above affect the evaluation of dwelling environment greatly. Residents perception and the degree of satisfaction on sound environment are influenced by their daily experiences and comparisons to housings they have dwelled in the past. The data reveals that factors related to conditions required to dwell in apartments such as certain rules and restrictions and association with the neighbors also give considerable influence to the degree of satisfaction.
To realize a suitable visual environment in the room in which much information is transmitted using an overhead projector, it is important to identify the conditions of three visual factors (size, background luminance and luminance contrast) of a projected picture under a given situation. The effects of the condition of an original picture, a projector and operation on the characteristics of the projected picture are examined through an experiment in an actual situation. According to results of the experiment, some variables of a projector performance useful for deriving the size of a projected picture and the illuminance on the screen are specified. The calculation formulae to estimate three visual factors of a projected picture are presented. These formulae are composed of instrumental performance variables and the conditions of original picture, lighting and operation.
The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic measuring instrument of cloud amount. Color temperature of sky light is utilized as a parameter to distinguish clouds from the blue sky. Measurements of color temperature of sky light were made under various sky conditions. Discrimination criteria were obtained as functions of each of the solar altitude, altitude of the sky element, and angular distance between a sky element and the sun. The estimated c loud amount agreed well with the observed cloud amount. This paper describes derivation of the discrimination criteria from the measurements and estimation of cloud amount.
Indoor of a membrane structure, there is natural brightness through the polyietra fluorine ethylene membrane, However, in winter season it is difficult to keep it in a snow cold area. Then snow removal is necessary for it and in order to security the reduction of snow load should be practiced usually. In this paper, we studied about a control method of real time snow melting operation by using the membrane structure, in Toyoura city of Hokkaido Pref, which is a snowy and cold area in Japan. We obtained the following results. (1)The method of cluster analysis of snowfall data was effective towards the patternization of snowfall. And the characteristics of snowfall in Toyoura were obtained clearly. (2)We analyzed the heat quantities for melting the snow over the top in snowing, and proposed the control method of real time snow melting operation. (3)We applied control by using Neural Network system, and showed it was usefulto real time snow melting operation.
In this paper, the validity of the simulation method for earth ground heat storage, in which the water chemical potential (Gibb's free energy) relative to the free water and the temperature are used as the moisture and heat transfer potential, is examined in more detail. Specifically, the effects of advection on the thermal efficiency of the thermal well in the aquifer are analyzed numerically. The advection in the saturated domain is investigated in more detail because the effects in this condition are greater than those in the unsaturated domain. It concludes that the effects of advection caused by underground water flow and natural convection on the thermal efficiency of the thermal well can be neglected for practical purposes in the case of level ground.
There are several airflow problems which should be solved in a building design. However, flow fields around or in buildings usually have quite complicated configurations, and it has been very difficult to solve these airflow problems using a conventional single structured grid coordinate system. One of the advanced airflow analysis technique, which uses an overset type composite grid coordinate system, has many benefits to treat these kinds of problems. In this research work, fundamental numerical formulations of governing equatins were studied to solve steady-state 3-dimensional turbulent airflow problems. The governing equations mapped in a generalized grid coordinate system were descretized using the control volume method, and a solution algorithm of the momentum equation was derived according to the SIMPLE algorithm. In the formulations of the governing equations, a fortified solution algorithm was adopted to connect the data on each overlapped grid coordinate system. As the result of the study, details of numerical formulations which enable solutions by the overset grid coordinate system were obtained.
After the investigation of fungal and bacterial growth in unit weight of dust samples collected from duct of air-conditioning systems, we found the counted number of colonies was higher than bacterial. Also, three fungal genera isolated from dust samples proliferated rapidly on broth media made of sampled dust. Three test media (No.8, No.12 test powder and hemicellulose) which are substitutes for maior components of dust (sand, soot, and fiber trash respectively) were made to conduct further investigation for fungal and bacterial growth. Three different fungi identified to genus's level and six different fungi identi fied to species level were innoculated on each test medium. Each fungus showed rapid proliferation on test media. On the contrary, two different bacteria innocultated on the sme modia didn't proliferate at all.
It is essential to use thermal load prediction for HVAC system control to minimize operating cost without energy shortage. Simulation study is carried out to evaluate the performance of control with load prediction in comparison with conventional chiller priority control equipped with a timer. An hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation prediction methods, and hourly thermal load prediction 24 hours in advance using neural networks are presented. A system control method with load prediction, named "predictive control", is discussed. The simulation result shows the operating cost of the predictive control is about 16.5% smaller than the cost of chiller priority control without energy shortage.
It is required to study a layout arrangement of the fixtures in the lavatory from a viewpoint of use frequency In this paper, the authors constructed the fixture selection model in the lavatory under the simultaneous use of fixtures. The considerable factors were basis on a structure conditions and dynamic conditions in selecting the fixtures. Objective lavatories were two types, and the process of the fixtures selection was introduced by the theorem using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, the authors compared prediction results and measurement results, and confirmed efficacy of the proposed model. And the fixture selection trend under the condition of simultaneous use of fixtures was grasped. Furthermore, it was possible to predict the frequency of the most useed fixtures.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the solar radiation load on thermal comfort in outdoor thermal environments. An urban street canyon and an open space were selected as sites for field survey. Outdoor climatic conditions, subject's thermal sensation and skin temperatures were measured on the sites for a few day in summer, autumn and winter. A modified mean radiant temperature was introduced to indicate the effect of solar radiation and radiation interchange between outdoor objects on the human body. An operative temperature and a standard operative temperature were calculated based on the modified mean radiant temperature. There are high correlation between the operative or standard operative temperature and thermal sensation or mean skin temperature. Those indices, especially the standard operative temperature, are considered to be effective in the outdoor environment.
A human calorimeter may have advantages in the estimation of body heat exchange and the rate of body heat storage in favor of the direct measurement of heat loss or gain from the human body. In this study, the human calorimeter is described that allows for precise measurement of local heat loss from forearm, trunk, thigh, calf and head. Thirty eight experiments were performed on nine male and ten female subjects. During each experiment, heat production was calculated from continuously measured oxygen consumption. Tympanic and skin temperatures were also continuously measured. Subject's body composition was assessed to provide percent body fat and adiposity. The rates of body heat storage measured showed a better correlation with those calculated from authors' equation incorporating body composition as compared with the conventional equation. In addition, heat loss was found to be dependent on insulation of adipose tissues when no sweat and shivering were induced.
The shape of magnetically shielded room (MSR) has been designed by using a numerical method for 3-D magnetic field analysis taking into account eddy currents. in which the finite element method is employed. Firstly, 3-D magnetic field distribution in MSR is computed to investigate an optimal shape. A spatial distribution of a MSR with a rectangular tube is compared with that without a tube. Secondly, results computed are verified by comparing with those measured in an actually constructed MSR. The spatial magnetic field distribution obtained by using the 3-D analysis is roughly in agreement with those measured, especially when magnetic noise of 1Hz is applied. The rectangular tube is effective to make the magnetic field distribution uniform in region of interest of MSR for measuring extremely weak magnetic fields.
This Study is based on a living process survey of "Two-Step Housing System" . The Part-1 of the study clears the characteristics of floor plan and brings out following results: 1. Significant changes in living style after retirement and/or at the aged parents have occured in "Hikarigaoka". They are mostly new use of former children's room for study and/or hobby purpose, and also the separate sleeping. 2. Most families of "Tana" are middle age parents with growing children, and no significant change in room use has been observed. 3. Almost no change in the Infill arrangement has been seen both dwelling units.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the house remodeling support system for the elderly. We administered questionnaires and conducted interviews with recipients of house remodeling grants in Edogawa-ku in Tokyo. The results are summarized as follows; for the elderly there are many difficulties of various types. It was found to be most expensive to remodel bath equipment. Regarding support system, we determined that the elderly need subsidy program, advice concerning methods of remodeling from specialists who have some knowledge about construction and the elderly, and a rental system for technical aid because some items are too expensive and are needed only short term.
The number of examples in which the community facilities merged with school facilities, schoolcommunity facilities complex, are gradually increasing, especially in the downtown area of Tokyo. According to the author's viewpoint, these projects may have the possibilities to develop the architectural standards of public school facilities and to stimulate the mutual relationship between school education and further education. 27 existing examples of school-community facilities complex were examined from the standpoint of actual conditions of architectural planning and facilities management. And some essential architectural planning problems were discussed in this papers.
This is a study on facility network planning of play-lots for infants and children on the environmental conditions in the city. And the purpose of this paper is to make clear the characteristics about number, distance and form of utilization play-lots. The characteristics are considered through the key factors depending upon the similarities and differences of play-lot utilization forms between infants and children, or between several arrangement situations of play-lots around their own house. A survey on this purpose is a questionnaire about play-lot utilization forms of infants and children (from 1 year old to the second grade of elementary school). A questionnaire survey is practiced for their parents or relative. As a result, some characteristics are cleared, and they suggest a necessity of play-lot network planning.
This study is composed of two parts. The first part is to grasp the establish movement of small scale workshops for disabled persons in Japan, and we classified the establishment period and the kind of disability and the number of users by using the workshop membership list. In the second part to clear the foundamental index of workshops, we made questionnaire survey in 1995 and examined following 10 indexes;(1)organization, (2)location(traffic access), (3)esitablishment time, (4)kind of disability, (5)number of users, (6)building type. (7)1and and building possession, (8)kind of work, (9)style of work, (10)income out of work. And we found some regional differences both in the quantitative side and in the qualitative side.
This paper deals with accessibilities and the typical patterns of social communication in the use of community facilities (Lifelong-Learning facilities). The purpose of use of the community facilities is not only for lifelong learning but also for social communication and contacts. External and internal factors, accessibility in the use of community facilities, and differences of satisfaction of information according to the patterns of use and survey area were found. We try to classify place according to the level of social communication ; (1) communication place (2) limited-communication place (3) non-communication place, and try to classify the typical patterns of preference ; (1) tendency to communication places (2) tendency to non-communication places.
The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions in the architectural planning of public space in nursing homes. This paper concerned with the group formation in public spaces of a nursing home. The term "group" is formulated only the case which has more than two members, and has sociometrical relation with each other. The survey was carried out for about a year (in three terms) at one nursing home with private rooms and various type of public spaces, Location of all the residents in public spaces were plotted on layout map in every 15 or 30 minutes during the daytime.The conclusions of this study are abstracted as follows. Cluster analysis was introduced in order to clarify the group formation in terms of conversation frequency, and found some sociometrical relations. Groups were formed easily when each member has some common interest. Location of each private room and various common spaces seemed to be influential to form and keep the group.
The exterior space of a house is used for various purposes and plays an essential role in the architectural composition. It is often surrounded by the, walls, or covered by a part of the roof, or partly enclosed b.y any other architectural elements. This paper analyzes the semi-enclosed exterior space in contemporary Japanese houses from three view points : the form, the relationship to the neighboring spaces, and the function. Through investigation of 605 semi-enclosed exterior spaces in 152 detached houses designed by different architects, 11 types are extracted as the main patterns common to different examples.
In this sutudy we make modern house plans objects, apply the sight-depth measurements and descriptions in the last study to the main room of the typical modern houses, fumble the plan-estimation possibility, and make the main room of the typical modern houses clearly. Then we made plan distinctions beyond description visual and innumerable with expressing four indexes of the sight-depth in the plan and making the composition of main room into some types. And we made the position of their main room from the results and are analyzing some estimate possibilities from the view of the space perception of sight.
In local cities and their surrounding rigions, the mobilities of inhabitants in the past were determind by the rail roads or bus routes before the development of the motor car. Today the population is more widely dispersed, and mobile, due to the increased owner ship of praivate cars. The aim of this paper is to explain the journeys made by inhabitants who live on the edge of the prefecture, and to chose the Ryomo region, lying across Tochigi and Gunma prefectures, as the object of this study. It is that analysed the area where inhabitants traveled for working, studying and shopping. In this study, the author used the population census of Japan and a questionnair of residents shopping habits.
Personal images of inhabitants on their environments are investigated and spatial characteristics of settlements are made clear by utilizing image maps in this paper. The following are analyzed and considered. (1) Each image map is analyzed and decoded from several viewpoints: the orientation, the order of sketch, the attribute of spatial elements, the image range, the structure and the valuation of settlements and so on. (2) Characteristics of image maps between attributes of inhabitants are compared. (3) Spatial characteristics of settlements are pursued by the order of sketch and attributes of spatial elements of image maps. (4) Spatial characteristics and meaning of places are also studied through structuring and valuation on environments by the inhabitants.
This study is developing an automatic tracking system of pedestrians using an image processing method. First, I extract mobile objects ( pedestrians ) using motion imformation which image sequences have and label them to recognize each object. Second, I segment them form clusters using the K-mean method which is one of the cluster methods in five dimensions ( R,G,B color spaces and x,y position spaces) . Last, I track each object and get a tracking data of pedestrians. I inspect effects of this algorithm using images which are recorded on surveys.
Additional costs for winter cares are required in building construction of cold seasonsin Hokkaido. The amount of additional costs vary when the conditions such as construction time or region are different..In this paper, several buildings are assumed and winter additional costs of the buildings are estimated under various construction conditions. According to the results of estimation, variation of additional costs is clarified and methods of costs reduction are suggested. Moreover, the rates of additional costs to building costs are roughly calculated and the rates in case of year-round construction are also mentioned.
In connection with the detailed planning and scheduling for construction process, we studied characteristics of construction process, and pointed out required items of planning and scheduling procedure. This paper proposed new systematical methods based on "Construction Process Chart" to make appropriate representation of detailed planning of construction process. In addition, these methods clear the sequence of Works, job-sites, resources, then solve resource levelling and term shortening problems o, n a construction project. The proposed methods have procedures for representing construction works into detailed process, and adapted to the practical works, which proved that methods would greatly contribute to the successful usage of construction planning phase.
This paper aims to classify 214 municipalities in Tokyo metropolitan area from the viewpoints of housing relocation, and to clarify the characteristics of each housing market in terms of present housing types and removal household types, by using 1988 Housing Census data. Main conclusions are as follows; 1) Spatial Characteristics of housing markets in Tokyo metropolitan area have a duplex structure, which is first prescribed by sector along railroads and is then by zone which has a certain distance from the center of Tokyo. 2) Main pattern of housing relocation is among spatial housing markets along same railroad or those where are adjacent to each other. 3) Each housing market has a clear relation to present dwelling types rather than removal household types.
Through the process of the three dimensional representation work by computer graphics of L. Mies van der Rohe's skyscrapers in the 1920s, it was made clear that Mies showed the certain inclination to Expressionism. Concerning the competition project of the skyscraper along Friedrichstrasse in Berlin, three plans could be reconstructed from perspective drawings, and the incorrectness of the perspective drawings was found which occurred in assembling with photographs of townscape. Mies produced some representation techniques by the glass curtain wall through pointed tower motif, horizontal and vertical lines, reflection and transparency of glass, and also expressionistic curved glass wall.
The aim of this study Is to clarify the morphological characters of Mies van der Rohe's works through analyses of the plan of "Brick Country House". Through this analyses the following results are made clear: major walls are composed on squares and grids. And ratios of these squares can be expressed in integers. Moreover, the inside walls' position and their length are decided in consideration of perspective views. As a result, it can be concluded that this project was designed based on geometrical composition.
At the beginning of the Meiji era, shrines were deprived of their precincts by the government except for the space necessary for performing rites . Afterward many shrines made "shin-en(shrine garden)" in the precincts. The reason was that precincts began to draw people's attention at the time. There were especial ly many shrines in Kyoto, and they have played an important part in creating urban environment there. "Shin-en(shrine garden) " embodies the relationship between precincts and the green areas in those days. This paper deals with the "shin-en(shrine garden)" In Kyoto and throws light on the background of the creation of "shin-en(shrine garden) ".
There are three points to discuss regarding the treatise. (1)The term "form" has too wide a meaning to make a close examination. (2)In SECTION we can find not only a holizontal triparte organization, but a vertical one as well. (3)Kahn's sketches of design process are so incomplete, that in considering these sketches, it is necessary to prepare a general set of ideas regarding his buildings.
The author's answers are as follows ; 1. The relationship between the ideas of "formal structure" (proposed by Hisao KOYAMA) and "basic form" was described. 2. There could be seen 5 vertical layers in the section of the work, but the composition should be considered as a result of horizontal triple enclosure. 3. Both design process and built work should be studied complimentarily, because each has its own methodological advantages to the other.