Historically and up to the present day, many fires have been generated by earthquake disasters. Although such fires have all occurred under widely different circumstances, for example, seasons, times, places, building types, and cooking and heating apparatus including the types of energy sources, it is important to analyze the mechanism by which the fires break out after earthquakes by comparing recent cases with past disasters. In this paper, we analyze the mechanism of the outbreak of fire after the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake, and discuss the transition of this mechanism in comparison with past cases.
In order to find preferable illuminances from task lighting and ambient lighting in an office space, a series of subjective experiment was conducted. A chamber experiment showed the ranges of preferable illluminance from task lighting and the difference in evaluation caused by the difference in kinds of office works. Based on the results conditions was decided in a following experiment in an actual office space where 30 office workers were exposed to each condition for 2 weeks. It was found that the ambient lighting should provide more than 300 Ix of desk illuminance and that there was an adequate ratio of the task illuminance to ambient illuminance (T/A ratio).
The first purpose of this paper is to analyze the changes of effective opening area of automatically operated entrance doors according to the number of people passing through the doors and establish an simplified estimation method of these average area depend on door specifications and the number of people passing through the doors. And the second purpose is to quantify changes of outdoor air flow rate coming into the entrance hall of a tall office building on a winter day, by using observed data associated with crack size of various doors in the whole building and changes of the number of people coming into or out through entrances.
The measurement technique of air leakage between foundation wall and sill, subfloor joints are shown, 6 houses with platform floor are measured using this method. It is clarified that the percentage of air leakage of foundation top and sill are 18.9% to 58.7% of all air leakage of house. And it also found that leakage area of floor is from 1.3 to 3.2 cm^2/m^2. Applying these values to calculation model, simultaneous heat and moisture transfer simulation, considering multi-room airflow by stack effect, wind and mechanical pressures, are done to clarify the hygrothermal behavior in the crawl space with vertical edge insulation on foundation wall. It makes clear that air leakage around floor changes airflow rate from indoors and outdoors to the crawl space a lot, especially in summer, that carry high humid outdoor or indoor air. High temperature difference between south side and north side of residential room also accelerates airflow from residential room. The effect of hygroscopic materials, such as diatomite grains, is also studied, and found that it has effectiveness on decrease the amplitude of mixing ratio, also it makes relative humidity moderately lower.
The Urban Canopy Model that has been widely used as a practical methodology to estimate a friction force generated by a bulk ol building roughness, was precisely confirmed from the validation viewpoint. In three series of experiments, both disposition and height of building models were particularly concerned. In short, following three schemes for the models were intrigued; -Arrayed in both staggered and normal rectangular block consisting of same height models -Arrayed in both staggered and normal rectangular block consisting of models combined two heights -Random shaped model derived from a certain real city With respect to the space-averaged vertical wind profiles, good agreement between the experiments and calculations was obtained in any cases. That led to verify the fact that the Urban Canopy Model was deemed as one of the most effective procedures to predict the wind characteristics in urban canopy layer.
In recent years, at the building office room air-conditioning, room temperatures are controlled by the Variable Air Volume unit because of simplicity, low cost and the energy saving of the system. Air-conditioning system using VAV unit changes room air quantity, and at the same time changes room air pressure. But, the system that controls room air pressure in each room isn't taken into consideration. And, pressure control is indispensable to control the flow of the air to the large-scale space such as atrium. This paper reports the VAV method air-conditioning system simulation in which the office rooms with atrium were treated as the rooms-ducts system. The room pressure problem in VAV air-conditioner control, a problem about the air flow to atrium and these solving method are described.
This study is performed as a part of the research that examines the emission and diffusion characteristics of volatile organic compounds (henceforth VOCs etc.) from indoor building materials. In this paper, flow and the emissions field of a VOC from the surface of building materials in FLEC (Field and Laboratory Emission Cell) Cavity are examined by 2-D CFD analysis. Three types of emission phenomena from building materials are studied here; (1) emission through internal diffusion, (2) emission through external diffusion and (3) the one through mixed diffusion material (internal +extemal). With a total ventilation rate of 200 ml/min, air velocity near the test material surface rangs from 0.1 cm/s to 0.8cm/s. In the case of internal diffusion material, FLEC works well. However, in the case of evaporation type (external diffusion) materials, or mixed material (intemal+extemal) when the thickness of wallpaper (internal) is thin, FLEC is not suitable for the emission testing.
In modern living environments, humans can be exposed numerous types of pollutants in indoor air. However, secondary products generated through chemical reactions were not fully concerned in relation to so-called Sick House Syndrome. In this study, we focused on an irritant formic acid (HCOOH) which might be an oxidation product of formaldehyde(HCHO). Then field measurements of indoor HCOOH and HCHO were conducted in new apartment houses. The HCOOH measured 0.11〜0.19 mg/m^3 in summer and 0.004〜0.01mg/m^3 in winter. The indoor concentrations showed significantly higher than those measured outdoor. Furthermore, concentration ratios between HCOOH and HCHO in summer were higher than those in winter. These results lead to the suggestion that a room temperature and photochemical oxidants had potential influences on the formation of indoor HCOOH from HCHO. On the other hand, as a preliminary reduction experiment, passive and active air-cleaning materials were tested to remove HCOOH in a full-scale laboratory (20m^3) having F2-grade plywood inside. The results showed that these materials were effective to reduce not only HCHO but also HCOOH concentrations in the laboratory.
This paper aims to establish the performance testing method for passive type products to remove gaseous HCHO. This method uses an original, low cost and simple equipment consisting of stainless tanks(150L) as small chambers and air pumps. HCHO concentrations in chambers were measured by active DNPH method with photo acoustic spectroscopy method(PAS) and chemiluminescence method as monitoring strategies. This simple testing method is based on comparing with HCHO concentrations in a pair of chambers where the remover is placed in one of the pair. On the other hand, the large stainless chamber was designed and constructed to examine removal performance of air cleaners in Chiba Institute of Technology. We suggest this simple procedure as the primary test for the large chamber test to evaluate the removal efficiency of passive type products as same as air cleaners.
The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively determine the rate of intrusion of cedar pollen to indoor environment, to estimate the exposure dose and to provide the control measures. Cedar pollens were determined microscopically on settle plates covered with adhesive material in wooden dwellings, flats, and several buildings. The settlements were variable according to the height and position of the rooms. The settlements on the floor were 1.5 to 2 times higher than at the breathing zone and those at just the inside of the windows were 5 to 6 times as much as at the center of the rooms. The rates of settlement were 0.4 to 0.8 p/cm2/day at the center of house and 1.9 to 2.8 at inside of windows. The intrusion rates were about 1.6% at the center of the house, 3.1% at the window and 26% at the places with opened windows. Throughout all the measurements, inside/ outside ratio, which is the simple ratio of settled pollen inside to those outside, was 1 to 2%. The calculated doses inside the room were 1 to 2% of outside. The doses become about twice at the windows and 10 to 20 times at places with opened windows of values at the center of house.
In this study, the Typical Weather Year data for the simulations of buildings were developed following the previous study. Using these data, the annual heating loads of 46 Chinese cities were calculated. A regression equation was made to estimate the annual heating loads using the simulation results. The regional characteristics of the annual heating loads were made clear. The main conclusions from this study are as follows: a. The number of cities whose Typical Weather Data were developed were increased to 46 from 25; b. A regression equation was developed to estimate the seasonal heating loads, the results from which agree with the simulation very well; c. A map with isometric lines of heating loads was developed; and d. The annual heating loads are decided not only by the latitude but also by the altitude of the location.
Extraction of urban land surface using Normalized Vegetation Index (NVI) has been in use for quite some time, but the seasonal characteristics of this land cover, which is in reality a mixed land use, has not be characterized well. With this in mind, this paper aims to characterize NVI of urban land surface. The reflection factors and its seasonal variation patterns were estimated by applying relative atmospheric correction method to multi-temporal JERS-1 OPS data. The relationship between reflection factors and NVI were revealed from the scatter plot diagram of satellite data on Infrared-Visible wavelength space overlaid with contour lines of NVI. From the results, it can be observed that the distribution and seasonal variation pattern of NVI characterizes the various land use. And the results also imply NVI reflects seasonal variation patterns of vegetation well, and it is robust against differences of other land-cover components and effects of shade and shadow.
We researched detached housing for a person with disabilities, built by an industrialized housing company in Japan. And we got 240 samples of newly built houses where they live or once lived till 1992. The result of this investigation says the points of housing design are to assist them to live independently or with good help. On the whole, three big level changes in a Japanese house were eliminated, in the entrance hall, bathroom and Japanese room. We classified samples into five categories by their moving styles. According to them, we found many features of equipment and planning in their house. For a person with self-controlled wheelchair, they set a slope at the entrance, wide corridors, wide-opened and no sill doors, various shaped handrails, some equipments for transfer from a wheelchair into a bathtub or a toilet- basin. For a person receiving intensive care they set following features of housing; a home-elevator,a hoist lift, a sanitary with a space for help and so on.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the historical origin of the [yiming ・ liangan] type whose frontage has odd bays, is regarded as typical and traditional unit of the planning composition of Siheyuan,and present a new interpretation of the connection with the typical[one hall two bed roomjtype in Han dynasty.At last,we will attempt to clarify the proper place in [yiming ・ liangan] type, and the change prosess of the planning composition in the housing history of China.
This paper alms to abstract the factors of composition of space units and find some solution to the planning of the learning space. Some conclusions are as follows: ・The factors of composition of space units are type of learning activity, learning group, grade, and expressly the degree of expectation of communication in the learning group. ・The type of learning activity are changed in the half number of works at the classroom. ・In order to encourage the flexibility of the learning activity, it is important for classrooms to have suitable square and furniture-arrangements. ・Each the grade, the classrooms and its open-spaces must be designed individually, because their ability to control the learning space is different.
Up until now, urban landscape formation by ordinary architecture has not been studied thoroughly. Our purpose is to clear up the present conditions and the change of eras in exterior design. So we conducted a comprehensive survey of existing apartment buildings in a certain urban landscape. In the result, we notice that in the second half of the 1980's the exterior design of apartment buildings went into a big change: From low cost and simple design to high cost and decorative design. That was due to the influence of the increase of the economy on the design style. After that period, although the economy decreased, the same design style did not disappear. It is because present-day designers are skilled in getting the same design by using low cost methods.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the method of calculating the maximum number of users and the number of seats needed at each area in public libraries. The results are as follows; 1. In a public library, there are close correlations between the total number of borrowing books, magazines and AV materials a day and the total number of users a day, between the total number of users a day and the whole number of users at the busiest period, between this and the maximum number of users at each area. 2. We have calculated the suitable number of seats for a user in the basis of the number of users when the maximum number of seats are occupied at each area. 3. We can calculate the maximum number of users and the number of seats needed at each area on the basis of the total number of borrowing books, magazines and AV materials a day. 4. This method is effective for assessing the use of seats in the libraries which have already been built.
This study deals with the daily behavior of inpatients of the different wards in a mental hospital. Field surveys were carried out and the following results were found. 1) In all the wards surveyed, most of the daily behaviors are personal/private ones and are carried out in their own rooms. 2) The decreasing density of inpatients enable them to carry out their personal/private behavior in the wards easily and without restraint. 3) In the decentralized common space, each of inpatients handle that space according to its characteristic structure. 4) It is thought that securing privacy in the rooms have the same effects as the case of decreasing density.
This study aims to grasp the situation and the problems of the children's outside school clubs. First we made an questionnaire to the clubs and the present activities, organizations, using conditions of the facilities and so on. Then as a result, we get following: (1) It is necessary to give more and enough programs for children, and appeal to the communities. (2) The facilities need to locate on where children can go to alone. (3) Must fit the space and the function of facilities for their activities and the number of people. (4)A public organization have to provide more space and facilities in their communities.
This paper aims to clarify relationship between behavior and spatial structure of a nursing home for the elderly, focusing on the influence of care environment on the life of elderly residents. For this objective, 3 types of nursing home with private rooms (any of those facilities were designed for small-scale care) were surveyed by means of mapping of activities of the residents/care staffs, behavior observation and deep interviews. The findings are as follows: 1) Meaning of common spaces for the residents-especially in semi-private/semi-public zone-of 3 facilities were very different in resident's use pattern of space and provision of care programs. 2) Care activities of 3 facilities were also different, which reflected their care philosophy to the residents. 3) Difference of care environment (including building environment and care philosophy) had important influence on the daily life of the residents: Relatively independent residents could organize their life on their own way in any facilities, but for residents with serious dementia, their use patterns of space might be controlled tightly by care staffs in some facilities.
The purpose of this study is to get rural settlement's life circumstances in good condition rural settlement's by practical use of regional resources. The outlines of regional resources are establishedas fellows ; As resource field of basement that talent resources and settlement's agricultural resources. As resource field of practical use that facilities resources,nature environmental resources.culture traditional resources,organizing resources. The results are as follows : (1)It is necessary for fixation of person and stabilization of agriculture to make use of social regional resources. (2)Adjoining rural settlements are alike practical use of regional resources. (3)National highways play an important role to hasten social activity of fellow residents.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the relation between buildings of collective form by Master Architect Design Coordination Method. To understand this subject, we researched the design process of the residential district Tama new town (No. 15 area) where architects developed landscape and building design. To understand the design connection, We extracted : 1) the design elements, meanings, backgrounds 2) the mutual influence between participating architect on the design process development 3) the role of each architects in the collaboration. As a result, design coordination was adapted to the street, square and total design of the collective form.
This paper aims to clarify the formation and transformation process of Chowringhee district in Calcutta, India based on the field survey. Chowringhee district which is now located in central business district of Calcutta is well known as the living quater developed for the English high officials of East India Company. The residences in which the English live was called garden house. Many garden houses were built in Chowringhee district but is not so well preserved. One of the objectives of this paper is to record the distribution of the historical buildings left. The development process is firstly analysed by using the historical maps. We calcurate all the sizes of house lots and trace their transformation. As a result the consistent land subdevisional process are confirmed. The latter part of this paper discusses the present condition of the district. The contrast of high-rise condominium and street dwellers symbolized the district. The heritage of garden houses will be lost in the near future if land use system is reorganized appropriately.
This paper analyzed the realities of the buildings in provisional city after the Great Kanto Earthquake and concluded as follows; 1.) Provisional city established in the process of reconstruction involved a lot of rental buildings and tenants, and it was densely constructed. 2.) Almost 40% of the buildings in the provisional city had no proper approach ways. 3.) After the land readjustment, the number of the buildings being equipped with non-proper approach ways declined and only 10% remained. On the other hand, the city came to be reproduced as densely built-up one with smaller-sized buildings through the land readjustment.
This paper aims at evaluating sunlight and skylight conditions in a modeled block in low-and-medium-rise residential area. It is turned out that sky factor is the useful index for expressing the brightness under overcast sky. Secondly, we accumulate the calculated impact of buildings on each lot to compute the whole impact of the buildings on open spaces assumed in the Building Standard Law. It is compared with the actual impact of all buildings calculated simultaneously to show that the impact of buildings is underestimated more than three hours in terms of sunshine duration on a north-south street and intersections in the accumulated result.
The first building height limitation in Chicago was enacted in 1893. This paper is to review the process in enacting the limitation, from its drafts to the enacted limitation, and Chicago's own social context that enabled lawmakers to enact such a limit. Specifically, this paper is to focus on: 1) what urban problems were arising from the boom of "skyscrapers," 2) who took part in a series of discussion in conjunction with building height controls, for what intentions they agitated the matter, and whose intentions were brought into the enacted limitation, 3) what influence the limitation caused to the city and whether the lawmakers' intentions were realized.
A large-scale residential development has been put into practice in the eastern suburb of Sapporo (the Eastern Area) from 1970's.Eight private developers has been developed the Eastern Area with cooperation under the master plan and the development guideline made by the City of Sapporo. One of the characteristic and effects of the development of the Eastern Area is the creation of a large-scale ecological park ( Hiraoka Park), because only small neighborhood parks are usually made under the development guideline in other suburbs of Sapporo.The site of Hiraoka Park includes the natural woodland for biodiversity. Some inhabitants in the Eastern Area are interested in greenery and organize NPO for green conservation.
This research is questionnaire of the base maintenance of the housing and equipment for the aged. There are five kinds of research solvers, Housing makers, Housing equipment makers, Life requisites makers, Researcher in architect, Generally persons. The research for the aged on the housing industry, can be classified into three main groups. a) study on the development products and marketing b) study on the research and development c) study on the actual situation of the sales about the products. Conclusion: Makers' activities synchronize with policy of the government. Opinions vary differ as to the cause of the sales result, between good sales makers and bad sales makers. User research is the matter of great importance for the aged on the housing industry.
This statistical research is for the understanding of the bidding strategy by analyzing the tender results that has come to be disclosed in Japan recently. The used data is about 4,000 occurrences of tenders on 398 public works that has been ordered in the Regional Construction Bureau of the Ministry of Construction in the spring of 1999. As a result of analysis, compared with some researches in Western countries, Japanese construction enterprises become sensible as a whole. Various conjectures are possible, such as a difference of bidding system, the competition environment that construction enterprises are put, some doubt on data authenticity. It is a future research subject about this.
In this paper a study on basic features related to construction laborers on the types of the construction such as the multiple dwelling house, school and office building made of reinforced concrete is described. Surveying and analyzing of the basic features are total floor area, unit costs, unit volume on structural materials and unit numbers of construction laborers, specific characters in the types of R.C. buildings. On the multiple dwelling house, the difference in total floor area between legal area and actual area is nearly 17%, and this difference is a little larger than other types of buildings. The differences of unit volume on structural materials by each type are smaller than the difference of structural unit costs. The variations of unit numbers of construction laborers by each type show same trends of the unit costs.
The objectives that this paper has aimed at are as follows: 1) To develop a system which can quantitatively indicate the influence on the project cost by focusing on the finish time of working drawings and shop drawings. 2) To propose the method of optimizing the schedule of making working drawings and shop drawings under consideration of various constrained conditions. Using this system, the owner of the project can get theoretical background for the adjustment of the conflict between the design team and the construction team from the point of the optimization of the project cost in the schedule of making working drawings and shop drawings. As local search is one of the most effective heuristic algorithms for optimization problem, it is applied to the optimization of the schedule of making working drawings and shop drawings.
It is very difficult to manage a construction project without a well-managed document set. Some new technologies help you to manage information among a lot of project participants, which are highly segmented and specialized in the construction industry. In addition to the former paper, we also discuss the other theories of important issues for design document management. In this paper we focus on the control of relationships between design documents, which control improves the effectiveness of design document management. We define 'reference relationship' in the first half of the paper, and then illustrate a few useful examples using relationship control.
To understand existing housing type and living style is important for considering suitable housing planning. The urban housing types were partly outlined as a low-income housing delivery system in Bangkok in 1970-80s. Since Thailand experienced dramatic economic and social changes during 1980-90s, various housing are seen in Bangkok and its vicinity. This study tries to outline the existing urban housing types at all income levels in Bangkok based on housing supply transitions including housing policy and housing developments. The study summarizes 16 housing types provided by 4 sectors (employer, resident, developer and government) and discusses characteristics of typical housing unit.
Mitajiri was one of the principal towns in Mouri-han in Edo era and was also a seaport town. There were following lodgings and offices which were peculiar to Mitajiri; Ocha-ya, Sub-Ocha-ya, Hon-jin, Town hall, Feudal office and Port office. Through the examination of historical materials plan, function and relationship of these buildings are clarified.
In the early Meiji (before the Shinto system revised in 1871) ,the new government had no clear vision for the building and repairs of shrines. When the new hierarchy of shrines had been established, the government had to make guidelines regarding building and repairing expenditure for the shrines directly controlled by the government. Meanwhile, Izumo-Shrine requested from the government again and again, funds not for repairs but for the whole reconstruction. Thus based on the financial state of the government, the area restrictions of shrines was suggested in 1872 by the Ministry of Finance.
We clarified there are relations between living systems and guodaos. The fundamental unit consists of a tianjing like a courtyard, a tangwu like a hall, guodaos and some rooms. The guodao is a passage and forms a passage. In Ningyuan Prefecture there are some Han nationality's rural houses that consist of some fundamental units. The living systems of their houses keep the rules of axes. The main axis is the most important of three kinds of axes. The sub axis is more important than the little sub axis. There are closely relations between the rules of axes and guodaos.
This research is about architectural text on traditional house in central Thailand. Prior to this study, a short text called"Nai Lai" was published. I discovered one other text at Wat Trailok temple, Petchburi province during the survey trips around 1992 - 4. After studying this text, I found that in determining Thai traditional house's proportion, the system is to divide the length of beam into parts and use one part as a module to determine other elements. There are 2 systems of module. The first one is to divide the beam into 5 parts. This system uses module to determine the elements under the beam such as the height of a room. The second system is to divide the length of the beam into 3 parts. This system uses module to determine elements over the beam such as the height of the king-post. By comparing this method to the one written in Nai Lai document, it was surprising to see that they were similar in the measurement system but different in practices. According to the measurement ratio and comparative proportion, Nai Lai document might have been the memory of the carpenter. There was also a possibility that the length of important elements had to calculated for luck based on the owner's astrological calculation.
In the 17^<th> century salons of h6tels, the residences of upper classes, were prevalent in Paris. The prevalence of salons seems to have contributed to the progress of interior design and architectural composition of hotels. Referring to Louis Savot's L'ARCHITECTURE FRANCOISE DBS BASTIMENTS PARTICULIERS, this study is to make clear the outline of residences and consider the interior and architectural composition of hotels in that age. His concrete description gives us to understand that there was a principle of building his own house according to his social position, though there were needs for enrichment of interior space.
In this thesis, the typology and methods for transformation of the ruins of the Roman amphitheatre in Lucca are analyzed according to following three points ; I ) the classification of the 26 component buildings in this amphitheatre block. II) the division of the component buildings into four housing types based on tipologia edilizia. III) the actual methods of re-utilization of the cuneo (basic unit of the plan of the Roman amphitheatre) for housing use and the relationship between the cuneo and the internal space composition of the component buildings.
The purpose of this study is to comprehend the progress of the Italian Rational Architecture after the Gruppo7's manifest. This paper deals with two Exhibitions of Italian Rational Architecture and the transition from the MIAR's transformation to its dissolution by reading through the then articles and the previous analyses. As the result, it could consider that the First Exhibition on the rational architecture was organized on a national scale for the first time in Italy and the Second one became the preface to the bitter conflict between them and the academicians. In addition,despite of the MIAR's dissolution caused by their counterattack, the Rationalists could find the other way to extend their movement.