The structure, which has existed in a country for a long term, is very important for local constructions in the days ahead. We reviewed the sericulture house form beginning and classified the transfiguration of sericuluture house. In this study, we believe that old houses can exist by changing with times and suggest the good reconstruction to taking over the old houses.
In this paper, I took up the pamphlet called 'the details of housing improvement' presented by the Union for the Improvement of Living Conditions in the Taisho period of Japan, and studied the theory for floor planning of houses that were shown to the pamphlet. The principle of room composition was classifying main rooms for public and private spaces, and the principle of plane constitution was segregating irregularly territories for public and private spaces. By the principle of plane constitution, the dwelling house was built as that of the central living-room type.
This study aims to clarify the actual condition of facility management and the residents' life in satellite nursing home. The method of this study is questionnaire and interviews of staff and residents' family.The results are as follows: 1) The number of units is decided by the system of care staffs during night. As a result, many satellite nursing homes adopt 2 units and a 24-hours' home service. 2) Most of the residents moved into the satellite nursing home from the range of 5km. 3) Family can easily visit the satellite nursing home often and stay a longer time in it. They can relax carrying chairs and sofas in the resident's room.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the planning and the relationship between the architectural planning and the care system of the exiting unit-type special nursing home for the elderly. For this objective, an analysis was carried out by comparing the plans of institutions applied in 2006 and in 2003. The results are following. 1) The equipments and the floor space obey the minimum standard considerably in institutions applied in 2006. 2) In 2006, the composure of the living-dining space and the setting rate of the individual bathtub were improved. 3) The management doesn't satisfy the standard enough. Therefore, in order to maintain the sufficient management, it is needed that the planning is done in view of the work force.
The purpose of this paper is to show the subjects of retaining elementary schools by revealing the cause of them closing down. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The background of closing down schools today does not only declining birthrate, but deficit financing of local government and legal assist of combining schools. 2) Parents and residents are different in thoughts on closing down their schools to the administration, and so they should share their thoughts. 3) Closing schools and converting to branch schools are the effective way to retain schools located among the mountains or isolated islands.
The aim of this study is to clarify the space organization of Phsar Chas, old market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conclude the results as below from the data mostly based on the field survey. Phsar Chas does not have rigid big building like an ordinary market. It is gathering of small shops without big building. 1.5 meter square is the basic form of the shops. The shop space is made by layout of equipments such as showcase, chairs and sewing machines. Flexibility is the feature of the shop spaces. The shop space is also for living. They talk, eat meal, sleep and play in the shop. Passage is used not only for movement but also for work and life. They work, wait for customers, talk, play and take a rest on passage. Passage has a function to accept activities and equipments which cannot be set on the shop space.
There is an “Illegality” on people's activity like hawkers on street. In that case, the law lose effect and people's unspoken agreement regulate their activity instead of the law. It can be considered coexistence of the spontaneous order as “Local code” and free behavior without restriction from the law. With that background, Hawker's “Illegality” and their behavior In Bangkok's Chinatown were analyzed on following 3 aims. 1. To show the effective utilization through a classification of eating activities on the street as an urban public space. 2. To consider the “Illegality” for urban design as a new aspect of architectural planning. 3. To discover the “Local code” developed from hawker's relations between themselves as a making spontaneous rules with their unspoken agreement.
Located 57 km in the North-west of Okinawa Island, Aguni Island is one of few places in Okinawa in which well-preserved yashikirin (premises forest) of fukugi (Garcinia subelliptica) trees can still be seen. This study analyses the physical characteristics of yashikirin in the villages of Higashi and Nishi on Aguni by measuring the actual size of the trees. It finds that the number of fukugi trees in these villages is approximately 9,800 and that the trees have been deliberately planted along the specific sides of premises to respond to the climate of the island, particularly during the winter months. It also suggests that the historical development of the village may be traced by the distibution of larger (older) fukugi trees.
This research clarified three points of the following in Toshima district, Hokudan-cho and Kariya district, Higashiura-cho, Awaji City where were in the hypocentral region and suffered serious damage by Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. 1.the road and the housing reconstruction after completing earthquake disaster revival projects 2.the movement of the domicile of sufferers before and after the earthquake 3.the actual condition of human relations, community succession and transfiguration after the earthquake As a result, in Toshima district, it was cleared that human relations were changed by decreasing households of Rinpo, units of local town, and the land use between houses and roads was changed by road expansions and these changes caused the transfigurations of human relations and the community. Also in Kariya district, it was cleared that community has maintained because the movement of the domicile was rare by revival projects. On the other hand it was cleared that human relations and companionship among relatives did not change greatly, although human relations among neighbors changed greatly by the movement of the domicile.
Kudo-zukuri is a vernacular house the roof of which is U-shaped in plan. The purpose of this study is to investigate what is behind the fact that the roof gaps of most kudo-zukuri houses in Kashima and Shiroishi of Saga prefecture face north-northeast. The wind roses derived from AMeDAS(Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) and AEROS(Atmospheric Environmental Regional Observation System) data show the prevailing winds come from northwest in winter and west-southwest in summer, and the northeast wind rarely blows. According to the survey materials with regard to the vernacular wind names by Sekiguchi(1985), the residents in Kashima recognize that west, northwest and south winds are strong or chilly. Thus for enduring the winds, the most appropriate direction of the roof gap is northeast. The mean depth of direct sunlight area into each main room at twenty-two kudo-zukuri houses, however, is longest in winter and zero in summer when the roof gap faces due north. When the gap faces the actual north-northeast direction, the depth in winter is shorter all morning, but is kept at 1.4 meters and above. In the cases of the northeast and east, the depths are much shorter in winter and the direct sunlight enters the room in summer. Consequently, the kudo-zukuri houses have good balance between wind enduring performance and sunlighting control due to their proper direction.
Ginza, a major commercial downtown, has a design council which enables a local association of business owners, while not having strong legal/institutional basis, to hold pre-negotiations with developers in order to exercise design control. To answer a question of whether such negotiations could have a real impact over developments, this paper aims to clarify the actual operations of Ginza Design Council and found out that they are in fact influential. The fact that there exists a community in Ginza that represents a kind of pre-modern sense of “public” seems to account for such GDC influence. We can also assume that the Design Rules specifically created for Ginza have made the negotiations more effective.
Salt, an old city settled on three mountains, is located 28 km northwest of Amman. The townscape of Old Salt is characterized by so-called “yellow stone buildings” that were mainly built during 1870-1920, the golden age when Salt was the commercial center. Official studies to appraise historic value of yellow stone buildings and some restoration projects have been undertaken from the view point of tourism, and they focused on landmarks. We, however, considered it necessary to clarify the present status of the yellow stone buildings in Old Salt to discuss and propose a basic concept for townscape conservation based on the local context. The field survey was conducted and reveals followings: 1) 49.7% of existing buildings is yellow stone buildings and 24% of them retain yellow stone appearance; 2) Regarding yellow stone buildings, residential use is dominant (69.4%) but alteration of appearance by painting and other additions occurred more frequent in residential use than in shops and offices; 3) The percentage of yellow stone building is the highest in the traditional commercial area, Hamman Street and Suq Al-Sukafiya area, and original appearance ratio is also high, and thus the area is suggested to be the focused area for conservation.
The Japanese Government recently announced a new strategy for the creation of "self-reliant regions" based on aggregation of services and networking between regional cities and surrounding municipalities. This study analyzes the impacts of such scenarios based on the cost savings by residents. It is shown that integration of public facilities into service hubs can lead to substantial reduction in overall travel costs and that this can be enhanced through cross-border cooperation. It is expected that the information gained will provide local governments reference points as they deliberate on how best to proceed in forming local and regional alliances.
Based on the survey results from the Nagano Prefecture Tourist Site Users Statistics that were published in May 2009, out of 291 tourist sites that existed in Nagano in the last 16 years, 117 tourist sites were selected for Self-Organized Criticality analysis. These 117 tourists were extracted according to the criteria: 1) Annual users exceeding 100,000 people or 2) being a very well known tourist site. Based on the analysis results, the tourist sites that indicated being in Self-Organized Criticality are categorized into 3 groups. This is followed by a discussion of means of transportation to the tourist sites. As a result, relational characteristics were drawn out between the means of transportation and the number users in each group.
This study purposes to make clear the public housing that differs between metropolitan and local areas under the current circumstance of decentralization and housing safety net, focusing on the public housing residuary. The public housing residuary was surveyed to the officials in charge of public housing policy of local governments in Kinki region and residents of public housing in Nishinomiya, Tatsuno and Sayo, Hyogo. It was almost confirmed the public housing residuary differs among cities. Residuary is significant in metropolitan areas rather than in local areas. At the moment, it is required the public housing policy secure housing safety net in metropolitan areas and realization of vital local communities in local areas.
In Korea, the construction industry played major roles to develop the country in the past. But now its roles tend to reduce in Korea industry moreover the construction industry was treated as a fading industry because the construction market size continuously reduce, and the construction accident rate increase. And then Korean government seriously recognized those problem's effect for the construction industry. Accordingly they decided on applying a lot of strategies, contained the CM(Construction Management), in order to improve the construction industry and resolve the problem. As the CM system applied in Korea, initially it took some problems because already the supervision system has been operated in Korea construction industry. However, those difficult problems are in the construction industry, many universities and technical institutes start to study and educate the CM system which is a useful and popular method to manage the construction project.
This study aims to clarify the differences between mass housing business with industrialized houses and the one with improved traditional houses or platform frame construction houses. As a result, in the latter business, the houses more expensive than those of smaller business are sold successfully by marketing strategies such as sales, advertisement, brand royalty and show houses, in the same way as the former business.
This paper explores the housing conditions of single people in Japan with particular reference to cross-national comparison. Marital status has played a key role in differentiating housing opportunities, disadvantaging non-married people. This has been more notable for Japan than for European countries. In Japan where the housing policy system has explicitly been focused on encouraging family households to acquire their own homes, many single people have lived in parental homes with limited housing choice.
The purpose of this research is to validate the adaptability to 1DK by revealing what changes have taken place in the life-style of aged couple households after their dwellings were renovated from 2K to 1DK. The changes indicate that 50% of the dwellers chose to have their meals in the DK room and sleep in the traditional Japanese- style 6 mat tatami room. However, the half of these couples use Japanese low tables in the DK in their daily lives because preferences developed over a long life-time. On the other hand, half of households cannot adjust to 1DK.
To the present, it has been difficult to know the reality building stocks in Japan, this study proposes to observe a trend for stock and demolition of wooden dwelling houses. The study calculated the trend with using the average life span in Osaka 3 districts by fixed property ledgers. In the result, the trend was clarified on following 4 aspects. 1. The stock is previously on a downward trend. 2. The demolition will be over the stock in 2030. 3. The stock is under way to be renewed steadily. 4. The trend may be greatly influenced by location of the district.
During Edo-Era inspectors were sent throughout Japan several times. In 1838 inspectors were sent to Kumamoto-Han and used town houses for stay and rest. Through the examination of historical materials such as plans, following results were ascertained; 1)Inspector's room, followers' rooms and storeroom were required for stay and rest in town house. 2)Number of followers' room ranged from 2 to 7 according to the area of town house.
This paper examines the double structure on Ireko style's Noh Theater through the case Study of Houshokai Noh Theater. Architect Ohe Sintaro originated the double structure first when he designed Hoshokai Noh Theater in 1913. In Ireko style's Noh Theater, double Structure means that there is a wooden Structure inside for decoration, on the other hand, outside there is reinforced concrete structure. This double structure was universally used by modern Noh Theaters. In this paper, I will analyze why the double structures model was born, its background, the design thought and the method of Ohe.
The purpose of this study is to put the second stage of the modernization of the silk factory into systematic form. Through our surveys, we found the following characteristics about the development process of the headquarters and the main factory of GUNZE Raw Silk Mfg. Co. Ltd. between 1896 and 1936. 1) The arrangement that clearly divides the production facilities and the women's dormitory was standardized in 1913. 2) As individual dormitories were built for employers from different sections, dining facilities were also separated and added to each dormitory after 1915. 3) When the factory was established, all of GUNZE's buildings and machines were built of wood in Japan. Some big factories were built of RC and SRC to serve as a firewall after 1924. However, the use of RC and SRC diminished significantly after 1932.
This Paper examines the Architectural works and activities of Isaburo Ueno. He went to Berlin and Wien to study architecture in 1920's after graduated from Waseda Univ. in Tokyo. He worked at Josef Hofmann's studio, and got married with a Wiener Werkstätte designer Felice Lizzi Rix. After he came back to Japan, he established his own architectural studio. He founded 'The International Architectural Association of Japan' in 1927, and became the chairman of the association. He designed architectures based on modernism, while he applied some ornaments on his works. That ornaments designed by his wife Lizzi, as the collaborationist. Then after World War II, he devote to education of architecture and design.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows.: 1. The eaves spring of “mokoshi” and “hisashi” in Long Duc Dien has been made by the eaves digit and the warp increased material. 2. The warp of eaves digit has been made by the expansion or the inturn of the corner “mokoshi” and “hisashi” pillars. 3. All pillars inclined to the direction of center on Long Duc Dien. 4. We drew the full scale drawing depend on the analysis of measurement size value, and we found out that the both side pillars of the center pillars interval at “mokoshi” and “hisashi” inclined 2 etsu-sun, the outside pillars of the sideward pillars interval at “mokoshi” inclined 0.5 etsu-sun, the corner pillars at “mokoshi” and “hisashi” inclined 1 etsu-sun. 5. We think that the expansion of the corner pillars at “hisashi” is 2 etsu-sun, the one of the outside pillars of sideward pillars interval at “mokoshi” is 1.5 etsu-sun, the one of the corner pillars at “mokoshi” is 3 etsu-sun.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theories of body culture for Le Corbusier and Pierre Winter, his collaborator, and the relation between them and their architectural theories. This paper deals with the theory of biology and body culture in 1940's of both persons. They understood life deeply through keyword called the biology. With that in mind, Le Corbusier suggested body culture in the house and the prolongation of a house. The suggestion of the body culture beside the bed in the bedroom in particular expresses that he placed it as the one of the daily acts.
The aim of this study is to clarify the criteria of the relationship between building frontage and streetscape through automobile management in suburban areas. First, we chronologically investigated the use, frontage width and building frontage of roadside buildings through map and photos. Secondly, the buildings' ground plan parking arrangements, backyard, and boundaries were examined and analyzed. Thirdly, nine “building front types” in three groups were made clear through similarities found between various characteristics and their arrangements. Next, the ground plans and groups of building frontage types were combined to obtain several “roadside building types”. Following this we could demonstrate the relationship between the “roadside building types” and the generational change of their frontage width as well as quantity. Finally, by comparing chronological change and distribution of streetscape, a framework for discussing the analogical streetscape of roadside building types can be presented.
Since modern ski was introduced in Japan in 1911, networks of ski tour courses were actively developed in Hokkaido until the Second World War. In the early stage ski courses were developed from the suburb of Sapporo and Otaru, other area by railway stations on Hakodate line, then formed broad networks in mountains with ski huts and hot springs. As they were close to the daily life in snowy district, they should be considered as regional resources. This paper aims to clarify the development process and background of the ski course networks and adjacent area to support the further development in such regions.
This paper focuses upon the appearing new image of the urban space in mid-16th century seen in the town planning of ‘Nieuwstad’ of Antwerp. We have found unpublished drawings for the development of the Nieuwstad during mid-16th century in the collection of Stadsarchief Antwearpen, and tried to reconstruct them in exact size for formal analysis. We have found that the project installing canals and quays for large ships was changed several times and developed to the rational grid plan, that is obviously different from the district of the Middle Ages. That could be estimated as one of the developing stages of town planning of Northern Renaissance in Low Countires.
This study is to consider the trend of the substitute Lot which was given to the town (to take up the subject) to protect against fire during the Genroku period - Kyoho term. This paper consists of two contents: 1. The urban special configuration of the protection space against fire, the original lot and the substitute lot using Kanda Sakumacho ,2. The social structure of the original lot and the substitute lot through "Noh Play Look" and the labor (tax) of Minamidaikucho. As for the relation between original lot and the substitute lot, the social structure and the urban spatial configuration consist of different layers. Townspeople of the original lot and the substitute lot did their labor and enjoyed "Noh Play Look" together beyond the urban spatial structure of the town. The space and society by the original lot and the substitute lot were accomplished by different mechanism, but it is certain that Edo city was accomplished by these.