This report intends to extract the direction of the residential environment improvement by regarding change degree of autonomy and public participation of the mentally handicapped person to group living. Questionnaire is composed of 14-item action about autonomy and 12-item action about public participation, within the daily life action. Subjects are the 49 persons by the interview questionnaire. The result improves the degree of autonomy of people of about the half by the transition. However, the degree of public participation dose not change.
Recently, the small-scale local governments are enlarging and enriching the service of health, medical and welfare facilities for the elderly. Intensive arrangement of the three types of facilities is one of the effective ways especially for the small-scale governments. This study aims to explore, using GIS(Geographic Information System), the conditions of the facility arrangements and the distance between the facilities in the 2,511 self-governing body with less than 30,000 population. The result is put together as follows. 1) The statistics of the arrangement patterns shows there are 24%:three kinds facilities, 37%:two kinds facilities, 29%:one kind facilities, and 11%:no facilities. 2) 20%(125) are built in one place whin three kinds facilities, and this is characteristics of small population local governments in the large area.
In the paper, we describe the drawing support method. The main aims of this method are simplifying a user's input of request. A floor plan is drawn from the direction of several rooms. Therefore, we propose the minimum-block-plan which represents the relation of room-connections and direction of room. We show several floor plans from the minimum-block-plan and the efficiency of the minimum-block-plan from the result. The proposal of the drawing support method is based on the minimum-block-plan.
We obtained information by means of questionnaires on the rebuilt houses and their pre-rebuilt ones. The following are the results. 1.Concerning about their construction methods, approximately 84% of the pre-rebuilt houses used Japanese conventional methods, but only 55% of the newly built houses used such conventional methods, instead the rest of them used wooden panel system, platform wood frame, and light-weight steel construction method. 2. It is thought that old houses built by new construction method have various problems, but those problems of new houses have been vastly improved. 3. Pre-rebuilt, old houses were built by a large number of construction companies nearby, but the number of big companies such as so-called "house-makers" has increased. However, around 40 percent of new houses are built by construction companies nearby.
Handrails and grab bars are essential to support life of senior citizens and people with disabilities. However, very little technical information is available as to their retrofitting to existing dwellings. The authors intend to propose an evaluation method to judge the effective strength of installed handrail on various wall structures and materials commonly found in Japanese dwellings. In this paper, as the part 1 of the study, we authors report a classification of various handrails from the viewpoint of human action to them and measured forces loaded by humans during accidental tumbling.
The aim of this study was to classify the light phenomena that can be optically perceived in the architectural space by applying the mode of appearance of color by D.Katz. We extracted the light phenomena entirely from four documents and tried to classify all of them to these modes. As a result it became clear that eight modes, excluding surface color, and two modes that is the perception of light and illumination with surface color, are accepted as the classification criteria of <<the phenomenal light>>.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the organization and the change of the living space and the regional space in Changshu, China, and also to clarify the mechanism of them, from the viewpoint of the relation to wei-zi that creates water environment, by literature and fieldwork. In conclusion, it can be clarified as follows: 1. The regional space of Changshu can be divided two areas, according to whose spatial organization is changing (Green and Soil Area) or not (Water Area); 2.Wei-zi (〓子) can be grasped "〓+子", and the water environment of Water Area can be grasped "Water Society" formed through the medium of wei-zi; 3Prom the relation between 1. and 2., the mechanism of organization and change of the living space and the regional space in Changshu can be clarified; 4 And it can be said that the living space and the water environment created by such mechanism create and organize the regional space and the water environment in Changshu. In other words, the regional space and the water environment in Changshu are reproduced by such mechanism with changing.
The object of this study is to clarify the current issues of arcades in Japan. The typical examples of arcades constructed after the World War II in East Japan were analyzed by historical practice. The following four phases about development of arcades were focused on: firstly, the phase of invention (silver awning and silver arcade); secondly, the phase of fashion (the arcade of the various types); thirdly, the phase of expansion (the arcade of the louver type); finally, the phase of maturity (the arcade of the vault type). Moreover, the social conditions, which had changed the role and design of modern arcades, were investigated. The factors influenced the appearance and transformation of arcades were considered.
In order to understand the shelter strategies of the low-income people in La Paz City, this paper aims to illustrate the low-income housing system scheme, which is a hierarchical diagram where different low-income housing types can be identified, and enables to know all means that low-income people use in order to obtain housing. Deriving from analysis, it finds out that the rental type, apart from ownership, is an important housing option for the low-income people who can not usually afford to become owner-occupier due to their disadvantaged economic situation;_however we find out that rented accommodation is in decline since there is not investment for improvement, neither from owners nor tenants. The research method is on the basis of an extensive study concerning the housing issue where a carefully analysis, identification and classification of the existing housing types have been developed in order to construct the low-income housing system scheme. With the development of this scheme, we aim to clarify for planners and policy makers the achievement of more effective solutions in order to improve the living conditions of a significant portion of Bolivia's urban population.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss factors promoting/preventing the going-out activities of the elderly in relation to spatial structure of the physical environment in their neighborhood. We took six residential districts in Kumamoto city as the case,' in suburb, two active districts in terms of the going-out activities of the elderly, the other two represent relatively inactive districts, in downtown area, two districts represent the residential districts having 'good' environment in terms of well-developed transportation networks and commercial services. In these districts, we analyzed 918 sets of answers of the elderly people to the questionnaire, and investigated the physical environment using fieldwork survey data. We analyzed the differences of the going-out patterns of the elderly in each characteristics, spatial structure of the territory of daily life, their evaluation of the neighborhood. Findings can be summarized as follows. For the eldelry, safe and comfortable walking environment is fundamental conditions. However, it is more important for them to have several places that they freely access through safety pedestrian network within the walking distance. Combination of these places and pedestrian network creates the space which is attractive for the elderly and promote their going out. Although the road with much traffic is the barrier of movement for the elderly, they reach the distinction exceeding it if it is near in distance. But for the old-old people, .the influence of the restrictions by such a barrier and distance becomes stronger.
This study aims to develop the system for supporting community planning and to clarify the effectiveness of using this system in residents consensus in real workshop. We developed system using the technology of GIS(Geographic information System), VRCVirtual reality) and Internet for supporting an understanding of space, a sharing of consciousness, and a transfer of an intention in collaborative works with citizen participation. The results are as follows. l.GIS was effectively utilizable as a tool which transmits the opinion and image between participants correctly. Especially, old photograph and panorama VR contributed to quick agreement greatly. 2. VR was greatly effective in the understanding of the future image of a town. However, since VR displays a concrete image, it may guide a participant's intention.
Chicago, the birth place of "skyscrapers," had witnessed a number of change in building height limitations and attempts in changing during the early part of the 20th century. It is assumable that the control on tall buildings had accompanied a number of interests of people who had different positions and that resulted in such a change. This paper is to review the change in building height limitations in Chicago from 1902 to 1920 and their social backgrounds. Specifically, this paper is to focus on: 1) motives in changing the limitations, 2) remarkable issues or concepts emerged in the series of arguments in controlling tall buildings, and 3) peoples' expectations or assumptions in the result of change in height controls and if the results were as they imagined.
Establishing a proper legal framework is essential for conserving traditional urban built environment. Nowadays in Malaysia, social concern about Malaysia's urban heritage conservation is growing, despite accelerated economic growth. Current World Heritage nominations are particularly important for promote her social and cultural integrity within global community. This study discusses and analyzes Malaysian heritage conservation legislation as well as the socio-political conditions in Malaysia. Firstly, this study re-examines the current conservation-related legal framework. And secondly, current issues are discussed and analyzed through existing press statements, legal statistics and interviews; (1) Factors affecting the 'selection' of the artifact or area within the legal framework for conservation-national, ethnic, urban or family, (2) The sustainability and balance between development and conservation-especially expectations from the public in general, (3) Public participation under Malaysia's multi-cultural and 'soft authoritarian' political climate, from sole tenants to NGOs. These social and political concerns are unavoidable in terms of proposed federal legislation as well as the World Heritage Listing. Heritage conservation should be reflected social background to emphasize the Malaysian multicultural social setting.
This study predicted developments in the Fukuoka Itoshima area where large-scale development would be expected in the near future. The purpose is to support the decision-making to the administrative official who performs measures against the development act. To predict, we prepared the data of a past development act. And the Decision-Tree algorithm is used to make the development-predicting model. This model is applied to the Itoshima area, and the development-predicting was done according to three scenarios. As a result, the change in the land use based on these scenarios could be seen. And the effect of measures could be understood at the plan stage.
It is an inevitable process for a building to be superannuated, or to carry out a functional fall, to finish the construction life, and to result in demolition. Life is shortened or is extended by the sudden accident with a building, or the plan by the persons concerned, or the judgment and a social request, or the trend, etc. Even if the functional fall of a building is not remarkable, it may result in change of built for new equipment or the growing floor area demand, and the construction life is concerned closely with the trend of the age. When thinking and seeing, the atomic bombing of a building was a serious incident which has remarkable influence on the construction life and function. Here, in this paper, it considers as how to discuss about the construction life and its continuation form of a historical building by taking up world's first atom-bombed city Hiroshima, and considering the actual condition and the. trend of a contamination building through many reference and investigation.
We have been studying the method for calculating the construction period of buildings. In part 3 of this study, we demonstrated the equation to calculate the approximate construction period, in the light of the scale effect of buildings and the self-similarity of construction works. 1) In our conclusion, this-equation of day/m^2 is formularized as form (1). 2) If you wish to calculate the construction period of day more accurately, you should use form (2) and table (3). However, table (3) includes the differences because of the regression coefficients derived from data of buildings constructed. In next part, we will provide more accurate coefficients in form (2) from data of model buildings.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify housing improvement actual condition and living support needs with the aging of the detached houses. In addition, the problem of the housing and living information improvement by the public sector was also discussed. In this study, resident questionnaire survey was carried out for the detached houses supplied by the Yamanashi Pref. Housing Supply Corporation. Main results of this study are as follows. 1)The executing rate of the housing improvement is correspondent to housing construction time and household attribute. 2)In the old estate, the resident aging advances. It is important to carry out not only improvement on the housing but also which cooperated with the welfare living support and housing information improvement. 3)The housing information is not general, and in addition, it must be improved in the scene of the living.
The conclusion of this study is described as the following. To the administrative policy in Local Government, the condominium owners desire what they can utilize at management process like to provide information or to support a solution to management problems. Whereas, groups such as the homeowners association with a high consciousness of condominium management, also desired to create data for condominium management with a high quality or to take control of condominium development. So what is needed is a wider range in administrative policy. Especially with regard to the necessity of administrative policy, in the previous study, the administrative policy for condominium management was enforced on constructive administration rather than consumer and community administration as organizations of Local Government. However, viewpoints of local government officers in charge were the same as that of condominium owners; stating the importance of enforcing policies based on consumer and community administration, such as "a field of consumer protection" and "a field of community development". Therefore it is necessary that administrative policy of condominium management is related not only to "a city planning and a housing policy side", but to "the habitation and the community life side".
As the construction of recycling system is making progress in the civilized community, the demand for the renovation of existing building facilities is growing and the public is in need of the many-faceted evaluation of renovation plan. This paper analyzes the relationship between economic efficiency and decrease in environmental impact, on the basis of the case studies of 5 renovation projects for existing office buildings, T, M, N, K and A. And "The evaluation method to renovation from the point of environmental view with the consideration of cost effectiveness" is proposed and applied, in order to,facilitate the evaluation to renovation on 2 axes, economic efficiency and decrease in environmental impact. Further, the proposed method is being applied to 20 environmental indicators of Green technology projects by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT), and each indicator is evaluated accordingly. As a result of evaluation of 5 renovations by the proposed method, improvements in both economic efficiency and decrease in environmental impacts at 3 sites, T, M and N, are recognized. The evaluation of 20 indicators of Green technology shows that controlling the number of heat source equipment is the most effective method of renovation.
This paper reveals the meaning of relation between Waseda University Okuma Memorial Hall and the office of Waseda University Press. The existence of the Waseda University Press, completed across the street from Okuma Auditorium in the same year, was very important. Efforts were made to achieve a continuity between the two buildings in terms of detail design and materials, but defferences in style, height and so on were pursued willingly. Here, Satoh koichi was able to achieve the goal of creating a beautiful city viewed from the street while at the same time realizing a sort of ecletic "architecture-city" beauty by combining various styles.
Located in the south of Hunan Province of China, Jianghua County is a densely populated district of Yao minorities. Based on data of Yao's rrural houses in Jianghua County, this paper focuses on the transition of the middle span. Houses were sorted into three groups according to building years, then the characters of each group were studied. As main features of transition, the reduction of Hou Shi, the change of doors, the functional shift of Hou Shi, and the decrease of Tang Wu's ceiling height were clarified. Finally, through the tranformation of Yao's living condition, several reasons concerning of these transitions were analysed.
In Florence of the republican period under the rule of the Medici the religious plays were performed in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine many more times than in any other churches. The purpose of this report is to clarify how the church functioned as a theatrical space. In this thesis, the specific characteristics of the church are analyzed on the following three points; 1) the adaptation of space by a particular wall called tramezzo. 2) the social relationship between the confraternity and its neighborhood. 3) the economical supports from the government and the patronage of the Medici.
This paper is to clarify on the characteristic of Kaegyong , the capital of the Koryo dynasty, by the role of the buddhist temples of Kaegyong as city ruling apparatus of governmental power. Based on a close study of historical records^ the role of the temple is shown to have extended to acting as a palace, a national religious service institution, a government officeN and as military facilities. These expended roles enabled the buddhist temples of Kaegyong to be the key institution of the national government rather than the simple religious one. The reformulation of the role of the temples of Kaegyong as an institution of government seems to be helpful for clarifying the character of Kaegyong as capital of Koryo.
Kitaban-cho in Shizuoka city, Shizuoka prefecture is a town that prospered as a result of the tea industry. No historic buildings survive in Kitaban-cho today, but before World War n there were many Western-style offices and large warehouses in the area. This paper sheds light on the developers of Kitaban-cho in the early 20^<th> century. To judge from old maps and registers of landowners, it would seem that the development and extension of roads in Kitaban-cho was intended to facilitate the transportation of merchandise by the tea trading companies. This suggests that this development was undertaken not by national or local government but the private sector. Many foreign trading companies opened shops in Kitaban-cho. It is clear from their relationship with the main foreign trading companies, that the two tea merchants, Ozaki Ihei and Kawamura Katsujiro played a role in this development. Ozaki acquired much property in the Kitaban-cho area, and the scope of his activities indicates that he was one of the principal developers. Through his involvement in the development of Kitaban-cho, he transformed himself from a tea trader to a modern-style business executive. Kitaban-cho is thus noteworthy as an example of a regional town in early 20^<th> century Japan where urban development was undertaken by private developers.
With the increase of the leisure'time of the Japanese, various recreational activities are taking place at beach space in Japan today. The improvement of beach space is an urgent task in view of the growing trend of urban dwellers to visit such space for relaxation. This Study focuses on signs (pictogrammes) which constitute the only information function for people visiting beach space and examines the level of recognition and action-inducement effect of each sign to establish the usefulness of pictogrammes. The study results indicate that the relation between the objects for expression and the components of the pictogrammes is an important factor to determine the degree of difficulty (or ease) of understanding each pictogramme. Meanwhile, analysis from the viewpoint of noun attributes found that the components of each pictogramme can be clearly indicated by words. The study results also suggest the possibility of an action-inducement effect of pictogrammes.
We tried the method to search the glass attributes, which are color, reflectance and transmittance, of objective glass facade images by an aesthetic evaluation of ray-tracing CG applying an interactive genetic algorithm. To verify the method, we firstly used the existent CG image as an objective image and searched it. Resultant acquired image closely resembled the objective image and both glass attributes are also close for the most part. We applied the method to a hotel facade, and reached an image that satisfied an chooser's expectation highly. The availability of this method to search the glass at-tributes by combining human aesthetic evaluation, high reproducibility of CG and multiple search procedure of GA was shown.