In Japan, the ratio of the eldery, especialy those of a single family or a couple family, will increase. So it is necessary to think about the housing supporting their lifestyle. This study aims to clarify the change of the way of living and the needs for housing of a couple after their children started in life and left home by conducting interviews about their life in the experimental housing NEXT21. As the result, we found that a comfortable livingroom as a private space for a couple and their personal spaces for each were needed, compared to child-raising family, and that a public space for the guest wasn't needed.
We made the investigation and the research on the composition of the shrines, the Noh stages and the galleries of existing 30 Noh stages in Nara Prefecture and northern part and southern part of Kyoto Prefecture. The composition of the shrines takes mostly general modern form and is classified in ten kinds of 5 types. The Noh stages were built mostly facing to the Honden (a place of god) in Niwa (an inner shrine garden). The Honden (a place of god) is built on the highest ground level, and the Haiden (a place for worship) on the lower next level, and the Noh stage at the lowest ground level. Most of the passages pass on the right side of the Noh stage. For the fundamental module of the Noh stage they have used the Kyo Ma (1969mm=1Ken), Chukyo Ma (1908mm=1Ken), Kanto Ma (1818mm=1Ken), 7 syaku Ma (2121mm=1Ken), and 8 syaku Ma (2424mm=1Ken).
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characters between the site plan of the hydrotherapy room and patients' utilization. We sent the questionnaire about the patients' training plan in medical facilities especially in the hydrotherapy room. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1. We need to consider the total training hour of hydrotherapy exercise and select hydrotherapy machines to higher the operating efficiency at the hydrotherapy room. 2. The hydrotherapy room should be located at easy access to the therapeutical excise room because about 30% of hydrotherapy patients tend to practice therapeutical excise also. 3. By classifying type of the site plan, we classified hydrotherapy room into four categories. The Involved type which is located next to the therapeutical excise room is major type out of four categories.
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify architects' thoughts on the relationship between technological aspects and design aspects of an atrium. Firstly, conceptual descriptions on an atrium were extracted from contents of each theory, and were classified into two aspects ; "the technological aspect" and "the design aspect". Secondly, an area in and around an atrium was classified into 9 categories. And based on descriptions on space or building elements concerned with an atrium, extents of an area connected with an atrium were investigated. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between design themes and extents of the area. Then we found the tendency that an extensive area including the interior and the exterior is consistently explained in only "the technological aspect" and an interior area and an exterior area are individually explained in both "the design aspect" and "the technological aspect".
The purpose of this research is to verify how the design ideas to respect the individuality of the residents and the changes of living environment in time have been efficiently employed for the life of each resident. The resident's family structures have changed since they started to live in the estate in 1983, and the new tenants have moved in. Therefore, the needs to change the position of partitions, the specification of equipment apparatus, etc. have occurred, and remodeling construction has been carried out. We visited the residences individually, and when it was allowed to come in to the units, we observed the actual changes of each dwelling unit and interviewed why and how they changed their units. This paper reports the outline of results of our studies, especially on the changes of the room arrangement (layout changes).
This paper proposed the use of the fractal dimension as a quantitative index of the complexity in daily activities. By performing calculation of the fractal dimension from the acceleration waveform obtained by the small accelerometers attached on a human body, the evaluation on a burden was tried. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, the barriers with wheelchair were employed in this study. As the results, the fractal dimension was considered to be effective for the evaluation on the burden in daily activities, although this research restricted only to barriers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the space structure of historical landscape-architecture from the relations of psychological evaluation and impressive structure elements. 7 typed precincts were used in the cluster analysis of site planning and the surrounding. Indication-method and Semantic Differential method were used at the precincts. The results of this paper are as follows. 1) From the factor analysis, landform, amenity, contrasty, dramaticness were extracted as psychological evaluation structure landscape-architecture factor axis. 2) Elements with impressionable representative attribute and elements leading us to the next space create the atmosphere of a space.
In this paper, we developed a methodology to analyze a change in appearance of the dense city area in Japan. To develop the methodology, we set the following process : 1) We categorized the building types of the high-density area in Tokyo. We set the fourteen-proto types according to the difference of height, use, and the appearances. 2) We analyzed the block of the density area with the proto types and open space type. We set thirty-two block's types with the combination of them. Through this analysis, we proved that the methodology's validity to analyze the city to get to understand the change in appearance in the quantitative way
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the pluralistic cultural history, characteristics of the regional formation process, and the influences of a pluralistic culture on Kume district in Naha city. Firstly, the formation process was analyzed on 3 levels: area, linear and spot. Then, focusing on Ryukyu, Chinese and Japanese traditional cultures, the influences of the cultures were analyzed as well. At last, a conclusion was drawn as follows: There is an obvious connection between Ryukyu's Utaki, Haisho and the greenbelts and parks of today. Kume village was built based on the principles of Chinese Fusui Philosophy. Kume Road was once the central part of the district, and was preserved as its symbol on the original location. Also, Japanese Buddhism and Shinto beliefs lead to the construction of many temples and shrines in the study area. Future regional planning works in these locations should be carried out taking the aforementioned conclusions into consideration.
The purpose of this research is to examine the relation between the direction of benches and sitting behaviors in a street. An observational investigation that targeted public users, and an evaluational experiment by subject were conducted, and the following aspects became clear. 1. The number of people who sat on benches was larger when the benches were arranged face to face than when they were arranged back to back. This was especially remarkable in users for a short time. The reason was assumed to be related to accessibility from the street to the benches. 2. The number of men who sat on benches was larger when the benches were arranged back to back. On the other hand, the number of women who sat on benches was larger when the benches were arranged face to face. 3. Behaviors such as eating and drinking were observed more frequently when benches were arranged face to face. Subjects reported that they felt that people sitting on benches back to back were annoyed by pedestrians.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the background of abolishing the area division and that fact, focusing on the application of the area division in the cities of less than 100, 000 people. As the character of the area division in the cities of less than 100, 000 people, the area division was applied by many of industrial cities. And, it was clarified that the common features of Arao-City and Kainan-City ware population decrease and industrial decline. In addition, it was clarified that the farmland diversion after the area division has abolished increased.
In Japan, changes of social structure, people's demand for urban amenities and the necessity for new spaces to meet the demands of society for globalization and the advanced communication system have forced Japanese to urbanize the use of metropolitan coastal areas. We have been exploring this subject by showing that the cause of ineffectiveness in developing such coastal areas is due to applying methods for developing inland areas to such coastal areas. This paper is a continuation of our study that investigates patterns of land use arrangement in Metropolitan coastal areas in terms of examining land use by the unit. So this research employs the shape analysis including size, stretch and density consideration of land use conversion in the metropolitan coastal areas.
In 1980's, a couple of serious construction accidents took place in the Korean construction industry. Afterwards, they promoted responsibility by introducing management system by the third party and they intended to settle the problem of quality control through the whole country. However, because the introduction of supervision systems was concentrated on solving the construction problems which had been found at that time, when other kinds of problems are occurred, another method was introduced and the legislation was maintained. Recently in Korea, the considerations on fundamental factors are getting attention. While the quality in construction industry can be considered from various viewpoints such as production system and the legislation the technology ability, social recognition, etc. First of all, it is necessary to clarify the responsibility allotment of the architect who is the primary subject of the production and the supervisor who is in charge of the quality assurance. In this paper, I studied the role of the architect and supervisor concerning the supervision approach as well as the problems in product system
The experiment project of the housing production in Kyoto is compared with the existing business tasks based on the difference in the core project tasks. Therefore, the conditions for leading the drop shipment-type wooden housing projects utilizing locally-produced lumbers from an analysis of the subsystems at the experiment project are found out. As a result, the experiment project is enabled to convert into information initiative from physical distribution initiative, and it becomes clear that the role of raw wood market is indispensable for the determination of material information.
In this paper, the change of dweller's characteristics across the ages in condominium is analyzed relation to location, physical relation condition, market position and ownership change rate of each condominium. The results are as follows, (1) There is a different characteristics by condominium location, urban center and urban fringe. In urban center the aging of dweller's is controlled by existence of big rental housing demand, but in urban fringe area the natural ageing process across the ages is progressing. (2) Above characteristics is intensified according to housing size. The small size condominium located in urban center is attractive for young single household as rental housing even if that has become old.
This paper draws on the housing experiences of baby-boomers and baby-busters in Japan's home-owning society as an empirical case to demonstrate cohort effects on the production of new contours of social differentiation. While many baby-boomers, who were born in the last half of the 1940s, climbed up the housing ladder towards home ownership to accumulate housing assets during a period of vigorous economic development, baby-busters, who were born in the late 1950s and early 1960s when fertility rates dropped, were critically affected by the rise and fall of the bubble economy and experienced an unprecedented drop in the value of their residential properties.
A certain university's survey showed that the students' evaluation on the facilities environment on the campus depends on how much convenience the university provides for parking their bikes. In other words, all the university facilities are less appreciated only owing to the insufficient bike-parking areas. The purpose of this paper is to discuss several problems of the bike-parking areas with the students feel unsatisfied, and suggest some ideas of what the university should do for them. To begin with, we analyzed the answers which the students made to the questions we asked them about the bike-parking areas. Next, on the basis of that result we had the evaluation items by which we can measure the convenience of the bike-parking areas. Finally, the survey based on the evaluation items posed several problems to solve for the bike-parking areas.
In the early modern age, Zen-style triple-brackets had the original development thought to be used in Zushi Architecture along with original use in Zen sect temple. It is possible to look the spread over of Zen-style triple-brackets in the architecture of Buddhist temple of the Jodo sect, Jodoshin sect, Nichiren sect rebuilt at the early modern age. The generally used parts composition in section at the early modern age becomes clear by the arrangement of two kind of length of bracket arms on Zen-Style feature, overlapping passed bracket arms and diagonal cornice close among overlapping passed bracket arms.
The purpose of this study is to clarify typology of o-chaya in Fukuoka domain. This study is based on "o-chayakakitome" in Hayashi documents. In 1822, o-chayas ware scattered about 13 places in Fukuoka domain. However, there ware 19 o-chayas in genroku era. With the passing of the years, some o-chayas lost since genroku era. In 1822, the outside space and main building had many points in common. However, when this study pay attention to o-ima space and floor space, o-chayas divide into two types in edo era early days. One is A type without the bedroom. And, another is B type with the bedroom. Afterwards, C type of an amusement character was was formed in the middle of Edo period.
Many signboards were setting upped in front of many town houses "machiya" in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. Among of them, drug wholesale stores' signboards have splendid style by fine caving. And then, these were setting upped at right angle with street. So that, town people of drug wholesale stores were obligated to get application for Kyoto-machibugyosho for these are not only frugal but also obstacle to traffic on the street.
Chitose palace was built in 1849 at east section of Toyama castle and used as a residence for the former lord of Toyama-Han. It was burned out in 1855. Through the examination of historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1) Chitose palace was composed of the Noh stage, ceremony rooms, lord's family's rooms and retainers' rooms. 2) Chitose palace was designed considering family members and taste of the former lord.
This paper shows the relationship between Core of city and Core of architecture in Tange lab. Tange had interest in ancient Athena and modern mobility under mobilization. After the termination of war, Tange lab studied the compassion of city in Tokyo and Core system of government building. They applied to the competition of The Tokyo government building in 1952, and insisted organic synthesis of City and Architecture. On one hand, Tnge lab studied history of core of City, and didn't adopt the scale of Human but the scale of God in Hiroshima peace center. Tange operated the scale of Piloti as the triumphal return gate in Rome because he aimed toward the architecture for 50 thousands people.
'TAISHO-SADOKI' written by TAKAHASHI SOAN is taken up in this paper, and the description is basic material to know the whereabouts of Modern Japanese Style Houses. The place where the upper class of modern ages held the tea party etc is listed, the place of the house is clarified there. And it compares it with 'TOTO-CHAKAIKI' that the same author wrote ahead. In addition, about the house in suburbs and villa areas of Tokyo, the relation between the location and the architectural design of the house is considered. This is to know the tendency to the houses of the upper class of modern ages. It is connected with knowing a part of the ideal type of a house at that time.
In 1901-2 (Meiji 34-5), four farming village development studies, including the "Study of the Development of Toyoda Village in Naka-gun, Kanagawa Prefecture" which were published by the Agricultural Society of Kanagawa Prefecture (nokai), are valuable references describing the details of the status of farming villages and farmers at that time. Based on these materials, a clear idea of the lifestyles of farming villages and their farmers in Kanagawa Prefecture in 1901-2 has been established. In addition, a comparison with farmers in 1698 (Genroku 11) in Hirokawa Village, which is adjacent to Toyoda Village, was also conducted. 1. The average floorspace of the main building of a farmhouse in the Genroku period (1698) was 53m^2 and gradually increased to 100m^2 by the end of the Edo period (bakumatsu), but decreased to 83m^2 during the Meiji period due to an increase in the number of farms. 2. In farming village is in 1901-2 in Kanagawa Prefecture, a typical farm consisted of, in addition to a 25tsubo main area, such extra buildings as an ash house, a storage house, and a lavatory with a diverse range of household effects used by the farmers to carry out their dairy lives.
After the Meiji Restoration, a central organ of Government building and a high government official residence were installed. The government assigned the samurai residence which requisitioned from the Shogunate to a Government building and a high government official residence at first. However, there is the later policy of europeanize, too, and European-style design will be gradually introduced. It was a Minister of Foreign Affairs official residence introduced European-style design into earliest in a high government official residence, and subsequently it was a Prime Minister official residence that construction was planned. This report paid its attention to these two high government official residence and clarified the construction process and the genealogy of European-style design introduction with proof of a document.
I wrote about the characteristics and the evolvement of Bothnian block-pillar churches in my previous papers. Finnish wooden churches were developed with the effective technique of the block-pillar style in the 17^<th> and 18^<th> centuries. How was the block-pillar style born? Concerning the trunk of the block-pillar style, craftsmen learned from traditional Finnish corner-timbered bridges and boat-sheds, which were supported by quasi box pillars. On the other hand they learned about the A-shaped roof trusses by imitating the trusses of the Swedish medieval stone churches in the Uppsala area. By combining both techniques the block-pillar style made long walls and high wooden vaults possible and thus created a greater space for the church. The Bothnian area was close to the Uppsala area and was therefore influenced by it. At the same time in the Bothnian area there was a long tradition of shipbuilding which contributed to a high level of craftsmanship.
The Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople was known as the imperial burial place of Byzantine Empire. Because of this unique feature, the church could be placed in the extraordinary position in the spiritual world. The purpose of this study is to clarify the religious character of this church. In this paper, through the description of the famous ceremonial book, "De ceremoniis", the deeds of the emperor were researched: after the ceremonial entrance to the liturgy, the emperor retreats in the gallery and attended the liturgy from there. It makes a remarkable difference, in compare with the imperial attendance in Hagia Sophia.
This is the second part of the study on two theaters for comedies built in 1581 in Venice and closed in 1586, by researching the manuscripts kept in the Archivio di Stato di Venezia. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the forms and the function of these theaters, according to consideration of the characteristics on the parish of San Cassiano. In addition, the usage of the term "teatro" in documents are pointed out to reveal the position of two theaters in the theatrical history of Italian Renaissance.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the transition of emperors' playing at the Shugakuin Imperial Villa. This paper will analyze the playing style of three Retired Emperors, Gomizuno-o, Reigen, and Kokaku, who had visited there. The transformation of the composition of the Shugakuin Imperial Villa has been studied by some former studies, but it is not enough without verifying the transition of their experience there. This paper will reconsider the composition of the Shugakuin Imperial Villa as the place of playing through the analysis of their experience.
Angiolo Mazzoni's Reggio Calabria Station Building, constructed in 1938, is one of the latest works of a series of railway station buildings that Mazzoni had designed in Italy. One explanation for Reggio Calabria Station Building characteristic would be that it achieved the total design by systematic rule in each level from architecture to furniture. It was based on "The principle of architecture" that Mazzoni suggested in the magazine Architettura e Arti Decorative, in 1927. The rules adopt the following logic. First, a grid system is set for fixing the ground plan and the elevation of the architecture. Next, the same grid is divided equally as a layout of stones to finish the surface inside and outside of architecture; the built-in furniture also follows the layout of stones as a part of the architecture. In addition, shelves are also designed by the systematic way, determination of the proportion by the combination of contents inside and the division of the front of shelves.
This paper aims to clarify the change process of the landscape of tourism of Hiroshima Castle as the famous place after the Second World War. Analyzing the guide texts of the sightseeing bus tours and the interview to a person who experienced bus tour guide, we can find out that the history of the castle in the military city is more emphasized than the present castle as the public park in the guidance of recent years. The meaning of Hiroshima Castle as the famous place was limited to the place guided about the definite history with the view from the outside of the castle.
This study is to consider how "Kaishochi" (the open space in the block), which was planned in initial Edo town, transformed into the housing lot, emphasizing on Nihonbashi area. To understand the changing process of "Kaishochi" I based my analysis from three historical maps and historical records of "Machibure". The analysis of this paper consists of four contents; (1)the formation process of "newly developed alley" when "Kaishochi" became the housing lot (2)how to build "newly developed alley" from the view point of "Machibure" (3)several types of "newly developed alley" when "Kaishochi" is built on the housing lot (4)several types of "Kaishochi" when its incorporated into certain surrounding city later on. Due to peculiar land formation process of Edo called "Kaishochi", the urban space of Edo town changed by mutual adjustments between townspeople and the image of the mature society is evident.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify a spacial composition of a traditional country by a case study on Makabe town. Makabe is one of typical traditional country towns in North Kanto region. In Makabe, old house ledgers made in the 35th year of Meiji are preserved. Because layout plan, floor plan building material and lot area were described in that house ledgers, we realize urban and architectural space of Makabe town in 1902. Traditional town houses and farm houses were built-up in Makabe that was the dual structure of urban and rural village. In modern age, Various buildings, communal facilities, banks, factories and all that were built in Makabe according as industrialization. The conclusion of this paper is that the feature of spacial composition of Makabe is diversity.