This paper presents the characteristics of the pedestrian movement around the door connected to a corridor. We focused on the flow rate where a door connects to a corridor to verify evacuation safety, based on performance-based design. Full-scale evacuation experiments were conducted to confirm that a decrease in flow rate would occur when passing through an opening. A flow rate of 1.5 persons/m/s is assumed as the convention for Japanese Building-Standard Law. However, when the corridor connected to the door is crowded, flow rate at the door decreases. Therefore, the effective flow rate, which changes in relation to the effective area of corridor available, was used in Japanese performance-based codes to accurately evaluate the evacuation time of buildings in a fire. Furthermore, the differences between this experiment and “SimTread” (a multi-agent pedestrian simulator) were investigated to examine the validity of the simulation.
This paper aims to explore the Hong Kong Government's current public housing policies, and its future plans for accommodating the needs of the elderly and disabled living in public housing. I will also touch on the subject of urban planning in relation to catering for the elderly and disabled. In conclusion, there is a high proportion of elderly people requiring public housing in Hong Kong. High-rise blocks are in particular inadequate relating to barrier-free. That said, it is evident there has been rapid progress in integrating “Barrier-free” requirements into the design of new public housing.
The authors aim to propose guidelines for housing design for one-person households, which currently account for thirty percent of total households in Japan. The findings are as follows. First , at home, one-person households separate some activities spatially, whereas they do not mind overlapping other activities. Second, having moved the activity of looking after unfamiliar guests to the outside, one-person households invite only familiar guests into their homes. Third, the authors propose housing design for one-person households that consists of a living room with a combined dining room and kitchen and a room doubling as a storage room.
In the institution which performs free nursing, it is important to clarify the relation between a corner and change of how children play. Change of how children play has a long-term seasonal change and a short-term daytime change. In our previous report, we analyzed the use characteristics of the corner in the nursery room from the viewpoint of the seasonal changes of the play act. This paper aimed to explain the space composition of the nursery space with corners by detailed analysis of development on the change of child's play act in the free nursing in a day. As we did in the previous report, behavior observing investigation through video photography was conducted at four nursery rooms in two kindergartens. The play act under free nursing was checked every 2.5 minutes, and then change of play act was analyzed. Results are described below. #1) The 3 years-old child performs various plays in many cases. As age becomes high, children come to play intensively and develop play. #2) After the pattern of the place in play acts is observed, there is a central corner easily connected to the other corner. #3)The analysis demonstrated that multiple corners, rather than a single corner, induce children to play more activity. In order to develop the play act, in addition to a setting of each corner, it is also necessary to provide the open space intentionally.
We examined the effects of spatial variables on the evaluation rate for interactive robots presented with Augmented Reality technology (AR-Robots). Results indicated the followings. AR-Robots in front of subjects get higher evaluation rate while they were presented on the eye-height of the subjects than on the desktop or the floor. The suitable distance for the subjects while they were approaching and speaking to AR-Robots was approximately 1300 mm. And the distance was strongly influenced by the conversation content especially for some subject had an introvert personality, while the distance was influenced by the appearance of AR-Robots for the extrovert subjects.
It is observed and analyzed how smokers stay in outdoor smoking areas in a city park. The distances between a smoker and the other smokers and the relations among the orientation of the smokers are focused on with respect to the concept of personal space. The following results are obtained. 1. Personal space of smokers differs depending on the situations. 2. Regardless of the population density of the smokers in smoking area, a certain personal space tends to be kept when the smoking area is crowded. 3. Partitions of smoking area have the effect of reducing personal space and smokers tend to stay near the partitions. 4. Personal space of a smoker is affected by the gaze of other smokers. 5. The presence of the accompanying person may reduce the influence of the gaze of other smokers.
There are recognition of testee of special sense into the three dimensions graph(psychology quantity, physics quantity and sense quantity). Curved wall have the absolute value of the quantity of surface and reverse side is general even. The first stage and the third stage is plus or decrease is same concave and convex of curved wall psychology ,(change, direction and softly), physics and sense. The model is same volume of condition has unite of psychology, physics and sense.
This article is a study about Log Cabin Type Wooden Temporary Housing built for the victim who suffered serious damage in Fukushima by Tohoku Earthquake disaster and the later nuclear plant accident. As study content, we arranged it about from a public invitation to construction outline for Log Cabin type Temporary Housing characteristics. At the same time, we inspected about actual situation from construction to the present and future versatility and reuse after finished the use as temporary housing and aimed at it becoming an effective document for the future disaster.
The aim of this study is to clarify the composition of threshold in Japanese contemporary architecture located in urban parks. “Threshold” is seen as a space which possesses the potential to provide people with a place to congregate, rest, and views to the vicinity. The principle of threshold is seen as the transitional space from the exterior to the interior in public architecture that can have different character by various arrangement of elements and open space according to the access circulation. First, the elements that compose the threshold are defined. Second, the arrangement of the threshold is examined. Third, the compositional diagrams of the threshold with the Volume are examined, and typologies of the threshold are established. From the comparison of these typologies four characteristics with tendencies are clarified: Isolating (the interior), Concentrating (the exterior, the interior, the exterior with depth), Dispersing (the interior, the interior with depth, the interior and of the exterior, the interior and the exterior with depth), Blurring (the interior and the exterior)
This paper is a part of the series study on formulation method of conservation planning in traditional town (village) of P.R.China. In this research, we are trying to find the relationship between spatial structure and conservation planning, which can be utilized as basis for formulating the conservation planning in traditional town (village). In this paper, the traditional village which is not protected by protecting system because of small-scale is focused on. Taking the traditional Naxi village named Zhebo Centre village and Li Ge Village, which were carried out Improvement project for living condition and tourist development as object, space change of village and residence, and awareness of residents are researched to inspect the influence caused by these two projects. Then evaluation is carried out on two projects (planning) from the aspect on sustainability of spatial structure.
This study clarifies characteristics of zoning in post-war reconstruction urban plan of WWII in 28 local cities, comparing with early land use zoning before the War. Zoning designation of each city had been done along zoning decision standard of 1933 in addition to that of 1946. Although standard of 1946 sought for ideal land use zoning, there were some examples of redesignation along present land use condition. The cases that effective land use planning took powers in built-up areas were only those related with land use readjustment projects like new commercial districts, etc. While there were few examples of implementing highly exclusive zones, we have many examples of designating precisely by dividing into small districts.
Urban Density plays a major role in shaping the efficiency of the systems of any urban area, and in determining the extent to which these systems are accessible to various groups of urban residents. Urban systems affect the daily lives of urban residents and the equity, access, participation and control of various urban systems defines the human security of urban residents. This paper attempts to throw light on the relationship between urban density and its effects on human security. The megacity of Mumbai is chosen as the case study to carry out this investigation. The human security of the wards of Mumbai is quantitatively measured using previously constructed measures which is then compared to the corresponding spatial variation of urban density and a multiple regression analysis is done to determine how the density measures affect overall human security. Furthermore, cluster analysis is used to identify zones of different levels of human security which are further investigated at the micro level through a field survey. Important observations about various grades of human security present within clusters are noted and relationships between urban density and human security extracted from the study. The scope of formulating a valuable tool for urban planning from the understanding of the relationship between density and human security are discussed, as well as the limitations of the current research and possible ways to overcome them.
Pedestrianizing a street has been recognized as a useful planning method to vitalize the activities in a downtown. This paper focuses on the management system for Heiwa Mall located in the downtown of Asahikawa City, which was pedestrianized in 1972 as the first pedestrianized public street in Japan. It clarifies the process of forming the existing management system since then and points out the characteristics and problems of the long term management. It concludes by suggesting the key factors considered for the management system for a pedestrianized street.
The purpose of this study is to clarify evolutional process of urban unity in terms of road networks and land use. According to our previous studies, it was pointed out that Mikatsuki area was sensitive area in terms of urban configuration. At first, we clarified change of road networks of 1948, 1975, and 2007 by employing the Space Syntax Theory. Then, we identified unity of road networks in terms of Integration Value and Urban Entropy Coefficient. Then, we analyzed land use change and clarified characteristics of urbanization in Mikatsuki area. Finally, we pointed out that urbanization has relationship with unity of road networks that was identified by Global Integration Value, especially 1978 and 2007.
Following Part 1, 2 and 3, we analyzed urban modality based on the theory of “frame,” a system of memory and expectation in this paper. We first showed a basic model of frame and introduced theories of many disciplines. After that, we developed the model through the analysis of 6,833 expressions written by subjects of walkthrough experiment. For example, frame is well understood by dividing it to short-term frame and long-term frame, and should be analyzed in a relationship with space because we humans in real space.
This study proposes a stochastic model of the closure of grocery stores using spatio-temporal data. The model is based on the partial logistic model where customers follow a probabilistic store choice model. The model allows us not only to describe the past closure of grocery stores but also to consider the potential of their closure in future. To test the validity of the model, we applied it to the analysis of the grocery stores from 2000 to 2005 in Gunma, Tochigi, and Ibaraki prefectures. The result showed that the model can predict the closure of grocery stores in these areas with high accuracy, especially small grocery stores located in the regions whose density of stores is low.
In high-density wooden residential areas, some aspects of spatial characteristics must be improved to safeguard against high risks which may occur in a major earthquake. However, improvements have not been steadily performed due to the lack of cost-benefit analysis on improvement projects. In this paper, we evaluated past improvement projects in terms of difficulty in wide-area evacuation by using a multi-agent simulation model. Results showed that some buildings where residents have difficulty in evacuating have not been improved by these projects, and this risk can be reduced by shortening the street length which these buildings are adjacent to.
The aim of this study is to examine the structure of factors influencing fear of crime and the association between surrounding environment and fear of crime. 24 subjects walked along the designated route which consists of 19 links and evaluated each link by 10 factors with five point rating scales. Path analysis was used to identify relationship between fear of crime and the other 9 factors. Additionally, the number of eyes on/from around the street and the illuminance were measured for each link as properties of surrounding environment. In conclusion, subjective evaluation of brightness had the most relationship with fear of crime and subjective evaluation of eyes from around the street had the second most. Regarding illuminance, vertical illuminance was more associated with fear of crime than horizontal illuminance.
CBD is the economic center of Japan. Therefore, in case of disaster, the demand for high level of sustainable business with continuity is considerably strong. Instead of individual frame structure, buildings are designed for strengthening each other as an integrated system. This relationship, known as ‘collaborative assistance’, consists the overall planning of disaster prevention as well as the sustainability of business. The ' post-disaster support base ' should be introduced as the centric function. In this research, we construct evaluation method for disaster functional buildings, based on an analysis focusing on different phases of disaster prevention and the correspondence range, in aim to specify the proper prevention strategies. In the future, this type of evaluation will be implemented on all developments in CBD such as Otemachi, Marunouchi, and Yurakucho area in Tokyo.
This paper looks at transformations in housing related circumstances surrounding households affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Many affected households were homeowners living in single-family detached housing and, thus, they sought to rebuild their houses in the period immediately after the tsunami. However, it has increasingly been becoming difficult for the affected people to reconstruct or purchase housing mainly due to heavy financial burdens. This is now prompting many local governments to expand the provision of low-rent public housing.
The purpose of this research are (1)analyzing supply chain process of privately-rented temporary housing and, (2) reveal the real situation of housing evacuees on the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this research, we focus on the case of Yamagata Prefecture in which has many evacuees who received the influence of a nuclear power plant disaster. The results of the present study are as follows: 1) in Yamagata prefecture, supplying privately-rented temporary housing was rapidly-available. This is because Yamagata prefecture and the real estate business community organization agreement were made before the earthquake disaster. 2) it became clear about the evacuee's life actual condition that protraction of refuge has caused various problems.
Self-help housing that has been introduced in many schemes as a solution to assist self-builders in construction of their own dwellings and urban self-management, which is acknowledged as successful participatory development established in Peru, are both recognized internationally despite of having aspects of success and failure as aided schemes for the low-income population implemented in other developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to evaluate self-help housing and urban self-management by first defining different types of housing and urban improvement process with flow-charts showing urban process and housing solution, then summarize main findings through physical condition, impacts and side effect of three project areas in Lima.
The object of the research was 63 damaged private rental housings managed by 9 management companies in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture. The research carried out five months and one year after the disaster. The “complete collapse” rate was 4.9% and the “half collapse” was 9.6% by the insurance company. In the common area of apartment houses, cracks on the walls, floors and ceilings occurred at the rate of 54% and destructions on the unimportant frameworks occurred at 44%. As the issue of the management, many problems had happened. There were rent reduction, communal charge nonpayment, termination of contract, eviction of lessee, compensation of water leakage and so on. The liability of the owner who had got the damaged house and occupied lessee was not clear. Management companies had solved the problems by various methods they each thought the best way. The contract which confirms the liability of the management company and the owner should be established to manage the emergency.
This paper aims to evaluate the space utilization of small-scale day service facilities renovated from traditional timber houses, analyzing relationship between space layout and utilizing pattern. The result of the evaluation contributes to examine the possibility of using traditional house as day service facilities. The crucial point of the findings of the study is that it is important to select houses with spacious regular square rooms in order to secure the provision of places for the inmates spending their free time, lunch and afternoon sleeping respectively. Even if this space condition could not be satisfied, it would be worthwhile to arrange furniture separating territorial space for relaxing and taking lunch in a room in addition to improve space planning appropriate for afternoon sleeping, physical exercise or recreation.
This paper reports the results of examination 7 building permit application form in the late Edo period, farmer of Atago county Ichijoji village, submitted to Machibugyo office. Ichijoji village, is the distribution areas of Kitafunai type houses. Also the plane that was written to the building permit application, the placement of the room with Kitafunai type can be observed. However, Iwakura type is also mixed. In addition, roof model that has a gable to the long side of the building was also present.
Jitchu was a famous monk who played an active part in Todai-ji from the late Nara period to the early Heian period. Among his various activities, this study aims to clarify the actual situation of his construction works. In this paper it is revealed that Jitchu played several roles in the construction for not only the management but also planning and site working. This shows that he had broad and respective relations with those who concerning in the construction processes, especially he was linked closely to the Empress Shotoku in several cases.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows. :1. In Long Duc Dien, the identification for wooden components was discovered on the pillar(Cot), the inclined beam (Kèo), the top crosspiece(Xà Dau Cot), the upper crosspiece(Xuyên Trúng), the big crosspiece(Xuyên) , the big crossbeam (Tren), the sleeper(Con Doi), the short pillar(Tru Doi), the small beam(Áp Qua), the roof beam(Dòn Tay), and the door(Cua Bang Khoa). 2. Chu Nom was used for the identification for wooden components, and that were written by indian-ink in a part of the roof beam, but the most character were carved. 3. In Long Duc Dien, “買”, “且”, “哉”, and “左辺” were new discoveries, though “䒑”, “彳”, “左”, “右”, “一”, “抌”, “回”, “决”, “中”, “次”, and “〓” had been reported up to now. 4. The method of identification for wooden components is that the space was separated to front and back, left and right to the building center, and “買” was used in the left and right side roof line, “回” was used in the front and back side roof line, and in the line of pillar and keo, the front and back sides are specified by “1” , and the east and west sides are specified by “抌” or “回”, and the corner lines are specified by “决”, and the corner sideward are specified by “且哉”. 5. The identification for wooden components of Long Duc Dien is provided essentially by a structural form, though it has implications in the assembly process on the character of it.
This paper discusses the formation and alteration of the housing estate Blumläger Feld in Celle by Otto Haesler. This housing complex was built as one of the most economically efficient minimal apartments in the 1930's, which was characterized as adoption of the efficient dwelling units using “cabin-system” and parallel layout of buildings. After 2000 its two main buildings consisting of 88 small-sized dwellings were rebuilt and consequently lost the former characteristics as minimal dwelling, while on the other hand the seven row houses, which had been exceptionally built with extra facilities like terrace and bathroom for tubercular patients, were conserved.
Haus Colnaghi, Hans Schaeffer and Haus Huber, designed by Hans Schmidt, are first competed steel frame houses in Switzerland. This paper aims to discuss the meaning of these three houses, focusing on development of his architectural intention and technical condition of the age. Firstly, backgrounds of houses, such as construction method, architects' thoughts which affect to him, and his technical trial in this period, are traced. Then in order to suspect technical development of three houses, architectural planning, structural system, and issue on construction material are analyzed. Finally, the meaning between his intention and invention in these houses is discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of double curved surfaces on the exterior of Tohgo Murano's architectural works. Four of his designs were studied. Generating lines which are the composing elements of the surfaces were analyzed, and functions and graphs by which the reference generating lines of the double curved surface of the work are approximated were found. Discussion included the characteristics of the form of each generating line, the form of walls near the ground, the form of the eaves and the parapets, and the form of the roofs.
Mies searched for architectural ‘order’ in his life-time. Although Mies's ‘Less is more’ and ‘Universal Space’ are widely known and understood, his ‘order’ is hardly done. The analysis of his words concerning ‘order’ derived that there were different stages of ‘order’, from a practical order to a spiritual one, according to a hierarchy of values of buildings. For instance, Mies explained that the difference between Crown Hall and the other buildings on the IIT campus was the difference of kinds of ‘order’.
The purpose of this paper is to study by the urban axis concept and the hierarchical structure method for the city design plans by Kenzo Tange. In case of many of his architectural works by Kenzo Tange, people will find golden sections on their design. From the early period of his design his architecture were a kind of city design and he strongly requests the urban axis concept to the symbolic structure design on top of the axis. In case of city design models his view points are like a birds eye view, so that his interests are relationship and proportion of combination of street width especially the case the streets are straight or orthogonally. Compare with architectural elevations, the functional restricts are stronger because the width of streets reflects the volume of traffic, but in case of symbolic loads landscaping with street trees etc. and with pedestrian way would control the total width of street. On the top of the urban axix he set the symbolic end and also symbolize the urban axis in case of the city design.
It is important to cooperation between the inhabitants for minimization of damage in the time of disaster. In addition, We have considered necessary cooperation between regional challenges faced by rural depopulation and aging. We examined the effect of inter-regional cooperation in the time of disaster by simulation. And, inter-regional cooperation has been very useful to make sure that lifesaving. Next, we participated in local events and found that there is a high possibility to participate in disaster drills. In this study, We found that it is important to regularly exchange of inter-regional cooperation and residents to improve disaster prevention force.
Discussed items are as follows. 1.) Pillars of this building were set on foundation stones or embedded directly in the ground (called ‘hottate-bashira’). 2.）Hinged doors of the front entrance were open outward or inward. 3.) Floor and wall construction method of the rear extending room 4.) Architectural form of the Shoshinden (main temple of this shrine)
The author thanks Kazuma Hayashi for his discussion, and the answers are as follows; 1.)Pillars of the asamedonowere set on embedded directly in the ground. 2.)Hinged doors of the front entrance were open outward. 3.)The height of the floor of the hikakushi was not so low as a hamayuka. The back of the hikakushi was wall and the side was sliding doors. 4.) About the architectural form of the shoshinden, it is already clarified by some previous works.