In this paper, the theory of inter-reflections between "diffuse + specular" surfaces is represented by equations. The lighting calculation equations were led from a study of O'Brien, and the rendering equations were led from a study of Matsuura. In the field of computer graphics a study of Wallace, which is similar to this paper, is already published. But equations shown by him are vague and don't correctly represent physical phenomena. All equations in this paper are derived from physically correct theories.
This study aims to examine the influences of clothing fit on projected areas of the human body especially at standing posture. The projected areas of 6 subjects (3 males and 3 females), wearing 3 kinds of clothes with different clothing fits, were measured at standing posture from 3 kinds of azimuth 0°, 45°and 90° at 8 different solar altitude ranging from 20° to 90° using photographic method, to determine the receiving solar radiation factor. The clothing fit index β_i was defined using the clothing area divided by the part of body surface area covered by clothing. The results were : The projected area factors become bigger as the clothing fit index β_i is increases and they are the biggest at a solar altitude of 20° and azimuth 0°. The projected area factor of "clothing No.6", which is the loosest clothing fit, gets 1.2 times for male and 1.4 times for female as big as that of unclothed bodies under the condition of altitude 30° and azimuth 90°. The above mentioned difference between male and female is caused by the clothing type, trousers or skirt. Fanger concluded that there is no difference in the factors of the unclothed and clothed body. However, an increase in the projected area factor derived for the subjects wearing tight fit clothing surface is found in this study.
The methods of votings on thermal comfort were classified for almost all of the foreign literatures in the related areas.(1) The terms for the voting were mainly 'Comfortable', 'Discomfort', 'Pleasant', and 'Acceptable'. (2) Rating scale method, dichotomous method, semantic differential technique, magnitude estimation were used. (3) Gagge introduced a single scale of comfort in five categories prevailing as a standard scale, while double scales without central category have also been used. Diagrammatic scales also have been used. (4) Voting on acceptability is used mainly in a form of dichotomous method. (5) Single scales of discomfort and semantic differential scales had been used.
The methods of votings on local thermal sensation were classified for almost all of the foreign literatures in the related areas. (1) Dichotomous choice methods were also used for local sensation. (2) The opposite categories of 'Fresh' and 'Drafty' could be the same, 'Stuffy'. (3) Air movement sensation were classified into sensation of comfort, freshness, physical properties, and draft. (4) Sensation of perspiration was made much of by Houghten and been come back since the 80's. (5) Bedford originally used a scale of sensation of humidity. Jennings separated a scale of sensation of humidity from one of degree of perspiration.
Airflow in air ducts is advection dominant flow where the Reynolds numbers are between 10^4 and 10^6. Flow and pressure fields around wings of dampers in air ducts are obtained numerically at high Reynolds numbers by using Petrov-Galerkin FEM and Multi-pass Algorithm for the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results of pressure coefficients show good agreements with experimental data for parallel-wing dampers.
In order to obtain satisfactory thermal sensation in a radiant cooled space, it is necessary to understand a radiation heat transfer around human body quantitatively. This paper mainly describes the calculation method of view factors considering obstacles required for analyzing a local radiation heat transfer in the real radiant cooled space containing complicated shaped objects. In this paper, following steps are proposed. A three-dimensional enclosure is divided into quadrilateral small elements. View factors between small elements are calculated by combining Mitalas-Stephenson's method and a unique method for judging obstacles which enables to understand a visibility between small elements quantitatively by crossing tests. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparing with some previous methods for calculating view factors. In addition the above, the proposed method is applied to the analysis of the steady-state radiant cooling environment of a meeting room with several occupants. The local thermal influence of a heated window and wall to occupants can be evaluated quantitatively.
The purpose of this research is to clarify characteristics of activities and images of children at river space by considering important roles of playing in natural environment. For this purpose, inquiries were held among pupils of two elementary schools located in the valley of MIYAGAWA river in MIE prefecture. Main facts found by these inquiries were as follows. 1. Pupils of these schools expand images by their plays relying mainly upon water. 2. On the other hand, they have difficulties in expanding their images to other natural factors such as pebbles or trees because of existence of artifical parks and playgrounds.
In recent years, the Low Emission Vehicle, especially the Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle (CNGV), is expected to solve an environmental problem such as an air pollution in urban areas or grobal warming. However, a delay of the improvement of fueling facility prevents it from diffusing in urban areas. The purpose of this study is to explain the issue of the exisiting method which annexes the CNGV filling station to a exisiting gas station and to propose alternative which uses a parking lot instead. Through the case study of Tokyo twenty-three wards, this paper concludes that the proposal is an effective solution.
"Klimatope" is considered as a unit of climate. In this paper, the following seven land cover elements are chosen for the "Klimatope" categories in Kobe area; water surface, forest, park, suburban, city, city center and factory. The diurnal variation of the air temperature in typical summer fine day, is simulated for each "Klimatope" to make its characteristics clear using one dimensional heat budget model. The coefficients related to the earth surface heat budget for each "Klimatope", are estimated by Normalized Vegetation Index (NVI) derived from Landsat TM data and the summing data of town information for each street. The "Klimatope" categories are discriminated by NVI distribution data based on the calculation results of the minimum air temperature.
The land use and artificial heat release from the buildings have to be needed in evaluating the urban or local thermal environment. In this study, a database system for land use and buildings has been constructed automatically by using GIS data. By using the system, the output of land use and heat release can be easily gained at any mesh size. Incorporating those data into the thermal prediction program, the thermal environment in urban or local area can be evaluated. To validate the system presented, an experiment planning, Science and Technology City in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka has selected as a case study. The result has shown the thermal evaluation system is effective. The effect of green area on the mitigation of the thermal environment has been confirmed in the planning. The results also showed that the calculation time and accuracy are significantly affected by the mesh size.
The Evaluation Grid Method (EGM) has been developed in 1986 as an extension of Kelly's Repertory Grid Method to overcome the shortcoming of the conventional interview methods. The largest merit of EGM is that user's preference structure can be elicited as they are. However, as long as EGM is carried out in face-to-face mode, the number of participants is inevitably limited within a given research budget. Thus the interviewees are restricted by time, and interviewers have to conduct personal interview on an individual basis. This paper introduces EGM research on gas station preferences conducted by e-mail among voluntary participants.
We analyzed the fundamental reason of the south face planning of the dwelling rooms for family use, by the text books of human physiology and personal hygiene that was used with the education of the elementary school in the Meiji early period of Japan. The results are as follows. The fundamental reason of planning in Meiji the 10's was the correct knowledge of human physiology and was the uncorrected knowledge that was based on miasma theory. The fundamental reason of planning in Meiji the 20's was the knowledge of biology on the basis of human physiology.
The major objective of this study is to elucidate new ploblems concerning the play environment for children in a housing estate. For this purpose, we have investigated the actual situation of children's play in 3blocks Tama New Town. It is confirmed that play environment in a housing estate, compared to that in a general urban residential area ,is limited open space, play space, and road space. In particular, children who must be supervised by grown-ups, displey different patterns (total apperrance rate, duration of play, play area, types of play, continuity of play, etc) accoding to the spatial characteristics of each block.
The objective of this study is to clarify the spacial formation of the traditional dwellings of the DAI RYAM in Yunnan, China. The results are following. 1) The spacial division exists along with the span by which their act of living is parted. 2) The concept of the spacial seating protocol of Upper - Lower and Innermost - Nearest to the Doorway have a large influence on the living in their dwellings and the spacial composition. 3) The abovementioned concept of Upper - Lower is regulated by the sunken. 4) The concept of the area of Indoor - Outdoor exists in the space and the areal composition has grading according to 5 ranks.
It is widely accepted that the traditional houses in China have the Siheyuan form and the [one hall two bedroom]type is the basic unit as the planning composition. Nevertheless, in the huge loess land of Northwestern China, there exist a lot of houses whose basic unit of the planning composition is the[one room]type or the [one hall one bedroom]type as well as the[one hall two bedroom]type. The characteristic of those houses is naturally, different from that of the[one hall two bedroom]thpe not only in the form but in life style. This paper clarifies that characteristic.
Based on the field work for the uses of highly informationalized laboratory at University, this research attempts to clarify various aspects of the activity and character of physical environment with networked information environment. Through the observation of the laboratory and the survey of users' activities, we found several sets of activity, such as gathering, collaborating, communicating, daily-activity including eating and sleeping, and working with computers held simultaneously with others. These activities construct provisionally environmental setting in order to be afforded by the transformation of object, information and event.
The purpose of this study is making clear effect of dinning space for inpatients in increasing after establishment of financial assistance in 1994. In this study the main stress falls on four aspects. 1. Have a grasp aspects of dinning space for inpatients from establishment age, number of sick bed, exclusive use or combined use, location and area of room. And point of view show compare with utilization rate in the present time an issue. 2. Make good use of effectively to clear. And analysis of dinning space for evasion in patients. And final of clear in limit and effective. 3. Have a make guideline of planning dinning space for inpatients from learn use aspects in general hospital model. 4. It has been shown area standard of dinning space for inpatients that used utilization rate in each clinica1 subjects.
Recently, many children use Public libraries with their parents, which we call 'family use'. The purpose of this study is to clarify the method of arranging the children's book area and the adults' book area for family use. The results are as follows; There are two types; one type is arranging the children's book area adjacent to the adults' book area and the other is the separate type. When the children's book area is next to the adults' book area, the children are apt to separate more easily from their parents and stay longer at the children's book area than when both areas are far apart. In the former type, the parents more often come to their children after their selection at their own area and help their children select and read books than in the latter type. They sometimes read their own books beside their children. Moreover, the children can oftener go to see their parents while they are reading books separated in their different areas. Therefore, the type of arranging the children's book area adjacent to the area for adults' books is more effective for family use than the separate type.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how people understands the structure of interior spaces. Therefore, we developed new cognitive map "Puzzle-Map Method", and applied to the interior spaces of 7 typical planning museums. As a result, it's very important to understand the interior spaces of museums that the clear structure from entrance spaces to derivational exhibition-spaces, being able to look out exterior spaces from interior spaces, effective relationships between elements and each space, and various spatial changing, i.e. open-ceiling, slope, skylight.
It is known that, in ancient China, the sitting styles changed from sitting-on-floor to sitting-on-chair. But the time of turning-point of sitting-on-chair has not been ascertained yet. By dividing into 4 stages, namely, "Age of Sitting-on-Floor", "Appearance of Sitting-on-Chair", "Expansion of Sitting-on-Chair" and "Generalization of Sitting-on-Chair", this study tries to clarify the changing process of sitting styles themselves and its reasons. With the change of sitting styles, the floor structure of building also changed. From the point of view of sitting style, this study tries to clarify the relationship between the change of this behavior style and the change of architectural environment.
Poetic-imagery means a special and environmental element which gives rise to a strong impression and activation of consciousness. We cant find any precedent of the study on poetic-imagery in the past papers. It is important that we search a study method of poetic-imagery by ourself. In this paper we tried to look below the surface of the poetic-imagery and search the method from the view point of the image structure. As a result, we acquired the guide of the study method.
In the previous paper, we showed that investigating a place assigned by Japanese word "MAE (in front of)" is useful to judge whether an object has ability producing a sense of direction. We call the ability "directionability". If the object has the directionability, direction of the place is determined by only an aspect of the object. In this paper, we constructed a model determining a place assigned by the word "in front of" an object. This model also explains the stochastic distribution of the distance between the object and the place. We verified the model by investigation.
This study describes a conceptual design on centrifugal facilities as lunar base construction with a brief genealogy of space architectures as an introduction. A concept of centrifugal facility for simulating 1-gravity environment is proposed in this paper. The feasibility of the design of the centrifugal facility with two types of constructions, which have paraboloidal floor surface and a linear motor car, is investigated. The technical break-through for the lunar development is also discussed.
The purpose of this study is to make it clear how urbanizing rural communities succeed the traditional function of preservation of environments. The results are as follows. 1. "Common" has been divided into "public" and "private" during modernization, then "common" has gradually declined. 2. Speaking to cooperativeness of common space, "common" is considered to have three aspects: common property, common use and common preservation. 3. It is a problem that newcomers participate in use and preservation of common places in the management of community. 4. Annual events are held at various common places helping to encourage community and community spirits. 5. Volunteers must be brought up to preserve the environments.
The aims of this paper are to show the distribution of the courtyard house with four buildings (Siheyuan) over China and to clarify the general planning composition of the courtyard house in northwestern China, which is clearly different from that of the typical and traditional [one hall two bedroom] type. We define it [non-one hall two bedroom] type. We studied references to find the characteristics of the courtyard houses, made investigation and compared these characteristics with those of the [non-one hall two bedroom] type. As a result, we clarified the general planning composition and the life style of houses throughout China, and that the houses of the [non-one hall two bedroom] type were distributed over the loess land of northwestern China.
This paper describes the relationship between basic spatial recognition and landscaping In Japan. Landscaping m Japan is based on the concept and idea of "Creation and Generation of Space". There is a spatial concept that I call "Space of Island" that has a symbolic position in above mentioned relationship. The story of "The Creation of the Main 8 Islands of Japan" in Japanese mythology teaches us the framework on spatial recognition to understand the meaning of variable landscapes and scenery in Japan. This study clarifies conceptions and patterns on composition of "Spatial Axis" as "Creation and Generation of Space".
This paper analyzes the evaluation structure of regional resources by residents, in order to search for the prerequisite for rural leading in intermediate and mountainous area. The results are as follows: 1) As for the evaluation structure at every branch of regional resources, we make clear the axis which ranking the evaluation by residents, and the characters of residents related the type of the evaluation. 2) Besides, as for the synthetic structure of the evaluation, it has four poles ; which are the residential environment, the environment for prevention of disasters, the living facilities, and the preservation of symbols. 3) The border settlement is valued at the minimum, and the residents which connected to the community firmly set high value on the regional resources.
This study is aimed to consider the common space planning which raises use of common space and supports community at detached housing areas. The results are as follows: 1) The spatial composition of the object areas is sorted by the two types, one is characterized that the area space is composed of grouping of houses, the other is characterized that it is composed of grid pattern blocks. 2) The spatial composition which effects to raise use of common space is the type that area space is composed of grouping of houses and the type that units of houses are connected each other to form a unity as a area.
This study attempts to examine characteristics of traditional housing group in Kudus urban area and its altering tendency, in order to consider possibility for observation. We found that: -Building alteration comprises change of carved wooden elements using contemporary materials, replacement of wooden-traditional houses with brick-ordinary ones, or, their removal to be empty lots; and replacement of yards with buildings; -Area alteration compriscs decrease of wooden houses, increase of brick houses, and increase of empty lots, with greater tendency along the street than in kampung; -In the last three decades, the area has lost 15% of its wooden houses due to natural decay, partial or whole sale; only 3.5% of the remaining are complete. Accordingly we recommend considerations for preservation.
Children's play spaces in 48 reality works were examined by means of content analysis and were compared with the primary landscapes in memory of the writers of juvenile literature and actual children's play spaces surveyed in Tokyo as a step toward improvement of children's play spaces. Outdoor spaces, particularly nature spaces were dominant in reality works. Well-used spaces tended to be complex, incorporating various space types. Approximately 1/3 of play spaces became the locus of evolving or traveling play, suggesting a pressing need for multi-functional play spaces together with continuous links among play spaces.
This study deals with the transformation of traditional townscape and residents' needs with respect building in designated "Conservation District of Traditional Buildings" from 1990 (when this area was designated as the conservation district) to 1996. It analyzed the building permit forms and the records of the consultation for building and examined the problems of the present control system of conservation district and the influence on the transformation of the townscape. This contents of this paper are as follows. 1. Analysis on correspondence of administration to residents' needs with respect to building. 2. Revelations of townscape transformations as the result and investigation of its cause.
This paper tries to focus on the construction of Taiwan Shrine (a Shinto shrine) 1899-1901, besides the reformation of urban area inside the Taipei Fort, as a project that played a significant role in the reorganization of Taipei into a Japanese colonial city. The site for the shrine was kept away out of the fort and raised halfway up Mt. Chientan because the shrine required both pure natural landscapes and the correspondence with the urban area. The shrine was connected with the newly planned government quater in the fort by the Chokushi-Kaido, an approach road to the shrine, and closely related by the shrine rituals.
This study intends to clarify the change in the 2 points of time from evaluation from the dwellers' points of view based on questionnaire surveys executed for dwellers of both the same cooperative town and the neighboring public housing complex for sale over 2 times in 1987 and 1997. At first arranging the change in the 2 points of time on activity at the management society, the groups of residential block and the circles, the arranging the change in the 2 points of time on both participating realities and estimation of activity in housing complex of men's and women's dwellers, we investigated about the roles and problems which would fulfill forming community by the method of cooperative town by grasping the present condition and tendency of cooperative town through comparing the 2 cases. As a result, we clarified the tendency and characteristics of forming community in making living environment by the method of cooperative town.
I investigated the Ryuhoin mausoleum in Eiheiji-Temple with some clue of its old drawings and its actual surveying. The summary of this study is as follows; The Ryuhoin tomb, the Keijuin tomb and the Seichiin tomb were built in due order. When the Daian-in tomb was added in 1676 (Enpou4), the mausoleum got into its fundemental form. When the Daian-in tomb was added, its gate was either moved from the Seichiin tomb, or was rebuilt. All tombs were reformed in 1778 (An-ei 7) and they were put in order and called the Ryuhoin mausoleum. The gates of Daian-in tomb and Keijuin tomb were removed, and the gate of Ryuhoin tomb was moved into its present place. In 1979 (Showa 54), the entrance to the mausoleum was demolished for the construction of a road.
For the purpose of systematical studying of Japanese traditional theory of architectural design, especially about its historical and cultural meaning, we study the architectural characteristics of the orthodoxy of the architectural books on Japanese traditional houses "Yashiki-Hinagata" by treating of them from bibliographical, substantial, and theoretical aspcts. In this paper, we organized 7 types from 62 materials of "Yashiki-Hinagata", and analyzed them bibliographically. As a result, in the end of 15C, principle books were formed with the concept of "Oku", and they became memorandums with the concept of the practical design of Buke-Yashiki. In the 17c, learned books were made for the organization of systematical theory of housing design, after that they spread as miscellaneous records.
Related to the urban sprawl, preparation of housing sites started on the outskirts of Tokyo by applying the Readjustment of Arable Land Act (revised in 1909). 160 cooperatives were formed between 1901 and 1932 covering the area of 8,711 ha. The Tokyo Prefectural Government helped them by arranging subsidies and allotting officials. The act had much advantage to landowners than the City Planning Act (1919); subsidies, financing and tacit consent to turn farmland into residential lot keeping its land value low. The government, without overall road planning then, had no way but to help those activities to develop any area at all.
This paper deals with the restoration of the floor construction of the old Ministry of Justice building, originally completed in 1895. The building was planned according to the metric system of measurement and is one of the earliest examples of a hoop-iron construction for earthquake protection and with vaults of bricks for fire protection, which were developed after the Nobi Earthquake in 1891. Reinforcement works such as iron beams covered with bricks and reinforced concrete were used in the building. This seems to be because the Nobi Earthquake occurred during the course of construction. The building mainly had single flooring consisting of wood beams placed every about 90 centimeters.
Checking the historical documents arranged for maintaining cultural properties in the Shiga Prefecture (1897-1929), this paper shows that a preservation carpenter or carpenters appointed by the prefecture led the properties, rehabilitation activity and that he or they rehabilitated the cultural properties of the Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Act in the prefecture respecting their original appearances. But the paint was left untouched and new structural members were added to keep the original structures, which does not coincide with the notion that "the original is important. "This implies that the activity was also led by romanticism which provoked the passing times should also be "preserved."
This paper clarifies composition and consumers' recognition about amusement parks around Tokyo in the modern ages. We analyzed many fragmentary materials such as leaflets and photos of some amusement parks and guide books for excursion. These shows that amusement equipments in the parks changed from ones for short sightseeing into ones for sports and amusement machines in 1920's. This change reflected on the method of planning of the later amusement parks. And in the materials published in quite same term, we found many words, such "for children and family" and "for their health" as themes of the amusement parks.
This paper is intended as a study of the buildings of the Horonai Public Railway in Otaru. Horonai Public Railway constructed for the transport of coal and inaugurated in 1880 was the third railway constructed in Japan. However, until now, the buildings have never been studied from an architecturally historic point of view. Therefore this paper win make the following three points clear, for the period from 1877 (before the construction of the railway), until 1883 (before the removal of the head office). 1) The arrangement of the buildings at Temiya was planned with consideration given to the already existing structures. 2) An outline of railway buildings in Otaru; factory, dormitory for foreigners (gaikokujin kishukusho), lodge house for foreigners (gaikokujin gasshukusho), Temiya branch of the Coal Collecting Dept. (Baidenkaisai jimukakari), Temiya Station and Sumiyoshi Station. 3) During the initial construction period almost all the buildings of the Temiya Station area were the same kind as those located within the Shimbashi Station yard, which was Japan's first railway (1872).
The plan of the Friedrichstrasse Office Building by Mies van der Rohe is very uniaue, cleverly balanced and unified. At first glance any simple geometrical relationship cannot be found in it. But Mies used the geometrical methods for making it. For instance the center of the elevator hall was precisely located in the innercenter of the triangle that was made by the three main boundary lines of the site.
Architectural Space Montage Technique was designed by the authors. The subject's mental schema is represented by spatial composition of miniatures on a 60 cm by 90 cm white plate. The scale for miniatures, such as furniture, people, trees, flowers and many kinds of standardized walls, is 1 to 50. In this experiment twenty-four kindergarten children made 40 models of the kindergarten. By analyzing each model and the children, we clarified characteristics of spatial composition and many types of subconscious schema, such as maldistribution, primordial enclosure, a great variety of configurations composed of furniture, complex of rooms integrated with corridor.
This paper investigates the type and its transformation of spatial composition in Rudolph Schindler's residential works focusing on their living rooms. Analysis deals with 41 works and consists of composition of the space between entry and living room, composition of plan, section and volume of living room, and relationship with adjoining space. The results of this investigation are followings: Schindler mainly adapted the subtle differentiation of ceiling height to articulate between entry and living room and diagonal composition for planning the living room. He mainly adapted the subtle manner to composite the sectional composition with both flat and pitched roof, and composted living room with interpenetrating slab and volume. As for the relationship with living room and adjoining room, he finally reached to the manner of inclusion.