A purpose of this study is to make clear the zonal location and formality of Tatami-room of Japanese contemporary detached houses to gain the knowledge for explaining the style of Japanese contemporary detached houses. The objects of this study are 1475 samples of houses published in a housing magazine, Jutaku-kenchiku. I defined 6 types of the zonal location of Tatami-room and could make clear appearance ratio of each type and analyze relation between each appearance ratio and 5 factors, Number of Tatami-room, Date of completion, Division of a prefecture, Outward appearance style and Total floor area by using Theory of Quantification 2. I defined 8 types of formality of Tatami-room and could make clear appearance ratio of each type at 6 types of the zonal location.
This study analyzes and evaluates "the distance sense" between individuals and groups in the villages of Toushi and Suga islands: Toushi, Wagu, Momotori, and Sugashima Villages. We have discovered that "the distance sense" of the individuals towards the groups is closely associated with these factors: the types and kinds of fishing industry, the evolving of the villages, and the various conditions of the neighboring environments. The closer to the rock and sand shore, the more activities are induced, hence, the rock and sand shore provides a multi-functional space for production, livelihood, and intermingling. As related to this, the closer to the rock and sand shore the house is, the more associated with outdoors the staying position of each family member is. Therefore, we suspect that the sensing system generated by "the distance sense" of the individuals in these villages, forms the environment of these villages, in which the residence, village, and environment unit with the rock and sand shore in their center, converge in a certain ranking order.
This study aimed to analyze peculiarity of place trip at day rooms in two Day-Service centers for the elderly different from activity programs. It was analyzed from the viewpoint of "Place Units", that is a combination of some places the elderly chose within one place trip such as going and back between two places, drop in at one place, and so on. In this study, behavior of 8 persons each center were observed and recorded in detail. The main findings are as follows: 1) The elderly chose a set of table & chairs as central place within place trips because they chose this place for many times. 2) Most of place trips of the elderly were to go and back between two places, especially between a set of table & chairs and lavatory were many. 3) There were some place trips to drop in at one place. The elderly often dropped in at sofa and smoking area, then this behavior might enhance choices of place trips.
This study aims to grasp the present conditions of deterioration and the use of community centers in Senri New Town, and to clarify the users' needs for facility improvement. The results of this survey are as follows. 1) The majority of users are the aged people or female. They come to community centers on foot. 2) The degree of satisfaction mainly depends on barrier-free level. 3) The accessibility of community centers depends on transportation environment. 4) Unifying community center, vacant stores and vacant classrooms in their management may lead to revitalization of community facilities for the aged society.
The aim of this paper is to consider the subjects for management of small-scale public halls in the region. As for Small Cultural Playhouses of Nagoya-City, they argues about the state of management, since it have been passive and the finances of Nagoya-City have got worse. As the results, we found that with the present state of management, especially the regulation and the staff organization, it will be impossible for the staffs to cooperate with an region and to plan events for themselves.
This study analyzes usage and applications based upon environmental reviews of the California Environmental Quality Act; Regarding the various architectural projects at City of San Francisco and City of Los Angeles. Architectural sites issues, contexts and city identity which are reflected through the environmental reviews are essentially important for architectural planning and design. Especially, considerations for cultural and historical resources are important in both cities. In addition, the disclosure process of environmental reviews encourages the public participation from the early design phase. Therefore, the environmental reviews make the importance of the early design phase clear among all the project design procedure, and contribute awareness of architectures regarding surrounding environmental issues.
The purpose of this study is to clarify kehai* by showing basic types of element composition at street spaces. In experiments, subjects walked both sides of a street, and answerwd questionaires at points, 200m apart, on 11 urban streets. Questionnaires as indicative-quantity-analysis solicited data on impressive and characteristic elements. Each street was shown as 4 kinds of indicative dot-map using circles in proportion to numbers of indication. As a result, it was found that there are 6 basic types of element composition in urban street spaces. *kehai means sequential extension of atmosphere.
Neighborhood environment is important for aged people to keep well-being. This research made clear the difference between the quality of neighborhood environment for aged people in the urban area and the new-developed area by analyzing by comparing the walking behavior. The results are as follows. 1) The quantity factor of frequency, time length and distance of walking have no big difference between two areas, but the quality factor about routes and places have a big difference. 2) The urban area has a network structure which connect places of parks, pond, shops, etc. Aged people have tendency to select the route type to be high selectivity like the grid shape. 3) New-developed area has a cluster structure which connects with a pedestrian street going through neighborhood. Aged people have tendency to select the route type to be simple like the linear shape.
This paper aims to study meaning of the house among traditionalist Akha of Northern Thailand from Ethnographic and Architectural points of view. To put it concretely, genealogy, memorized in the form of oral instruction, will be analyzed. It is common among traditionalists to hold genealogy. Started from supernatural being, genealogy has continued to an individual descendant through specific ancestor. So to speak, it represents close relationship between ancestor and descendant. This paper takes up the genealogy as an important key to understand the meaning of the house among traditionalists. Points at issue are as follows; 1. Close relationship of traditionalist Akha and spiritual beings, especially ancestors 2. Social meaning of genealogy 3. Extinction of genealogy 4. Meaning hidden behind the house
The purpose of this study is to understand the method of extracting and describing local image from travel essay series "KAIDOU WO YUKU". In Conclusion, as the extracting method, 4 new elements is took into "local element" for local image object. Those elements are available not in travel essay, but in ordinary situation to produce local image. As the describing method, there are 6types method - "sensation", "emotion", "sentiment" ("comparison", "suitableness", "collation", "derivation"). There are mainly 2types context of local image. One is "sensation" and "emotion" about local landscape. Another is "collation" and "derivation" with adopting "history", "inhabitant" and "locality".
The purpose of this study is to consider the principles of space formation of the city of Varanasi, which is well known as "the holiest city" in India. In the city, there are thousands of temples and shrines, and several pilgrimage routes, which are said to be organized complicatedly based on the Hindu cosmology. This paper discusses such religious elements in terms of how they have influenced the formation of the urban space, based on the field survey of Antargriha. First, it is considered, the basic urban structure of Varanasi focusing on the geography, streets systems and the conceptual system of the pilgrimage routes, and secondly, the circumstances of the physical urban space, analyzing the distinct feature of pilgrimage points, the distribution of temples and shrines and the transformation of a block.
This research takes a Chinese historical cultural city, ancient city Dali of Yunnan Province, as an object of study. It will be considered through seeking to grasp the transformation of its historical urban area, and its situation at the beginning stage of the execution of conservation plan. Then, the content of its conservation plan is analyzed, and the changes of its historical urban area and its process of conservation are cleared. Through those studies, the effects of the "Historical Cultural City Conservation System" of Dali is evaluated, and basing on this, the issue of historical urban area conservation of the ancient cities is examined.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the visibility on the landmarks such as castles, high buildings and chimneys within urban setting. We reveal that the height of viewpoint and the land use patterns on individual areas affect such visibility seriously based on the on six study areas in Japan. In addition, we propose the mathematical model to explain the relationship between the visibility and the distance from the landmark through renewal process. We demonstrate that this model is applicable to the visibility on such landmark based on the survey data. Finally, we examine the impact of the extension of chimney in Inzai by use of this model
The purpose of this study is the long term development of the physical environment in which social exchange frequently occurs. This paper examines the use of place in the urban area for exchange, and 'stays' as a phenomenon of exchange. This paper also examines the relationship between stationary people and pedestrians as well as stationary people and place by clarifying the behavior of stationary people. This is done through the investigation of urban squares, such as university campus squares, commercial facilities squares, and railway station squares. The results are, (1) the average time of the total 2,705 samples of stationary people on eleven squares is 12.4 minutes; (2) behavior, such as 'eating and drinking,' 'sleeping,' 'reading,' are seen in the place where pedestrian density is low, while 'cell phone' and 'talking' are seen in the place where pedestrian density is high; (3) On the lawn, for larger groups, 'talking' and 'eatingn and drinking' are high and average time of staying is relatively longer.
As an example of "inevitable" modernization of historic city, this paper considers the construction process and spatial feature of a modern road built with road line system in the old city of Fez, Morocco. The road line system in Morocco called "arrete d'alignement" was originally imported from France in the age of protectorate, and today it has been applied even to the old city as an operational tool of urban regeneration. However, in exchange for convenience of motorization, the road can cause degradation of the traditional urban fabric. Through the examination of physical plan and the field survey, we made it clear that ; 1. The facade of the modern road built with arrete d'alignement is uneven and rough, because of the traditional form of land and lot. 2. Even though repair or conversion works are necessary, the various ways of making facade and utilization of the uneven space should be referred in the future preservation.
This consideration clarifies the labourers' employment relationship with Specialist Sub-Contractors. These days, such a problem is examined more often by the government organization. However, the labourers' positions were not clear in those reports, therefore they were not useful to problem solution. In this paper considered labourers' treatment paying attention to the legal welfare expense. Conventionally, the skilled labourers' position became clear. Additionally, the management model of a Specialist Sub-Contractor in a relation with a classification of an employee was clarified.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze what the owners of condominiums for sale and rent think about their business, how they actually conduct their business, what problems they have. A survey has been conducted by analyzing the results of the questionnaires to the owners of the condominiums. The following have been obtained from the survey: (1) The places where the owners of the condominiums live are scattered throughout Japan. (2) The amount of the assets of the condominiums has an influence on the way the owners think about their business. Many of the owners of the condominiums with assets of a small amount conduct their business steadily. On the other hand, some of the owners of the condominiums with assets of a medium or a large amount conduct their business steadily, while others conduct their business paying high expense. (3) Many of the condominiums are managed mainly by managing companies and not enough amount of money has been put aside for repairing the condominiums. (4) Many of the owners have a complaint about their business and about 90 percent of them are worried about their future business in some way or other.
This study is carried out with aiming at clarifying residents' evaluation of living environment and HOA (Homeowner Association) at the detached housing area through a case study Y Housing Area at Yokohama City of Japan. Through the study, it is found that the residents tend to control community life and maintenance of common facility by HOA, and positively evaluate the activities of the HOA, however, it is not strong and clear opinion neither positive nor negative. The reasons for this are caused by 1) lower design control function, 2) similarity of neighborhood association (Jichikai)'s functions, 3) no common interest development, and 4) less sense of ownership on the HOA due to long supports from the developer and so on.
The purpose of this study is to consider the spatial composition of the farm premises. The case of this study is Tsukuba-city. We consider that the spatial composition has a closely relation to conditions of location and a plot of buildings in the premises. Farm premises are classified 3types according to the conditions of around street. We analyzed the spatial composition of farm premises about 3types. The conclusion of this paper is that the spatial composition of farm premises are different from how garden spaces (garden spaces are the front garden, the back garden, and the room garden) are made.
The following three characteristics have been ascertained regarding the naishi-dokoro following the Onin War (the Late Muromachi period): 1) The grounds of the naishi-dokoro became open to the public as a festival site; 2) On the occasion of the Tensho period reconstruction, the means for the Naishidokoro's construction and reconstruction were unified; 3) Imperial servants, especially palace guards, came to pay visits to the naishi-dokoro regularly. From these findings, it is argued that the naishi-dokoro dramatically changed in terms of fundamental religious spatial character following the Onin War.
This paper aimed to ascertain patterns of medieval and early modern descriptions about form of the shrine of Ise, through investigation of Japanese literatures between 1180s and 1860s. As a result, the descriptions point out simplicity of the shrine were found in some literatures this paper referred to. It seems that they were based on Confucian words of a Chinese classic. And, in the literatures, there were a few descriptions praise the shrine, too. Therefore, it is obvious that there had been the views which is similar to modernist's views of the shrine of Ise before the modem period.
This Paper examine the works and activities of Seigo Motono within the movement of 'The International Architectural Association of Japan' founded in 1927. Motono was in the situation that generalized administration of 'The Association'. Among 'declaration' and 'general plans' of 'The Association', the concept of 'the style' and 'the life', the consideration of regional characteristic of climate and locality had reflected Motono's interest and recognition before 'The Association' established. Motono made much of fundamental theme; "principle", "essence", "humanity", as well as functionality and rationality in architecture, and treated the architecture with a broad view of "life". His design activities widely range from interior, furniture and graphic design to buildings, mainly houses.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the motive and process of Gottfried Semper's writing "Science, Industry, and Art"(1852) and the logical structure of this small book which has two groups of chapters; the first three and the second four. The motive for the former is to review the London Great Exhibition of 1851 which revealed the crisis of art brought about by the industrialization and mechanization. The motive for the latter is to make proposals for the reform of art education Henry Cole set forward after the Exhibition. Semper's critique and proposals are always based on that original idea of the infinite variety from four primordial motives, which he developed in "The Four Elements of Architecture"(1851). References to 'a practical guide to invention,' 'technical arts,' and 'style' show a new aspect of his theory toward "Der Stil"(1860-63).
This study aims to analyze the formation of exhibition rooms of Glyptothek which is said to be the first museum architecture in Germany. The two contrastive concepts proposed by the architect L.v.Klenze and his adviser J.M.v.Wagner are focused on. While Wagner insisted on the simple, neutral and practical exhibition space, Klenze proposed the ornamental and varied exhibition rooms which closely corresponded to collections. Finally Klenze's idea was realized as a chronological and completely closed system of exhibition rooms. These almost opposed stances by Klenze and Wagner may suggest two different possibilities of exhibition space in the later museum plannings.
This research is a part of a study on Dynamic Symmetry by Jay Hambidge in the early part of the 20th century. In those days some specialists cooperated with Hambidge and many people approved his theory, but there were some self-contradictions in his logic. In this paper details of these contradictions are demonstrated. The contradiction was between commensurability in area and the golden ratio, between his criticism against Vitruvius and the metric scale. Another was between his atheism and ancient Greek concept "Idea". Through analysis of these contradictions, the following characteristics of his theory become clear. His adherence to the golden ratio was brought about by his great interest in the growth of plants. He forcibly connected ancient Greek arts with the golden ratio from botany, and reinforced his theory with ancient Greek philosophy. His vision was very conventional and mystic though he emphasized the novelty of his theory using the words "biology" and "scientists".
The purpose of this research is describing the configuration rules of the form elements in the building facade elevations which are regarded as "traditional" applying an Inductive Logic Programming (ILP). The machine learning by ILP is performed using the record data of the facade of Sanneizaka preservation district for groups of historic buildings kept in the Kyoto city planning office, and 27 configuration rules which are inherent in the facade were acquired.