Assuming that the circulation in fire evacuation is determined by that of ordinary times, this paper proposes a method of zoning for calculating evacuation time in a stadium from the exiting characteristics of spectators. The sum of 1929 data are analyzed. This paper proposes two model formula for zoning. 0nc is for zoning for calculating the number of persons escaping to the aisle of the stadium, and the other is for zoning for calculating the number of persons escaping to the paths that lead to the aisle.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to predict the sound intensity field in a room. First of all, the velocity potential and normal differential of that are calcurated for a specified room geometry using the integral equation method. Then, the sound intensity vectors are calcurated from the distribution of sound pressure and particle velocity. Some presentation ways of sound intensity field are compared if it is suitable for evaluating the distribution of it. So, it is found that the presentation using stereogram method is advantageous in that the total three dimensional distribution of sound intensity can be clearly recoenized. Thus the stereogram method is a good tool for interpretating the calculated acoustic intensity for acoustic room design.
An experimental study to evaluate task-ambient lighting systems was carried out in a laboratory which varied in 4 types of lighting. After experiences for a total of 40 days ; ten days at a time, in a room for each type of lighting, fourteen subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire relating to the visual satisfaction and six activities observed in the room. The evaluation of the task-ambient lighting depended on the work being performed. With increasing ambient illuminance, subjects were satisfied for reading and writing, or meetings. At an ambient illuminance of 200 lux, over 60% of the subjects were satisfied for accomplishing creative work. The low illuminance ambient lighting thus enabled them to concentrate on their creative work.
The effective radiation area factors and configuration factors for male and female subjects sitting on the floor were measured by the photographic method. Contacted surface area with a floor was excluded for calculation of radiation area. The effective radiation area factor was found to be 0.64 for an unclothed male, 0.71 for a clothed male, 0.62 for an unclothed female, and 0.66 for a clothed female. Diagrams of configuration factors between the human body sitting on the floor and rectangular planes were represented for the combination of clothing and posture.
The distribution of the infiltration loads of the model detached house and its energy consumption costs for the airconditioning in Japan are numerically estimated. The distribution of infiltration loads, calculated from the coefficients of wall surface windpressure by means of the wind tunnel experiment, the wind velocity and the outdoor temperature accounting the annual meterological data which precisely covers all over Japan, well presents not only the regional characteristics of the infiltration loads in Japan, but also the regional effectiveness of the airtightness of the house. Observing the distributions, follows are introduced: 1. In winter season, very large amount of the infiltration loads for heating is estimated at the northern half of Japan and the seashore area along Japan Sea. 2. In summer season, and large amount of the infiltration loads for cooling is estimated at southern part of Japan and at several large plains. 3. The distribution of the energy consumption costs for the air-conditioning is rather similar to the distribution of the infiltration loads in winter season. Thus, it is concluded that the airtightness of the house is very effective to reduce the infiltration load in Hokkaido, Tohoku, Hokuriku area.
A turbulent vortex-shedding flow past a two-dimensional (2D) square cylinder at Re=2.2×10^4 was simulated by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using the dynamic Subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Here, the dynamic SGS model was incorporated into the second-order finite volume method. Results from the dynamic SGS model were compared with those from the standard Smagorinsky SGS model and the experiments conducted by Lyn. The dynamic SGS model improved the accuracy of the predictions remarkably. The mean velocity distribution given by the dynamic SGS model showed very close agreement with the experiment in the wake region, while the standard Smagorinsky model somewhat underestimated the size of the reverse flow region behind the cylinder.
We made this report in order to get the relation between the air temperature and the land use. Analysis for this report was made by using data from the west of Hokkaido, and a regression analysis between the temperature and the land use. In this analysis, the land use is classified into four kinds (1. artifical area, 2. agriculturally cultivated area, 3. forest land, 4. water area) and the height above the sea level is also considered. The study led to the following result. 1) The artificial area always tends to raise the air temperature and the agriculturally cultivated area lower. 2) The influence of the forest land on it is small. 3) The water area intensely influences on the minimum temperature. 4) The height above the sea level makes the temperature lower, approximately 0.6℃ per 100 meters rise.
We studied the improvement of temporary system in conformity with practical use, and added the grade 3 which is existed in the middle of grade 1 and grade 2. We carried out trial test to verify the property and the precision in forecast of temporary system, and object of this test were 7 offices which stands in area of headquarters of Fuiita Corporation. Human subjects were the students whose be in architecture system and staffs whose work 7 offices. We made students evaluate 7 offices by photo-test and field-test, and we made staffs evaluate one of 7 offices which they works. As a results, the difference between response of imaged office and response of actual office were generally small. We carried out compare the measured distribution which is a result of evaluation by students' field-test and staffs' field-test with the forecasted distribution which is a result of calculation by temporary system. As a results, each of office, almost all of evaluation items, the measured distribution were generally agreed with the forecasted distribution. And we considered that the precision of forecast by temporary system is high and that the improvement of weighting coefficient is not necessary.
This study aims at clarifying the relationships between the eye fixation behaviors and psychological evaluation for an image when the subjects look at the color slide of a river landscape. This paper, as the first step for the purpose, describes the image features that are derived from textual analysis; Angular second moment Contrast and Entropy, and edge detection analysis based on gray-tone spatial dependencies, also describes the eye fixation behaviors measured by eye mark recorder and marked on the picture with conscious recognition. Compared with these results, the authors clarified the distribution of gazing points depended on the complex landscape elements, converging point, etc. when watching the picture.
This research concentrates on China's urban dwelling life-style and the space structure of multiple dewlling houses. Examining the structure and organization of the urban multiple dewllings of China, we attempt to determine their adequacy in terms of present and future use. Research is conducted in Tianjin where similarities with Peijing in geographical and cultural condition allow broad inspection. This research is based on dweller's daily life, therefore we examine the family relationship observed in each activity scene which happen in each dwelling space, and discuss dwelling life-style in terms of space and activity of multiple dwelling houses.
In this time, We are faced with a turning point of high school building. Corresponding to the change of social environment, the new movements about education reformation such as large enforcement of optional subject system, quicken the flexible operation of credit system and newly established synthetic course of study have already been started with the introduction of new curriculum. In this paper, we conducted investigation about disjoint condition of class and it's pattern in using the school rooms in order to obtain the planning concept of school rooms.
This study is composed of three parts. The first part is to grasp the changing pattern of the number of matter and people using community centers at Nagoya city. The second part is to examine the relation between the util ization and the management of community centers. The third part is to consider the development process of group formation in leisure life for users of community centers. And in this paper we pay attention to the contradictory relationship between "public ownership" "commerciallism" "communal ownership" in group formatin in leisure life. So we found that community centers have characteristics to bring up relatively "communal ownership" especialy "independent group activities".
The final aim of this study is to clarify what kind of space should be provided in facilities which accommodate long-term patients/residents. This paper tries to clarify the way of utilizing such a space like day-space in hospitals and nursing homes and their desire of behavior. The surveys on free-time behavior of inpatients/residents were carried out in two hospitals and a nursing home. Several conclusions deducted from analyzing the result of the surveys are as follows: Inpatients' free-time behavior are diversity, they spend their some free-time at day-space and the time of stay there is very short. Then we try a new method to classify inpatients from the view point of motivation of their actions at free-time. They are (1) Type of active action for varied tastes (2) Type of active action for one taste (3) Type of conscious action for a change (4) Type of passive action for a change (5) Type of passive action for routine (6) Type of few actions.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze labor and thermal efficiency of two experimental houses constructed with two different panel sizes containing the insulation material and vapor barrier. After the owners moved in to these houses, their airtightness, indoor temperature and fuel consurrrption were surveyed. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Comparing two panel sizes (900×1,800mm and 1,800×1,800mm), the smaller was approximately 14 percent easier to install in terms of man-day labor. 2) The leakage areas of two houses were under 2.0cm^2 per m^2 (floor area) and these values were stable fbr more than one year. It means that they have satisfactory airtightness.
The purpose of this study is to visualize the pedestrian flow with spacetime diagram model. In this model, the location of pedcstrian is shown on x-y plane and time is shown on Z-axis. The pedestrian behavior, which is hard to express with 2-dimentional model can be easily expressed with this model. In the computer, we construct a virtual 3D space and see the model rotating freely and interactively. We can understand the construction of pedestrian flow. We applied the model to a practical case and proved its properity.
Short-cut behavior resulting in damages of lawn and planting is often observed in architectural access ways and public gardens. 0ur video analysis proved a high incidence of short-cut behavior (53.0% of 117 cases) and supported the importance of improving design through rounding of the corner. Two sets of guidelines were formulated on the basis of video analysis of 62 flow lines and field survey of 63 rounded corners: first for accomodating free short-cut flow lines ("ideal radius"); second for balancing a behavioral tendency to make a free short-cut and another equally dominant tendency to stay within a pathway rounded at the corner even wita less-than-satisfactory radius ("practical and minimal radius").
The purpose of this study is to clarify how people identify the facades. The pattern identification method is to show the facades by drawings from skyline,which were classified into 4 types; Skyline, Element, Face construction and Box type. The two face identification method is to show the facades by drawings of facade and side elevation, and the architecture are recognized by elevation which have greater impression than the other one. The detail identification method is to clear the difference in characteristics of facades by showing the facade from detail to totality. Consequently, the facades were classified into 4 types.
The purpose of in this paper is to comprehend recent characteristic of coexisting phenomena in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. As a result, we extract 3 areas at spatial structure in macro scale using original 5 types, which are dirived from index of population among municipalities. (1) "DYNAMIC ZONE" which is defined as a "city" on planning theory. (2) "STATIC AREA" which is define as a traditinal "rural area". (3) "STABLE MIX ZONE" which is defined as a "ruban area" on planning theory. In this area, it is necessary to balance city and rural (or agricultural) planning.
Common images of inhabitants on their environments are researched by using the spatial consciousness map in this paper. These are maps which are marked with signs by inhabitants in answer to questions on the settlement maps. Maps are overlaid, analyzed and researched. And these following points are made clear. 1. Images are characterristic according to settlements, to natives or newcomers. 2. Spatial items of strucruralization and valuation have similar answers. 3. Distribution of overlaid spatial elements is expressed as an ellipse. 4. Maps reorganized by spatial elements with large entry ratios are considered as common images. These can be utilized for the environmental planning and design.
In Korean farming villages from 1960 onward, new material culture for daily life came into extensive use in households and the modernization of lifestyle moved on steadily, stimulated by the Saemaul-Undong (= New Village Planning Movement). Both peoople's way of thinking about their lifestyle and the inhabitants themselves have been changed tremendously by this modernization. In this paper, taking basic and traditional spatial structure of the village in Sangman Village, Jindo Island, we tried to analyze statistically the actual state of changes, and to study the concept of modernization as a numerical entity by presenting the process of its spatial change and the system of munjung (= patrilineage).
Psychological evaluation and typological analysis on the selected forty-nine sites were examined on following three aspects. 1. Structure of psychological evaluation on leisure spacest was considered by using SD method with sixteen couples of adjectives and factor analysis. Three axes : rest, amusement, clearness were extracted 2. Relationship between the axes and the physical environmental setting was examined by regression analysis. Strong association was seen between three psychological axes and physical characteristics. 3. Cluster analysis between spatial characteristics and psychological characteristics showed a new types of leisure spaces.
This study objects to analyze the path choice procedure of automobiles. In this paper the automobiles' actual paths are surveyed by asking the drivers in the district of Tokyo. Then the results are analyzed with a few points of view, for example the global choice and the local choice, and the tendencies of path choice are discussed. And in another analysises the changes of the tendencies of path choice in moving from starting point to end are examined. Then two simulation models of path choice are made using the results of analysis and efficiency of the models are considered.
(Retired) Emperor Gomizuno'o was the central personality of court culture in the Japan's early modern era. After he retired, Gomizuno'o rebuilt the Sendo Imperial Palace four times, but apart from this palace, he maintained a number of Hataeda and Shugakuin. This paper deals with one of Gomizuno'o's urban villas, the Hyokai Goten located in Teramachi Ward. The actual location of this villa, the overall size of its grounds, the size of buildings within the villa complex, and their actual usuage are examined to explain what place the Hyokai Goten held in the routine of Gomizuno'o's daily life.
This paper deals with the historical premise of the morphogenesis of "Machinami", which means uniform townscape with a row of town houses, especially in Kyoto of the Edo period. "Machinami" was proved to be originally based on equal burden of taxation imposed upon town houses' dwellers. The new taxation called "Nokiyaku" was applied in the central Kyoto in 1591 instead of imposing "Jishi". According to "Noklyaku", a town house was a. minimal unit of the taxation, which was represented by architectural elemerits such as a ridge, a gate and a pair of "Udatsu" that belonged to each town house.
During the period of 493-534AD, the Buddhist architecture of temples changed with the practice of donating personal homes to become temples. Though the owners were motivated to do this under different reasons, the distinctive point, architecturally, is that the newly donated homes were left unchanged and became the accepted Buddhist Architecture. No architectural changes were to the buildings. In studying the practices, before this time-Northern Wei it is found that when a home was donated, they built new using Buddhist Architecture.
This study is an attempt to clarify Peter Behrens' pedagogic activity as a director of Dusseldorfer Kunstgewerbeschule in 1903-1907. It consists of the following three sections: 1) Influence of Hermann Muthesius' idea of the reformulation of Kunstgewerbeschule in Germany on Behrens' practice, 2) Contents of the curriculum reorganized by Behrens and the features of its design method, 3) Behrens' conception of design education and the difference of thought between Muthesius and Behrens. It is consequently described that the proposition to synthesize industrie and art, which is characteristic of Behrens' design in his Berlin period, also can been seen in his pedagogic activity at Dusseldorfer Kunstgewerbeschule.
In the previous paper, the author proposed permitted area and slightly difficult area for walking to the motion of a floating ocean structure in usual time. In this paper, tests on difficulties for walking on the floor and stairs to modified motions of a floating ocean structure in storm condition are mentioned. Typical motions are uniaxial and biaxial motions which consist of pitching, rolling and heaving. Relationships of difficulties in walking and motions of the structure in the storm condition were clarified. Using the results of these experimental studies, the author proposed estimation of the motion of floating ocean structures. And the estimation method with statistical calculation are confirmed that the proposed acceptable values of the motion for human activities and habitability are appropriate and efficient.