Building walls are usually wetted during winter and dried during summer. This process can be treated as periodic process oscillated by annual cyclic input(temperature and humidity). This indicates the need of periodic steady state solution of the non-linear gorverning equations of this process. In this paper, it is studied that a numerical method of periodic steady state solution of the process which is governed by non-linear diffusible equations. In the periodic steady state solution, a initial state is equal to the state at the time after a period of main cycle. Based on the relations, a numerical method of periodic steady state solution is presented using the time variant linearlized equations derived the non-linear governing equations. Effectiveness of the solutions are discussed. Non-linear temperature and moisture behavior of the periodic steady state process in the wall are discussed, using Fourier analysis of solution. Closs effects between inputs frequency components are apparent.
In this paper, the calculation method using approximated solution represented finite Fourier Series for obtaining a periodic steady state solution of non-linear time variant problem is applied to solve for internal moisture condensation process in the building wall. The relation between approximation of the solution derived from the calculation and decision of Fourier series frequency components to describe the periodic steady state solution is discussed. The procedures to obtain a periodic steady state solution derived from this method are discussed compared with general iterative numerical method which solves the governing equation until the steady state is reached.
Recently, dwelling houses have become very airtight and nonhygroscopic. Accordingly, damages caused by vapor condensations has become real problems. An available countermeasure to treat the problem of vapor condensation is that to prevent condensation damage by utilizing hygroscopicity and capacity of moisture content in hygroscopic material. In order to examine this effectiveness, it is necessary to predict both temperature and humidity in a real dwelling house with hygroscopic material attached on walls. We made experiments in a full scale dwelling house under some condition of daily life. We verified adequacy of prediction by comparison of the experimental results with theoretical results. In conclusion, it was clarified that room temperature and humidity could be predicted in the experimental dwelling house with hygroscopic material attached on walls.
This paper presents experimental results of field experiment to investigate thermal behavior of thermal well of closed type as heat source/sink of heat pump during a year. The thermal well is a circular pipe of steel. Dimensions of the well are diameter of 0.2m and 10m in length. The major results are as follows. (1) Under the heat extraction or supply of < c.a.450W(9Mcal/day) in amplitude of annual cycle, water in the well was more effective than outdoor air as heat source/sink of heat pump. (2) Under this condition, the drastic decrease of thermal conductivity in soil which causes drying of soil around the well never occurred during a year.
In order to investigate the effects of foliage plants on the thermal environment and comfort inside a room, experiments were carried out in two rooms with the same size in winter. Foiiage plants used in the experiments were Schefflera arboricola "Hong Kong" and Dracaena fragrans "Massangeana". In our previous experiments, the former showed the highest transpiration rate and the latter showed little transpiration. The following three experiments were performed. In the experiment R, S. arboricola "Hong Kong" plants were placed in line at the southern end in one room and no plant was placed in the other room. In the experiment R, S. arboricola "Hong Kong" plants were placed in line at the southern end in one room and D. fragrans "Massangeana" plants were placed in line at the southern end in the other room. In the experiment (D, S. arboricola "Hong Kong" plants were placed in line at the southern end in one room and interspersed in the other room. In the experiment (D, S. arboricola "Hong Kong" in line at the southern end in the room brought about an increase in air temperature of about l.S°C and an increase in relative humidity of more than 20%. In the experiment c, relative humidity in the room with S. arboricola "Hong Kong" in line at the southern end was 20% higher than that with D. fragrans "Massangeana". This effect is considered to be caused by higher transpiration of S. arboricola "Hong Kong". In the experiment (D, S. arboricola "Hong Kong" interspersed in the room showed the same increase in relative humidity as S. arboricola "Hong Kong" in line at the southern end in the room. Furthermore, MRT and PMV was calculated from the measured data. The MRT showed some difference between the two rooms in the experiment c and the experiment (3), but there was little difference between the PMV of the two rooms in the three experiments.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the climatic characteristics of 26 cities in Japan, and to explain the influence on indoor environment by shelter efficiency and heating apparatus and by inhabitants' behavior by means of numerical method. Main conclusions are as follows. 1. To determine the shelter efficiency and housing equipments, it is important to clarify the climatic characteristics in those locations. 2. The raise of shelter efficiency is effective for reducing the winter heating loads and keeping room temperature even in the early morning. However the improvement of shelter efficiency dose not reduce the cooling load in summer and results in keeping room temperature high in the night time. 3. If an unvented heater is used, the CO_2 concentration and the absolute humidity are very high. In the houses with high airtight grade, the use of a vented heater or a mechanical ventilation apparatus is necessary.
In airtight houses, the outdoor air should be effectively delivered to each room through ventilation air paths in order to keep indoor air clean. This paper reports measurement results of ventilation effectiveness in a detached wooden house with a central ventilation system. Firstly, the airtightness of this house and the airflow volumes of all ducts were measured. Secondly, after CO_2 gas was injected into the inlet of the air supply duct, the CO_2 concentrations at various points in the house were continuously measured through a whole day, and the age of air was calculated. Thirdly,the pattern of the way how the outdoor air was delivered to each room was analyzed. As a result, it was clarified that the circulation of outdoor air was estimated from measurement results of ventilation effectiveness.
Local calorimetry was studied using a device to measure local evaporation rates (disk) and a ventilated capsule to measure local sweat rates (msw). Changes in msw and msk at chest, forearm and front thigh were observed while two young male subjects were exposed to the heat (46-48℃) for 1 hour. During the first 30-40 minutes, m_<SK> increased progressively with m_<SW> and became appreciably less than m_<SW> when the skin was fully wetted. Thus, the critical m_<Sk> value can be clearly defined so as to determine local evaporative heat transfer coefficients.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in household conditions, living styles and housing conditions based on the analysis with the household growth. Up to now, the household growth was expressed with the age of man or wife. Using the age of the eldest son or daughter instead of man and wife in this paper, I propose that household growth is able to be expressed with the age of the eldest son or daughter exactly. And I was able to make dear the changes in household conditions and living styles according to the growth in household. This paper discusses the following problems; 1. A definition and a index for household growth, 2. The age of householders, 3. The number of household members, 4. The class of household, 5. The living style, 6. The daily activities.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the living behavior patterns of the aged who are under recuperation by behavioral places and care levels. The investigation had been executed against the aged(65 and over)in three hospitals, three extended care facilities for the aged and four nursing-homes. The results of this study are summarized as follows; 1) There is no wide difference between extended care facilities for the aged and nursing-homes on the basic charactersitics of the aged. 2) The main living patterns of the aged by behavioral places are classified in seven types, and by care levels are classified in eight types. Therefore, from the relation between the former and the later, combination types are classified into 23 patterns.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the effects of seating positions on children's preferences in the classrooms of row-and-column seating arrangements. The questionaire survey on seating preferences was carried out for the fourth and the sixth graders of open-plan elementary schools and traditional ones. The results are as follows: 1) The fourth graders prefer seats in the front and center of the room, and the sixth graders prefer seats in the rear and by windows. 2) Children prefer the classrooms directly adjacent to open space when comparing the seats of the nearest column of open space with the ones of the coresponding column of the traditional classroom. 3) Children do not prefer the seats of the rearest rows in 4×6 and 5X6 seating arrangement when comparing 4X6 with 3×8 and 5×6 with 4×8 respectively.
When we design or construct buildings, it is not clear how to select hardwares according to the conditions of doors and windows. The selection has been judged by craftmen based on their experience. The purpose of this study is to classify runners and hinges into some ranks and to grasp the present standard of selection of them. We collected data from specifications and makers' catalogues. After we classified products into some ranks, we compared and examined data about selection. As a result, we offered basic materials to decide on an unified standard of selection of runners and hinges.
This paper deals with rural key settlements which functionally link up with circumferential settlements. The data from the survey of key settlements conducted by the National Land Agency, were used for the analysis. In this paper, the following subjects were studied. 1) Four types of key settlement from a viewpoint of their functions (commercial, administrative, traffic-nodal i and the complex of previous three) were examined from the aspects such as the concentration of shops, factories and public facilities. 2) Premising those types,distribution patterns of key settlements in each administrative boundary were introduced,and the relations between those distribution patterns and areal attributes were analyzed.
This paper is concerned with case study on the 'projects for settlement improvement by the rural communities'. 3 rural settlements .where the projects were undertaken ,were in-vestigated by interviewing to the persons concerned and gathering records and documents. The projects were succeeded in their undertaking because of following factors. 1) existing community leaders and organization system in the rural settlements. 2) close cooperation among rural community and administrative authorities concerned. 3) wide area of the undertaking. 4) petty subsidy for living environmental improvement. On the other hand , continuation of rural community development on both agricultural pro- duction and living environment is successively required.
Street networks of most castle-towns were planned under the application of the Town Planning Law of 1919. This paper aims to clarify a policy of method for the first plan of street network on historical urban structure in castle-town area. It is clearly to be six policies of method for plans of street network. Each policy of planning method is different with considering of following in spatial structure. A plam of street network consists of combining policies.
In this paper, the author defined the actual conditions and problems on local branchs of national institutes in Meiji, Taisho, Showa era, which had functions of building construction and supervising and were located in Fukuoka prefecture by the point of view that locality is principal facter in built-environment. The effect of research are as follows; the independent activities on the local origanization were founded in case of the Yawata Steel and the Kyushu Imperial University, beside others had were affected strong influences from central one. The continuity of local staff is principal to get a locality.
The quantity of structural materials varies with structural conditions such as span length,number of stories, floor load and height of story etc.. The authors presented the fundamental cost properties of reinforced concrete structures(RC), composite structures(SRC) and steel structures(S) in the past report. The purpose of this study are like this. (1)to find out optimum sections of column and girder for RC and SRC structure, (2)to compare between the square plan's cost and rectangular plan's cost, (3)to clarify cost for varied unit price, (4)to show the relation between building conditions and cost data. By using these data, it is possible to select a structural style and to estimete structural cost at the early stage of general planning. So this study will help architects and structural engineers to select structural system and to estimate the structural cost at the early stage of structural design.
This paper presents mathematical model to describe building stock formation process using parameters of life distribution, and parameters quoted from statistical data on building construction activities in the past. Two kinds of data are used here. One is stock data based on property tax registration, which suggests the quantity of existing buildings. The other is flow data based on Building Construction Survey. Lack and contradictory factors in those statistical data are examined and modified. Then parameters of life distribution of constructed building are simulated by comparing integration of total floor area of survived buildings constructed in the past with the total area of actual existing building. The result of simulation shows that buildings constructed after 1945 have around 40 years average life. The figures of average life are almost equal observed in former surveys where quantities of existing buildings are measured by number of buildings instead of total floor area.
This paper aims to clarify the planning characteristics of the newly built, detached dwelling in Kagoshima city. Main conclusions are as follows; 1) The 1st floor plan types of the dwelling in Kagoshima City are classified into the same 6 plan types as those in Hokuriku region. 2) The typical configuration of the housing lot in Kagoshima City is 7.2 ken (13.0 m) in the frontage by 7.7 ken (13.9 m) in the depth, while that of Hokuriku region is 6.4 ken (11.5 m) by 9.3 ken (16.7 m) . The housing lot in Kagoshima City is constituted by the wider frontage by 0.8 ken (1.5 m) and shorter depth by 1.6 ken (2.8m) than that in Hokuriku region. 3) Hence Middle Corridor type is the most typical dwelling plan type in Kagoshima City. However, this dwelling plan type is scarcely in existence in Hokuriku region, because Middle Coridor type is constituted by the longer frontage, that is, 6 (10.8m) to 8 ken (14.4m).
The purpose of this study is to analyze the pattern of the block size and clarify the distinction of the three districts, zoned by the difference of the development times, through the "Mizucho Ezu" in the Edo era. In the north Simanouchi, the inside measurement of the block was 40. 5ken from south to north. On the centers, it was 44. 5ken. In the south Simanouchi, the inside measurement was 42 ken. On the senters, it was 45ken. However, in the old Mittera village area, the inside measurement of the block and the wide of the front road were different from other districts.
The lord of Mouri-Han sometimes made the tour of inspection in Edo era. Through the examination of historical materials on these tours, the following results are ascertained. (1)Lodgings called Ocha-ya were used by lord. (2)There were two kinds of Ocha-ya: the permanent lodging which had a original architectural composition and the temporary lodging which was primarily a temple or farmhouse.
The conception of the early 20th-century modernists on tradition was not so drastically opposed to the conservatists as the propagandits of either side alleged. On this hypothesis, this paper analyzes the idea of "tradition (Uberlieferung)" of Theodor Fischer, one of the most important architect of the german reform movement before the first World War and explains that the tradition he claims is neither a vague respect for the traditional architecture nor a rigid form in a certain historical period, but an ideal process of architectural development which he called "alive tradition". Not only his statements about "craft" and "proportion" but also actions as an architect, city planner, and educater can be seen as an effort to realize this process, from which, he thought, a new form should come as a natural result.
This paper deals with the historic view of young Schinkel and shows the study of the succession and development of history in the idea of "style-synthesis". From the analysis of his "Luisen-Mausoleum" text (1810) and his "Kreuzbergsdenkmal" drawing (1815-18?), it is interpreted as follows: 1) Development of history means the awakening and growth of human reason toward freedom. The two named are manifested in the transition of architectural construction-form. 2) The classic (Greek) architecture and medieval (Gothic) architecture are two ideal examples of polarity in history, which could be found in paganism and Christianity, reality and idea. Synthesis of this polarity is the ideal architechture for the future. 3) In the historic view of Schinkel, two major influences are recognized: one is from the philosophy of Fichte, who invokes freedom and aims at the control of reason, and the other is from the historic view of Gbrres, who sees the unity of the past, present, and future and its dynamic relation.
This research deals with the image of the appearance for Japanese and Korean traditional architectures through the subjects' cognitive structure. In part 2 , the image of both architectures are found to be represented by four Chinese ratng scales and influenced by a few members. The image for all architectures in this research were mainly in modesty-order, strictness-hardness, and looseness-softness. The members which strongly influenced on the image are roof and column/wall with various layouts, shapes and colors. And Japanese traditional architectures are represented as to be stricter-harder than Korean because of their straight/perpendicular members, Korean as to be looseer-softer than Japanese because of their open members.
In order to evaluate the value of the waterfront area, as one of the open space in our living environment, we conducted a questionnaire survey at 16 districts of Tokyo Metropolitan. Evaluation on the value of waterfront area and open space was made by analysing from the viewpoints of attractiveness, resident' s expectation and mental effects of those area. As a result of our analysis, the evaluation on the open space by the residents were made based on three factors. A factor of "exsistance of water" plays a very important role for the residents to evaluate the open space but varies by area.