A model for predicting room fire in fully developed stage is developed for the purpose of estimating the heat release due to the combustion of the excess fuels involved in the external flames ejecting from the windows of fire rooms. In this model, the burning rate is predicted as a function of the predicted heat transfer to the fuels. The model does not need to introduce adjusting factors, such as the "complete combustion rate (=0.6)" by Kawagoe et al., to get reasonably good prediction of room fire temperature. The predictions of the temperatures and the burning rates are compared with the results of preceding experiments to demonstrate fair agreement.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate quantitatively the effect of a passage width on choice of egress route at a T-junction. Two experiments were carried out to clarify the behavior of egress under forrowing two conditions. (i) Showing subjects VTR images of T-junction under the limited information of egress route, (ii) Using the simulator system driven by the subjects themselves under the condition that subjects can search for information of egress route freely. From results of the experiment, following two points became clear. (1) Almost 70%〜90% of the evacuees can be led to safety egress without emergency guide lights or emergency guidance, when the relative ratio of the width of the right passage at a T-junction to that of the left one is approximately 1.7〜2.5. (2) There is no difference in choice ratio of a wide passage, in case that relative ratio of the width at a T-junction is over 2.5.
In this paper, we examined the effectiveness of carrying out sound field evaluations by conducting articulation tests using a tri-syllable sound source with the rate of speech varied between four patterns based on the results of envelope analysis of conversational speech and evaluating the results comprehensively for the purpose of evaluating speech transmission properties in room sound fields. We carried out the measurement of ″ease of hearing″on a psychological scale and tri-syllable articulation tests with varied speech rates in various room sound fields with differing echo-diagram response properties and specifically studied the effects of reflected sound on hearing, while conducting comparative examinations of correspondence to test results on a psychological scale. As a result, we found that there was a favorable correspondence between tri-syllable articulation evaluation with varied speech rates and the″ease of hearing″as well as wide range of application to various room sound fields. We, furthermore, considered criteria for the evaluation of tri-syllable articulation tests with varied speech rates from the standpoint of assuring intelligibility from the correspondence of word intelligibility.
For the control of structure-borne sound, the evaluation of the propagation properties of the vibration in buildings is very important. In this paper, a method for the calculating the complex amplitude of vibration acceleration in three-dimensional framed structures is described. It deals with quasi-longtunaidal waves and bending waves. Wave transmission theory and the Lagrange's equation are used to formulate motional equations and energy equivalence equations for an element. A simulation and a model test were performed, the analyses and the measurements corresponded satisfactorily.
The brightness of a room interior can be roughly determined from its luminance. However, the luminance of a room interior is not even, but rather is an amalgam of high-luminance areas and low-luminance areas. In this research we intended to determine the effect of luminance distribution on brightness. First, we conducted a experiment to estimate the brightness of stimuli that are of the different luminance distribution. Next, a experiment that examined the relationship between the characteristics of luminance variations and brightness in interior environment was conducted. As a result, the brightness in a room interior depended not just on luminance of visual field but also on the distribution of field luminance, and that although luminance distribution that originates in the varying reflectance of walls and floors does not affect brightness to a great extent, the luminance distribution resulting from non-uniform lighting caused an interior to seem darker.
This paper presents some Monte Carlo simulations for the calculation of illuminance of interiors including the component caused by reflected light. The authors at first argue about what the necessary and sufficient condition is with regard to Monte Carlo simulations for the calculation. In this paper, the condition has been translated into a different expression so that it may be conveniently applied to the simulations for reflected luminous flux from surfaces of interiors. After showing the condition, the authors give some newly-devised simulations togetter with a conventional one, discuss their validity, and compare advantages and disadvantages among them.
The purpose of this study is to make a guide for the galvanic corrosion prevention in the building piping system. Water loopingtests were performed for 1 year. The galvanic corrosion behavior of the some piping materials were evaluated with a monitoring the corrosion potentials, the galvanic current and the corrosion appearances of the specimens. The main results are followings; 1) The galvanic current tends to decrease with time. An order of the level of the galvanic current is as following. (Higher) A1>Zn/Fe>Fe>brass>Cu and gunmetal (Lower). 2) In the case of the galvanic couple with Al as anode, Al severely corroded in hot water loop test. 3) An insulation between the anode and the cathode, and thier distance for the galvanic corrosion prevention were understood for the buiIding piping system.
This paper describes a newly developed evaporative-cooling wall constructed of water-permeable bricks containing thin-rectangular ventilation channels that allow flow-through air passage. Perforated bricks were experimentally manufactured after investigating brick materials and baking conditions in terms of water permeability and absorption. The cooling effect of a water-saturated brick was measured and expressed as the ratio to the difference between upwind wet and dry-bulb temperature. In addition, we built a mock-up wall which could be filled with water by incorporating a feed device. The wall was found to stay uniformly moist with an adequate water supply, and cooling efficiency was sufficient during the summer of Tokyo.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the signifcance of situated design, residents' sense of living together inspired by situated design, and the characteristics of transaction of residents and environment, through analysing the border space between common and private space of the co-operative housing M-port. The follwings are contents of situated design, which elasticizes the border spaces and urges transaction between residents and environment. 1) Setting the situation that enables diverse, direct and indirect communication among persons. 2) Contriving the design that reflects residents' peculiar sense of living together. 3) Allowing the transformation of the meaning and function of common and private space. 4) Giving the opportunities to the residents, that they understand the a mechanism of spatial contrivance. 5) Acquiring the imagination that the residents can share the well-being of l iving together enjoyed by others.
This study is an attempt to clarify the relation between stage and auditorium in Adolphe Appia's theory of "LA MISE EN SCENE". Appia aimed at an unity between them. His idea cleared through Bayreuth festspielhaus and developped into the new step by experiencing Dalcroze method, eurhythmies in 1906. From the architectual point of view, there are two point about the unity; 1) proscenium arch 2) the side wall of the auditoium At the bottom, there are his concideration of the living body; actor and audience. New space appeared by the connection among body,lighting and space baced on the rhythm.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors that influence the social exchange, both inside and outside of Housing for the eldery as well as the pattern of their Going out behavior. The method of this study is an interview with those people. The results are as follows: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are the most influential factors of their social exchange. More womon residents than men participate in social gathering within the Home, while men participate in social gathering outside the Home. As for the frequency of visiting friends within the home, the diciding factors arc space of the room and the form of the door -swinging door or sliding door. As for the frequency or going out, the diciding factors are the situation of the home.
The preservation of modern architectures has become a subject of discussion. Most of modern architectures are putting to practical use and these value are'nt fixed. However complexity and difficulty to solve preservation problemes of modern architectures depend on the lack of frames of various methods for preservation except difficulty of decision of the value. In this study we researched on building systems that are concerned to preservation, we show a method to solve preservation problems from field of the building system to individual cases concerning both requirements namely the improvement for inconveniences and the preservation.
Generally, structural forms of medium and high rise building are classified into reinforced concrete, steel and steel framed reinforced concrete construction, also, methods of construction are classified into severl types by grade of industrialization. Hitherto, these have been divided clearly in practical constructions, but recently composite building system is adopted because of synthetic merit. And ways of composition have been changed according to kinds of buildings and time. In this study we investigated to construcution compaies about the development of composite building systems ad made clear these characteristics in development.
This paper intends to clarify the evolution of wooden framing systems in Westernstyle schools during the Meiji and Taisho periods. At the beginning of Meiji, framing was irregular as some columns were placed based on window position as well as the traditional module. In the middle of Meiji, two framing systems co-existed : one based on window arrangement and the other based on the traditional module. From late Meiji, the width of windows was neither determined by the frame arrangement nor the traditional module. This transformation reveals the process of standardization within wooden-frame schools in terms of columns and windows arrangement.
Through studying the characteristics of the work of interior electric wiring in apartment houses, in which, different construction methods of partition were used, following facts are found: 1) Electric wiring spends considerable amount of time; 2) Electric wiring spends more time in houses using panelized partition; 3) About 1/3 of the time of electric wiring is spent on wiring work occured within the walls of partition; 4) Sometimes, more efficient construction methods of partition may cause an increase of time spent in electric wiring; 5) Construction methods of partition influence working process and schedule of electric wiring. Finally, on the basis of analyses, suggestion about how to keep the efficiency of the work of electric wiring from negative influence during developing new construction method of partition for apartment houses, is presented.
In order to make effective use of various techniques in the life cycles (planning and design, construction, maintenance and preservation, destruction, etc.) of buiIdings, it is necessary to classify these techniques systematically on the basis of principles. These techniques are corresponding with basic demands to realize the work, and with various demands that arise when the work is carrying out. We have classified these various techniques in the construction of buildings based on the system composed of these three points of view : phase of the construction works, fundamental works, and demands.
The typical architecture which presents the regional characteristics, has been undergoing a change mostly influenced by the rapid increase of the infrastructure development. This report presents the real aspect of the typical buildings in Tibet, where for buildings the natural material such as granite, wood and AGATU have been used to construct the living space of grid of 2 meters. The tibetan furniture, specially those named KADIAN used for chair in the same time for bed, has been considered to have close connection with such typical buildings for human life.
This paper analyzes how the shopping behavior of consumers influences upon retail facility location within the context of multi-purpose shopping. We make a model of optimal frequencies of single- and multi-purpose trips and derive the degree of multi-purpose shopping from it. It is shown that consumers' spatial behavior is a function of their locations relative to retail facilities. This analysis is then utilized as an input to the profit-maximizing equation of retailers. The model is illustrated through the use of numerical analysis.
In this paper we will clear up the private space at rural house in which the extended family have lived. We cleared as follows: 1) The child is given private room one grows older, and the child has keeping private room when one grows up to be a fine young man. The other family member have keeping private room. That is to say, there are two cycles that each family member have the private room. 2) The couple and old family member have private room. In addition, they have used family room by way of private room. But the private space of cild has oneself. 3) The family member that has two private rooms know how to use properly each room. 4) The each family hope the private space which be done lifestyle on many various.
In this study, I considered coexisting phenomena from the view of landscape feature, though it had been explained by social conflicting relation in suburban community. First, in order to apprehend coexisting phenomena, I constructed rate of areal origin-landscape using rate of forest area and rate of farmland area, and landform type using national land-use digital information as index of landscape. Secondly, I made the six regional types by two index of landscape and analyzed population, socio-economic, spatial conditions. Thirdly, I examined questionnaires and hearing about problems of improvement in each regional rurban type for municipalities.
The time and space distributions of leisure activities were surveyed and analyzed in 1975 and 1990, in Takashimadaira and Shimada. Variations in the number of leisure facilities and the status of their utilization, were analyzed to determine how these variations relate to variations in the number of types of leisure activity and the leisure activity time. The findings indicated that in the case of leisure activities, there was a particular correlation between the life space, the activity item and the activity time, the number of leisure activity items and the time spent for leisure activities in various age bracket.
In this paper, the author defined the actual conditions of the architectural organization on the local authority, Fukuoka prefecture, especially the feature of two sector; one had a function relating to building and repairing, and the other to supervising the building law, before the last war. The results of research are as follows ; the former sector had belonged to the civil engineering section and needed a long term to establish architectural organization, and the latter sector had an early chance of independence, because of supervising the building law. As two sectors were independent each other, the staff exchange between two sectors had not existed. The actual number of staff on both sectors had differed from the number which were regulated by the local authority law.
This article reports the results of a study conducted to clarify the actual condition of building programming work by investigating the differences between building programming works by orders and order receivers. Building programming works are generally initiated as new projects as renovation of existing facilities, and it begin by land ownership. Building programming work mainly comprises the setting of design conditions, project planning, and conceptmaking. Relatively few organizations have departments or sections devoted exclusively to building programming.
This study intends to establish the method of measurment of the ring type settlement in Jomon-period, and to find the average size of the settlement from the spatial point of view. According to the centripetal composition of the settlement, the method of measurement is to calculate the area defined with the oval envelope on map. After calculation, it is found that the measurements are in the range of 2,000〜13,000m^2, and the avarage image of the settlement is an oval-shaped, 4.500m^2 broad, and on tableland of 70m wide.
The process of completion of "SHOMEI-SHAKISHU" have been studied by comparing the description of three historical records that are the manuscript at 1651, "SHOKISHU-SHAKISHU" and "SHOHEI-SHAKISHU". The results are as follows, 1) The original "SHOKISHU-SHAKISHU" had been completed by adding some items from 1651 to 1697, and "SHOMEI-SHAKISHU" had been completed before the eary part of the 18th century by adding some more items after the completion of original "SHOKISHU-SHAKISHU". 2) The way of edition at "SHOMEI-SHAKISHU" was the same from 1651, so "SHOKISHU-SHAKISHU" was reorganized in after years. 3) Though the oral instructions had been put emphasis on, the technics of KIWARI had been described clearly. 4) The achievements of own family had been put emphasis on. 5) The description had been changed to agree with the real buildings.
This study investigates, through field surveys, the types and disposition of Niches in Kalan of Champa Remains. The Kingdom of Champa existed beteen 2th and 15th century and professed the Hindu and Buddhist faith. And as its religious building Kalans were built of bricks. Consequently these two point mentiond below are clarified; 1.Principal type of niches are arranged at the three walls except entrance wall and on which other type of Niches are added, 2. All niches were made during the construction and located only important parts of chief kalan.
The Academie Royale d'Architecture discussed especially three aspects of the Doric capital. (1) As for the vertical proportion, the Academy admitted, besides vitruvius' method of dividing the total height of the capital into three parts (that is, abacus, echinus, and necking) of the equal height, the proportion with a abacus that is taller than the other parts. (2) As far as the moulding under the echinus is concerned, the Academy admitted first the annulets, and then the astragal that is a commun feature of the Doric capitals used in the Parisian churches of the 17th and 18th centuries. (3) As for the projection of the capital from the surface of the columnar shaft, the Academy criticised Vitruvius' small one, and admitted the wider ones. The final capital represented by Tannvot's design is in a sens an amalgam of these complicated arguments on the three aspects.
The late 1910's is the period when J. J. P. Oud came to be widely known as a modern architect by contributing essays and projects to the periodical De Stijl. One of his contributions, published in 1917, was titled as "Het monumentale stadsbeeld." The present paper is an attempt to investigate the 'monumentale', an essential concept to understand what Oud was preoccupied with and how he viewed architecture itself, at that time. Careful study of his praises and criticisms towards Berlage and Amsterdam School clarifies the fact that he interpreted this concept in terms of the antithesis between the individual and the universal.