To review human behaviors along the waterside in Chinese residential quarter, we investigated testees' walking behaviors using GPS. Results showed: testees were walking slower, when they were passing by the place across the water or the deck surrounded by water; testees' walked faster when they were far away from pond or near buildings. Testees' responsive speed variation also correlated and depended on their age differences. Behaviors could be further divided into three distinctive patterns: walking around, take a shortcut and walking according the route, it showed significant influence by the place's features. Thereafter, places were classified into 9 distinctive spatial types and judged by study results described in this paper.
This paper is focused on the environmental influence on the end of life in the institution for old people. The purpose of the study is to make clear that the institution support all aspects of older people's lives in the end of life such as sustain social and independent living escape from hospital model spaces and medical care. The study investigated the unit type nursing home and Long-term Ward which are thought as an end of life care place in Japan, grasped the process and the actual situation such as use forms of many space related to the life care. The result showed that each institution is considered of value as the end of life care place from the viewpoint of attaching weight to a private room, unit type, and care for life. The paper made clear that the old people could sustain the existing life by the staff and an improved environment in the end of life period because the staff and family supported them in view point of the dweller not the patient. In addition, it confirm that there is no need of common space such as a family room or mortuary by the filled up private room.
(Objective) We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the “After-School Plan for Children,” which will be implemented by the government in 2007, and examine the future role of after-school care centers.(Method) To compare the “After-School Plan for Children” with conventional after-school care programs, we carried out a questionnaire survey of parents and interviewed people living in municipalities that have adopted the integrated approach to “after-school care for all children”. (Results) 1) While the “After-School Plan for Children” provides significant financial benefits for the administrative operation, satisfactory levels of after-school care services are not available for parents and their children. 2) It is becoming increasingly important to develop an after-school care program from the viewpoint of children and parents who utilize the program.
This study examines on the locus of children with special care as they go through changes in their living environment of their home by interviewing. Main results are as follows: 1) When children do not have their proper loca, they walk around in their home to search for their loca; 2) When children have their proper loca, they can feel the sense of belonging and build up the sense of fellowship among one another; 3) When children have their proper loca, they try to claim own territory; 4) When a child's locus is shared with another person, that child seeks another locus to be alone
The aim of this report is to illustrate the thoughts on urban environment in design theories by contemporary Japanese architects. At first, some comments on the thoughts on urban environment and the relationship-method between buildings and urban environment were extracted from each theory. Secondly, the meanings of those comments was analyzed through the KJ method originated by Kawakita Jiro. Next we connected thoughts on urban environment with the range that architects recognized the urban environment and the relationship-method between buildings and urban environment. Then it was found some definite meanings. Finally we made it clear how contemporary Japanese architects recognized the urban environment.
In a rapidly aging society with a low birth rate, it is important to ensure barrier free access by all types of people, including the elderly and the disabled, to basic social infrastructure, including buildings, public transportation, pedestrian spaces and others. However, if our goal is to enhance the mobility of elderly and disabled persons, the current level convenience and safety of public spaces is not necessarily adequate. This is particularly true of people with visual handicaps. For example, current nighttime lighting conditions cannot be considered adequate to allow persons with low vision to walk comfortably. The present study attempted to address this issue by examining the visual activity and clarifying the walking characteristics of persons with low vision under nighttime lighting conditions in an indoor experiment, in order to help improve the safety of persons with low vision when walking at night. Results suggested that the effectiveness of the visual information used by persons with low vision to guide them when walking at night may be enhanced by taking advantage of to the ability of light to attract and guide the eye.
In recent years, many places have been set up to support lives of the inhabitants. We call these places "Machikado-no-Ibasyo", which means the place set up on a street corner. We carried out a lighting event at Shinsenri-Higashimach. Through analyzing the process of this event, this article aims to clarify the roles of the "Machikado-no-Ibasyo" for outsiders and to study how outsiders can access the local places. This article clarifi ed following things. The roles of the "Machikado-no-Ibasyo" are that outsiders can (1) meet inhabitants anytime, (2) discuss with inhabitants, (3) work continually, and (4) deposit their products and tools. For outsiders, the access to regional places is realized by mediation of the host. We called the place, where the host exists and the outsiders can access, semi-public.
This study analyses the changes of yashikirin (premises forest) in the middle and northern part of Okinawa Island using aerial photographs taken in 1945 (by US Navy during World War Two), 1972-74 and 2003 as well as field interviews of residents in 90 villages. It reveals that most villages in this part of Okinawa Island before World War Two were covered with yashikirin including those located inland. Although yashikirin was an essential part of residential environment in this area before World War Two, it disappeared rapidly in the postwar years due to the US military occupation and modernization of life style.
Bise Village in Motobu-cho, in the northern part of Okinawa Island, is known for its well-preserved yashikirin(premises forest) of fukugi trees. This study analyses the physical characteristics of yashikirin in Bise Village by measuring the actual size of trees. It reveals that the number of fukugi trees in Bise today is apporoximately 18,000 and that the trees have been deliberately planted along the specific sides of premises to respond to the micro-climate at the shore front. It is also estimated that the yashikirin in Bise began to be formed about 200 to 250 years ago except a few trees which were planted earlier.
In this study, I tried to understand the actual use situation as well as the change of its usage purpose, of the Mongolian Yurt by stock farmers in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia. Farther, I brought to light how the shift to fixed, stationary housing and the change in stock farming form are related. 1) With the shift to permanent residency, the use and function of the Mongolian Yurt tend to be simplified. 2) The constant shift to permanent residency of livestock owners and the shift of stock farmers to stationary housing are not proportional and uniform. Rather, there are examples where increase of mobility is observed. And the increased demands of fixed the Yurt created by impacts of policies are bringing diversity in the patterns of housing form and pasturing form.
The reconstruction of local community by using ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) has been key issues in the field of local governance. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of local structural factors toward local online communities and participation in local activities. The result showed significant effect of local structural factors. The smaller the size of local communities were, the older the age of local communities were, and the lower the percentage of rental housing in the local communities were, the more actively people participated in local activities.
This paper discusses the appropriate design for super high-rise housing. The population of Tokyo, which had been decreasing, began increasing again in 1997. High-rise and super high-rise housing, which allow people to live in urbanized areas, are some of the factors behind this population growth. Super highrise housing is now a mainstream concept of current housing projects. However, for the people that live in them, super high-rise housing is a new living environment. As residences, these living environments are cross-sectional rather than planar in design. Creating these residential spaces requires a design technique incorporating a multiplicity of layers on the premises, as well as input from the prospective residents. The research was conducted at Ohkawabata River City 21.We produced and analyzed cognitive area maps with reference to the questionnaire survey regarding residents recognition of local community. We analyzed the factors in the variation of environmental perception with the multivariate analysis. The attributions of environmental cognition and life territory were determined, particularly those regarding the floors of residents of super high-rise Towers, and discussed the formation of environmental perception which is attributable to displacement floor group.This provides the appropriate attribution of the data for the design technique.
This study aims to clarify the way to apply an existing road network to an exclusive pedestrian road in the Japanese historic districts. We made researches on the actual condition of the pedestrian space, where the traffic control is enforced, and analyzed the location and connection among the existing road network (including an arterial road, an access road, a stair, and a minor street) in 11 preservation districts for groups of historic buildings. The main points can be summarized as follows: 1) To clarify the actual situation of the exclusive pedestrian road at a regulated time and distal points of view. 2) To analyze the spatial structure of the relation between the existing road network and the exclusive pedestrian road. 3) To analyze the distribution of a parking lot around the exclusive pedestrian road and the historic district.
Various numbers of bidders exists in public building and/or construction works. Practically in Japan, exceedingly 10 bidders are participating in one bid. It is conceivable that number of bidders in one bid affects certain amount of influence on the competition. With using Friedman's model or Gates' model, which are known as maximum expected value models, the more the numbers of bidders increase, the more it becomes competitive, and the bidders have motive to present lower prices. Authors have tried to confirm the fact statistically with using recently released bidding results data of MLIT (the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport). In many cases, the ratios of bid price against ceiling price which are estimated by owner side engineers are confirmed decreasing as the number of bidders increases.
In a construction project, each participant has to make decisions timely about the critical things. However, the decision making of each participant especially client tends to be delayed. In this paper, the system to support the decision making process of production information in construction is build up. Firstly, the decision making of production information through the actual process of design, order, construction are explained and the delay of the decision making are showed. Next, the process planning of critical construction is focused and the influence depending before and behind the decision making in the process planning is clarified. Finally, the influence degree to the project based on the process planning is quantified and the system to support the decision making is presented.
The stock of the Japanese condominiums over 30 years old will amount to one million units in near future. Under those circumstances, the superannuation of condominiums becomes a big social problem. Then, this study analyzed the deterioration phenomenon of the building frame from the repair amounts done in the two times extensive renovations of condominiums. As a result of the analysis, the following two items were clarified. ·Deterioration tendency and average amount of repair at the first extensive renovation of condominiums. ·The amounts of the repairs at the second time extensive renovation will decrease than the first time, if enough works will be done at the first time. These results will be important reference materials in the maintenance of the condominium.
Grants for upgrading the workplace environment are available to partially cover costs incurred by employers to hire persons with disabilities. This research examined the facility improvement levels (l - 4) classified by spinal cord injury levels (L5-T1) and its relationship with grant provision limits. The findings were grouped into the following categories: facility level 1, required for below L5, corresponds with a grant provision limit for one person; facility level 2, between L3 and L4, corresponds with a grant provision limit for two persons; facility level 3, between T2 and L2, corresponds with a grant provision limit for three persons; facility level 4, that includes the installment of multipurpose toilets, corresponds with a grant provision limit for four persons.
There are eleven types of bracket complex called “Dou ke” described in “GONG CHENG ZOU FA ZE LIE”(1734 A.D.). Among them, the five types namely “Dou kou dan ang”, “Dou kou chong ang”, “Dan qiao dan ang”, “Dan qiao chong ang”, “Chong qiao chong ang” are named generically “Qiao and dou ke” in present China. In this paper, we analyzed the KIWARI of “Qiao ang dou ke”. As a result, measurements of almost every member that makes up “Qiao ang dou ke” are decided by the module “Dou-kou”, and the KIWARI is thoroughgoing and systematic.
This paper deals with an idea of Resionalism and Art by Josep Puig i Cadafalch's articles, one of the most important Catalonian architects between late 19th and early 20th century, according to the analysis of transitional architectural thought in Catalonia, Spain. In perspective of the historical, cultural, political background of the Catalonian society during this period, he represented a dominant school of thought in transitional Catalonian architecture by his personality and activities in diverse fields. In this paper, we intend to position an idea of Regionalism and Art on modern Catalonian architecture.
Walken Farmhouse (Gutshaus Walken) was designed by Hugo Häring in 1922. The purpose of this paper is to derive the proportional relationship in the floor plan of the House. Many approximations of 1:1, 1:2, 1:√2 and 5:7 are extracted from the dimensions of the first floor plan. This paper clarifies that design of the first floor based on a composition of geometric shapes such as squares and rectangles whose horizontal to vertical ratio are 1:2, 5:7, and few 1:√2. Those shapes have the proportional relationship.
In this paper, the relationship between building typology and fragmental urban morphology viewed from building front of corner as a common condition covered over Shimo-kitazawa is clarified in order to find out the physical order of the district well known for its complexed and intimate atmosphere. In the first half part, the typology of the corner buildings is led by considering the relationship between building element and volume, and the way how the buildings respond to the corner is clarified. In the latter half part, the conbinations of the corner buildings' type are examined in each corner. As a result, it dose not seems that the same type of corner buildings stand next each other, however, linguistic rules such as elements and volumes shared by corner buildings in the district work better to know the relationship between buildings and urbanmorphologies in contemporary fluid urban context.
In architectural and urban design, how the balance between spatial sustainability and flexibility is set up and realized? The purpose of this paper is to make clear this issue through morphological analysis on college space of the University of Cambridge. This college space is one of the best objects for this kind of study, which inevitably contains the concept of time, because it has grown up for several centuries and realized organic collective form. Some intellectuals refer to the excellence of its organic form, but the formal system, which generates and controls total growth of collective form, remains obscure. To clarify the formal system of college space of the University of Cambridge, 2 qualitative analyses and 2 quantitative analyses are conducted in this study.
This study is intended to clarify the architect's vocabulary of Facade design in nonresidential works of Kiyosi Seike focusing on the relationship between the expression of beams and columns and "ma". Facades are defined by the composition of sites and buildings, and the representation of beams and columns. The way to express beams and columns on the Facade and the way to compose the arrangement of "ma" is analyzed in relation to the symmetrical property of such elements. As the result of classification, 9 types of compositional schemes of elevation are identified, and moreover by analyzing, these schemes are classified into 4 types of Facade design. Analyzing the relationship between the expression of beams and columns and "ma", it is clarified that Facade design is represented by his sence of symmetry includeding Asymmetry in Symmetry.
This study is the preparatory research concerning the application plan the adequate maintenanceof cultural property and to protest its value. The maintenance and improvement of historic sites necessary to be applied in this was differ from the plans for the other cultural properties, because in this case, the fact we face is, the value of a cultural property has been destoried. Consequently, this example show cases the problems with the actual restoration and improvement, and confirms the method utilized. The aim of this paper is to survey the problems present in restoration, according to the restoration to Eup-sung in Korea, and to prepare basic materials for a restoration and conservation plan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of several conditions of human tracing by using a slipper-type RFID reader system, especially we focused attention on the sticking interval and layout of RFID tags laid on the floor and route of walk. And we also verify the availability of this system. According to the results, "Equilateral Triangle Grid" is more suitable than “Square Grid”, because of "Square Grid" doesn't catch curve movement easily. And also, the trace accuracy of free walking in this system becomes about α=0.8, when we assume the sticking layout to be "Equilateral Triangle Grid", the sticking interval to be "300(mm)", the antenna installation position to be "Heel" and the size of antenna to be "Large". This was thought to be in the range of practical use, and it was clarified that this system was an effective method for the tracing of human walk.