This study aims to collect useful knowledge about vehicle evacuation such as evacuation time distribution and evacuation traveling velocity. The empirical surveys were conducted on three evacuation cases in Mabi, Okayama during the 2018 Japan Floods. The authors analyzed the data from each evacuation travel of each elderly facility and classified evacuation types based on the time relationship between the evacuation preparation and the evacuation travel. The study provides abundant information including the time used for getting in and off per resident under three ways of transportation in evacuation and calculated the traveling velocity of evacuation vehicles.
This paper reviews the outcomes of People’s Plan projects funded by the PHP 50 billion budget during the third Aquino administration, considering the macro scale of policy implementation through to the micro scale of housing designs. The discussion is informed by comparing the objectives of the fund (i.e. to move to a disaster-free place; to resettle within the National Capital Region (NCR); and relocation led by existing communities). Our review identified a diversity of approaches across projects, as well as collaboration between projects. We conclude by considering the feasibility and benefits of community-led social housing on a mass scale.
In this study, "renovation that generates a network of people, things, and events" is called Co-Renovation. The effectiveness of Co-Renovation is summarized in two ways. The first is that the openness of the renovation and the house will activate the connection between the people connected through the renovation. The second is that the renovation network will inspire an awareness of community development, and what started out as renovation-related connections will derive into autonomous regional activities. In order to increase the effectiveness of Co-Renovation, it is important to encourage the formation of spontaneous connections, and the factors that contribute to this are summarized.
This paper aims to explain the time and regional feature of primary and junior high school consolidation process, after regulating the relation of transition of the number of schools and consolidation based on the database about the number of students of primary and junior high school and closed schools in 1960-2016 in Chugoku region. By the typification of schools transition, they were classified into five at the increase type of primary and junior high schools, sustainment type, the junior high school reduction type, the primary school reduction type, and the primary and junior high schools reduction type.
Space and seating designs of public libraries continue to diversify. In this context, this study seeks to clarify the behaviors of high school students—who make up the majority of seat users—and the relationship between their seat-use behavior and seat area selection. This approach will provide insights when seeking solutions for potential issues in seat area planning in the future. Therefore, the authors conducted observational surveys on weekends in December and February on six different types of seating areas at Gifu Media Cosmos (Library), and the data of 797 seat-users were obtained.
This study aims to clarify the relationship between seated area features and floor plan compositions of open reading spaces found in 55 Japanese public libraries completed since 2000. These elements are approached from the viewpoints of floor plan forms, bookshelves area arrangement, seated areas, and seating arrangements in seated areas. In particular, the statistical analyses of 792 seated areas – based on the nature of users’ coexistence with the viewpoints of socio-petal, socio-fugal, and side by side – eight types of seat arrangements in seat areas and the relationship between seat arrangement types and floor plan form types can be found.
This study aimed to establish the spatial theory of psychiatric nursing bases that support patient recovery following a series of previous studies pursuing the uniqueness of the psychiatric healthcare environment as a “place for treatment.”
The survey captured the characteristics of how patients with psychiatric disorders use space and the establishment of a shared space with psychiatric nurses. Furthermore, the professionalism of psychiatric nursing and the utilization of nursing bases for specialized psychiatric nursing were reevaluated through an understanding of how nursing behavior and the location of nursing bases affect where the patients choose to be.
We propose a method of estimating the fear of crime on a university campus using objective measurements of the environment. In addition to field measurements of ‘number of passersby’ and ‘horizontal illuminance’, these objective indexes included ‘number of visible meshes’ to represent the openness of the surroundings as obtained from campus drawing data. We were able to estimate psychological ‘sense of security’ from these objective measurements of the physical environment by applying a multiple regression equation.
This paper aims to discuss the spatial characteristic of “Liyuan” building and its transformation in Dabaodao area, Qingdao, China. “Liyuan” is the unique style multiple dwelling house developed for Chinese residents during the colonial period in Qingdao. Historical documents of building confirmation application preserved at Qingdao City Construction Archives and field survey data were analyzed. Then the collective form patterns and the plan types of Liyuan buildings were classified and their characteristics were discussed. Spatial transformation of Liyuan buildings were also clarified and its reason is considered to be the mass inflow of migrant workers from the countryside after 1980s.
The purpose of this study is to quantitatively understand how shopping behavior trends have changed due to the influence of COVID-19 by using the purchase history of membership cards in the large-scale commercial facilities. The main findings are as follows. In 2020, under the influence of COVID-19, the number of shoppers and purchases decreased, and the number of visits decreased by more than 20% in areas far from the subject shopping center. The average length of time spent in the shopping center showed a difference in trend depending on distance from the target facility and age.
In recent years, the diversification of work styles has forced the need for changes in offices and their work styles. However, the introduction of free addresses has an impact on the traditional way of working and behavior of residents, and sufficient consideration is required when introducing them.
In this study, we consider the characteristics and factors of free address selection in university research facilities. Specifically, we will examine the laboratory culture by focusing on and analyzing the characteristics of users' stay and their intention to introduce into FA, and clarify the structure of free address adoption and rejection.
In Leju village, the original villagers moved out of their old houses and traditional village 20 years ago and the traditional village became a desolated place. In this study, we clarified the method that is conservation and regeneration of the landscape of the traditional village by the development company and immigrants who didn’t live in the village before. The company gave advices and supports in reconstructing traditional houses or built new houses in the traditional village, according to immigrants’ needs and didn’t change the traditional landscape and the environment of the traditional village.
In this study, we report the design methods of “The Garden City” planning by Yoshikazu Uchida with focusing on the process of making his planning from 1919 to 1922. By making a comparison between three drawings, the following four design methods of his planning are found out. Firstly, his planning has a hierarchy of roads. Secondly, shops are placed around circular plazas and along a main road. Thirdly, there is a diversity in the arrangement of public buildings. Fourthly, specific open space is surrounded by buildings. The above-mentioned design methods share characteristics with those of Dojunkai’s residential districts.
The aims of this study were to clarify the current status of the reorganization of public facilities, and the status of revitalization of the castle district domains. Findings are as follows : 1) old castle land tends to be used more for public lands than does old samurai land, more than 50% of which is used for commercial activities, 2) the reorganization of public facilities often occurred in former samurai lands and commercial zones, 3) historic sites were most often designated in those cities where these revitalization and restoration efforts were conducted in separate areas.
This paper aims to clarify how the living space of the townhouses is used during float festival, the characteristics of the space for watching it, and their transformations. Findings are as follows. First, the living space is open to the street, which has become more prominent at present. Hospitality has not changed, but the visitor type has been unified and fixed. Second, basically, the watching space faces the street. In addition, view of the street, daily use and floor finishing affect its selection. At present, a new watching space appeared with the change of living space.
This study aims to clarify the effect of the spatial formation of naga-hisashi, the long eaves that cover Okura's entrances in Japanese Okura-syo (the premises of storehouse which stored the rice) of the Edo period. And the regional characteristics in Japan are shown. Naga-hisashi connected multiple doorways in front of the Okura, and were prominent in the Okura-syo of western Japanese domains and the Shogunate. Not limited to the original function of eaves, these naga-hisashi were also used as inspection stations (enclosure type) or formed corridors (open type), thereby making the Okura-syo more functional.
This article considers the reexported / exported countries of iron nails and the reexported / exported iron nails in the prewar period. The following points will be clarified.
Reexported iron nails could be confirmed continuously from 1883 to 1911, and then intermittently carried out until 1931, mainly in neighboring countries. The amount of reexports is generally 10,000 barrels or less per year, and re-exported products were slightly more expensive than imported products. Iron nails were exported from at least 1921 throughout the prewar period, and from 1932 to 1939, over 100,000 barrels were exported worldwide.
This paper aims to clarify cross points of interior decoration in Auguste Perret (1874-1954) and Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, 1887-1965) as the considerations concerning the concept of "decor" in the 20th century. As a result of chronological reorganization of the training of Jeanneret at the Perret’s office and the subsequent communication between two mainly by correspendances, the difference between the two became clear in the discussion on "movable furniture" and "immovable furniture". It was also a question of strategy regarding the segmentation of structural skeleton and furniture.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify Masaya Fujimoto's (1937-) architecture-thought by focusing on the discourse about "The Earth" in his descriptions. As a result of the study, terms of The Earth Fujimoto used, seen differences statuses bracketing, have the meaning independently revealed that constitutes his discussion. Fujimoto is pointed out that to draw the appearance of the architecture from the Earth harboring the designing the architecture. It is appearance of the architecture by learned the appearance of the architecture to establish an intimate relationship between the architects and the Earth is pointing to represent as a visible form.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the structural characteristics of maintenance system of Edo Castle moats based on the historical records for Fushin-bugyo’s daily operations. First, in order to set the subject of this paper's analysis, the spatial configuration of Edo castle moats is examined and the Fushin-bugyo’s management responsibilities and jurisdictional divisions on the moats are organized. Second, the multi-layered castle moats maintenance system is clarified from the aspect of management by the fushin-bugyo and the actual maintenance labor. In conclusion, the spatial characteristics of the castle moats and its duration are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the area development process on the Zhuoshui river basin in Taiwan between the 1900s and 1910s using the change-over of restricted zone for raw material collection.
Initially, some small improved traditional sugar manufacturing plants were established by Taiwanese capitalists. For each, they also acquired small restricted zones for raw material collection and constructed a push-car railway network.
Next, some new larger sugar mills were constructed by Japanese capitalists. For each, they also acquired larger restricted zones for raw material collection and constructed a narrow-gauge railway network.
Herein, we propose a machine learning method based on pedestrian trajectory data to classify public space usage states and discriminate unknown usage states. Aggregated feature values for each small cell were regarded as feature vectors representing the usage state. They were classified into usage state “types” via principal component analysis and x-means clustering. During validation using actual data, 16 types appearing at specific times and days were identified, and 1.1% of the test data were determined to be “new usage states” not found in the training data. This method helps understand long-term and complex variations in public space utilization patterns.