The purpose of this research is to clarify how the public housing estate with modern specifications is implemented in African cities and how they have changed over the years. Followed by this, it attempts to evaluate the variety of housing estates, which in many cases are often criticized of its uniformity, and to extract challenges of long-term usages with factors of quality improvements. Therefore, the research focuses on the Baobab estate in Dakar, Senegal, constructed by La Société Immobilière du Cap-Vert (SICAP) in 1950s as a case study and conducted onsite field survey in order to capture the state of today. In the previous paper, the case 1, it summarized the initial architectural planning and the residential environment after 60 years. Adding to this, this paper further elaborates the research by documenting the interior spaces through observing expansion and renovation of the housing units, as well as finding the challenges and quality improvements to meet the changes. Main materials used for the analysis of this paper were taken by looking through drawings, which were kept by the SICAP, onsite documentation of the housing plans and interviews to the residents.
In Chapter 2, it summarized the modifications and usages after 60 years within the surveyed 122 units in eight building blocks.
In Chapter 3, eight unit types, which were classified according to various attributes, were taken as examples of modifications to further describe each modified housing plans and to compare the interior environment. Then, it attempted to find the problems, challenges, methods and quality improvements in the modifications as follows: 1) For compensating the limited space, there were methods using the curtain and the ceiling height. 2) In the case where the expansion space jointed the neighbouring unit, the space that merged was not closed off in consideration for the interior environment of the neigbouring unit. This open space also contributes to the comfortability of the path. 3) In the case where a unit was exchanged with the neighouring unit's room, it was possible to expand without negotiation to the next units and secured a larger space. However, the interior environment was deteriorated and the path was closed off. 4) The expansion and renovation of this area was quite exceptional because the original plan was small and rather unique that any modifications projected had limitations in space. People intended to make expansion and renovation visited some of the already modified units beforehand in order to understand the situation after the modification.
Chapter 4 discusses the factors that affected the modification within this area. Original architectural planning which was not intended for any expansion resulted in restrictions of freedom to modify, which led to the necessity of negotiation and sometimes collaboration with the neighbours. As a consequence of this, any expansions that were made turned out to be relatively well-balanced as a whole that shared common coherent rules within the neighbourhood. Above this, unreinforced CB masonry wall, which made possible to understand the modular used for the housing plan, might have impelled to enable easy demolition and addition to modify the space.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial structure of contemporary Thai houses. It focuses on the arrangement of cooking and sleeping areas, which have been functional areas since the traditional time. Firstly, the characteristics of traditional houses are described. Secondly, the spatial arrangement of contemporary houses is examined. Finally, the compositional aspects between the traditional and contemporary houses are compared and refered in terms of social and environmental factors. The findings show that the cooking space in contemporary houses are designed as enclosed kitchens and as connecting areas of additional functions. In addition, sleeping areas in the contemporary houses are generally designed as tightly enclosed spaces for each unit and the bed headding situated away from west which is similar with the interdiction in traditional houses.
Today, libraries for users are not only a place for lending and borrowing books, but also used as a place to rest. In this research, 4 local libraries; Nisshin city library, Hekinan city library, Tahara city library and Inazawa city library located in Aichi prefecture, with different scales and services, will be used as a case study. We took questionnaire survey and observational survey of users' behaviors and activities in each library. Therefore, the research purpose will be to clarify the feature of the library considered from users' image.
The details of libraries used for the case are the following. 1. Nisshin city library have open stuck area with well-lighted stairwell, providing a different contrast. Other than, are children's open stuck area, study booth, café corner, conference room and others located in the first floor. The bookshelves such as technical books are planned in the second floor. 2. Tahara city library have some courtyards, providing the intake of light. The library was enlarged as a complex with a gymnasium and the theater, a thin shape in the East-West directions. In this library, open stuck area and children's open stuck area are contiguous in the first floor. 3. Inazawa city library is located open stuck area on the second floor, and the children's open stuck area located in the first floor. children's room and the local reference library are distributed with glass screen. 4. Hekinan city library have open stuck area is located on the first floor, beside the audiovisual lounge and the study space. children's open stuck area and galleries are located on the second floor.
The research will be done by the following. 1. Consider the choice reason of a library and the place depending on users' generations. 2. Analyze users' activities in libraries based on users' positions, actions and attitudes by the observational survey. 3. Analyze users' actions from time course according to the users' generation and affiliation. 4. Consider sitting behaviors of users and choice reasons of seats by the questionnaire and the observational survey. 5. Estimate the number of users in a day based on the existing research, and consider an assess model for the reading seats and the parking areas.
The research results are the followings 1. The ratio of sitting behavior (sitting people / staying people) maintains the same with 60% - 65% in all time. This demand for sittings does not change in library of any place. 2. users' actions and places to stay have deflection by users' generation. Library users stay and carry out various activities in the every corner in open stuck areas. 3. When users choose a library or a place to stay, they are selecting the charm of the architectural space including "the brightness" as a reason. 4. Based on activity target of the library, we suggested the simulation model which could predict the number of reading seats using the ratio of sitting act and the seat share for library users.
The concept "Growth and Change" on hospital architecture proposed by United Kingdom architect John Weeks (1921-2005) has been popular among Japanese hospital architects. Most of the newly-build hospitals are expected to have some margin in its site for future building extension or construction along the concept. This study aims to find how the concept has been introduced and developed in Japan. Literature review and interviews were carried out and the findings are as follows; 1) 245 papers concerning hospital design issued from 1874 to 2007 has been collected; 2) John Weeks was introduced to Japan in Professor Makoto Ito's paper in 1965 followed by Weeks' concept “Growth and Change” in Professor Tadashi Yanagisawa's paper in 1969 while architect Richard Llewelyn Davies (1912-1981), counterpart of John Weeks, appeared earlier by 13 years. 3) Similar concept has already been found by Ogai Mori in 1899 and theorized by Masao Takamatsu from United States examples in 1923; 4) After 1969, Weeks' concept has spread and was accepted throughout Japan through textbook and drawings of its application, Chiba Cancer Center, though some questions have been raised; 5) The concept has been Post-Occupancy-Evaluated by Weeks and found unsuccessful in the case of Northwick Park Hospital he designed in 1970.
The purpose of this study is to acquire knowledge concerning the methods of reorganization of public facilities in a mature society. To do so, this study aims to understand the characteristics of renovation methods and policy, the legislative system for resident autonomy centers in Korea. Subjects of the study are 1, 695 facilities listed in the " Compendium of the Operational Status of Resident Autonomy Centers Nationwide (1) (2) (3) " (hereinafter known as the "data sheet") issued by Korean Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs. Chapter 2 shows the characteristics of policies and the legislative system for the maintenance of resident autonomy centers. Here, analysis is performed from the aspect of facility details, policy, and legislation in connection with the establishment of resident autonomy centers. Chapter 3 clarifies the conditions of facility from 1999 to 2002 proportionate to the first stage of resident autonomy center. Chapter 4 reveals the redevelopment conditions of facilities from 2002 onward proportionate to the second stage of resident autonomy center. Chapter 5 uses knowledge acquired from the preceding three chapters to cover lessons to learn from the renovation of resident autonomy center in Korea in relation to the methods of public facility reorganization. In the course of reorganization for resident autonomy centers in Korea, policy changed from a "basic plan" to a feasible "completed guideline". Policy also evolved so that renovation could be carried out according to conditions. In terms of the legislative system, deregulation and legislation were advanced so that renovation could be revitalized. For the first stage, which was a period lasting from 1999 to 2002, the entire country prioritized the simultaneous provision of approximately 1,700 facilities and did so by uniformly re-purposing already existing facilities. In doing so, the serviced facilities didn't follow a similar standard and were each maintained in each region by different plans and forms. Prioritizing simultaneous maintenance may have been what produced plans and forms that could be realized in each region. In this regard, in the second stage that followed from 2003 onward, renovation of established facilities was carried out. The facilities to be renovated or abolished or rebuild, and the method for renovation were chosen according to the characteristics of each region and facility. In brief, there was merit in not following a uniform method and instead performing maintenance through individual solutions that could be implemented in areas where needed. At present, our country's facility reorganization plans for local governments take into consideration future cost reduction and tout the uniform reduction of the amount of facilities as the overall objective. Reorganization is being pushed through the amendment, abolition, and new construction of facilities under a long-term plan. It is also difficult to adopt various renovation methods from a legislation perspective. In this regard, the methods taken in Korea do not uniformly reduce the amount of facilities. Instead, upon advancing simultaneous restructuring by means of renovation in a short period across a whole area, places that aren't used depending on their usage situation and characteristics of the area are shutdown while places often sued and renovated. This method of reorganizing public facilities can be referred to as simultaneous renovation and sequential renovation. Unlike the method of sequential maintenance through new construction that has been pushed in our country up to now, the method of simultaneously and extensively maintaining necessary facilities and afterward advancing coordinative renovation according to condition will greatly serve as reference as a method of facility renovation for our country which is poised to become a mature and steady-state society.
In this research, we conducted an interview survey using the evaluation grid method with elements of additional signs posted at the station as elements. As a result, we clarified the evaluation structure of preferable additional signs for users in the station and extracted considerations to be addressed for a better sign plan. The findings obtained are summarized below. · From the perspective of evaluating the additional sign of the station user, the four perspectives of "time reduction", "sense of security", "fatigue reduction" and "reliability" came up in this survey, and we found that these four factors are important. ·In order to raise the credibility of additional signs it is important to make it permanent rather than handwritten or handmade. ·In order to realize the movement smoothness contributing to above the three high-level concepts of "time reduction", "feeling of security", and "feeling of fatigue", “ease of finding" and "ease of judging the direction to the destination" is important. ·In order to achieve "ease of finding", "expression on the board surface itself and contents in the board" and "proper sign arrangement within the view" are important. ·The contents and directions drawn on the additional sign are easy to understand, making it easier to understand intuitively, and as a result it is easier to judge the direction of the destination. As a concrete design method of the "easy to understand contents and directions", " expression about contents in the board " and "proper sign arrangement on the plan of the station." are important. Compiling also the knowledge obtained in the past research, there were things that could be useful knowledge not only for additional sign but also for official sign , as described below. ·It is important to show the information that we want to emphasize in the sign beyond the height of the line of sight. ·The size of letters on the signboard surface and the posting height of the sign influence "attractiveness". ·"Enhancing movement smoothness" by the additional sign leads to an increase in the comfort of stations such as spiritual clearance and convenience as a result. We are considering "preference" from the results of an interview survey using elements of additional signs in this research. But from now on, based on the fact that differences in purpose affect the evaluation on the same sign, we want to explore better information provision methods for station users by considering the design and planning method each use purpose of the signs, such as assuming the situations at the time of using the station or conducting experiments using different elements.
In order to create a comfortable waiting space, it is important to understand people's preference in the seat-choice behavior. However, the mechanism is complicated so as the seat-choice behavior is largely varying according to many factors such as seat-types, layout of seats, attributes (age / gender) of users, purpose of use, and the occupancy by other users. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what factors affect seat-choice behavior of outpatients in a hospital, and to construct a model to describe their seat-choice behavior.
First, we performed detailed observation survey on the seat-choice behavior of outpatients in a waiting space of a hospital. Based on the observation results, we identified five factors affecting on outpatients' seat-choice behavior: (1) whether a seat is the intermediate seat of a chair for three persons or not; (2) whether a seat is a sofa-seat on the side with an elbow rest or not; (3) angle among a digital information panel, a table, and a seat; (4) distance from a seat to a destination (consultation room); (5) whether either of adjacent seats is occupied or not. Also, the utility specific to seat-type and their concurrent behavior (such as eating, reading, or writing) were used as explanatory variables in the model. Using these factors, we constructed a seat-choice behavior model based on a Nested Logit Model to describe outpatients' seat-choice behavior in the waiting space. Unknown parameters of the model were estimated using the observation data. While it was difficult to accurately describe individual seat-choice behavior, the type of seat or a seating zone composed of some seats could be estimated precisely. From the estimated parameters of the model, we discussed the influence of principal factors on the seat-choice behavior. For instance, seats located far from the outpatient' destination or near to the seats occupied by other outpatients were less likely to be selected. Also, the utility of sitting on the intermediate seat of a chair for three persons was seven times for men (but three times for women) as much as that of sitting on the corner seats.
Next, we performed a simulation using the proposed model to predict the seat-choice behavior of outpatients, and we demonstrated the possibility and capability of the proposed model as a supporting system for actual planning of waiting space. Specifically, we demonstrated the effects of guiding the outpatients' seat-choice by setting some priority seats according to the direction of destination. Finally, we proposed the seat layouts by modifying the present layout, and compared them from the viewpoint of the cumulative value and variance of the utility which outpatients obtained. Simulation results showed that the utility of the individual outpatient was almost equally distributed, also the mean value of utility increased the present layout.
Varieties of leaf tobacco in Japan can be broadly divided into various native species (300 and a few kinds at the time of 1901) that had spread to every region of Japan after they came down to Japan in the early Edo period and yellow species that the Meiji government transferred the technology from the United States aiming to make the domestic production of foreign-grown leaf tobacco in the late Meiji period. The demand of tobacco up to around the mid Taisho period was mainly native species, but the demand of lower-grade brand, yellow species, increased by recession, and the production area of yellow species, which was limited to Osaka and Hiroshima, began to gradually expand to the other Prefecture. Tobacco leaves produce unique taste and aroma by curing them. Although barns only to be used for curing tobacco seemed to be made by traditional construction method for both native species and yellow species in Japan, differences in their forms and structures and the use of the building were not yet cleared. Since the farmers who use a traditional tobacco curing room have almost disappeared and the demolition of the remains is increasing, the present study was made for the purpose of revealing the structure of the tobacco curing barn for yellow species. It was found that there were "Osaka type" with hip roof and without soil ceiling, "Hiroshima type" with soil ceiling, and "eclectic type" with soil ceiling and hip roof by compromising both types, and eventually it was uniformly integrated in "Osaka-type" nationwide. For these 3 construction methods, most previous studies targeted the building of "Osaka-type", and the details of "Hiroshima type" and "eclectic type" which had been tried in the transition period were unknown. Therefore, in this study, we carried out the comprehensive survey of the remains including also "Hiroshima type" and "eclectic type”. Since the curing barn of yellow species was built under the guidance of American engineer J. D. Jones in 1900, improvement was continued in order to make the more effective curing. The first curing barn was a building with a space of 3 Ken × 3.5 Ken, and the Japan's own standard of area: 2 Ken square, pillar length: 15 feet, have been established in the late Meiji period. Air warmed by the Kamado is circulated inside the iron pipe that was installed over the dirt floor of the barn to dry the leaves with its radiant heat. The temperature in the barn reaches up to 70 °C. The curing barn is wooden made and single-story. For curing, a minute-to-minute temperature adjustment table had been made under the guidance of the Monopoly Corporation, it was necessary to finely control the room temperature between 40 °C and 70 °C. For this reason, the building was required to have a structure with increased heat insulation property and airtightness as well as a performance to lower the room temperature by the rapid ventilation. The top window of the roof had been addressed for exhausting air and wet. The features described above are common to the previously described 3 types, we describe below the difference in the structure of heat insulation and exhaust in the ceiling and barn construction. A Hiroshima type curing barn with soil ceiling had a gradient of 4 Sun (a Sun is roughly 30 mm), it had 4 sliding-type wooden doors at the top of the slope ceiling to open and close them in the barn back by riding on top of the soil ceiling. Exhaust was done from both sides of the roof gable surfaces of the opened roof.
This paper aims to reveal the spatial recognition of the Hmong through discussing the relation of 1) the main axis of Hmong dwellings which is composed of the ancestral alter and the main door located in front of it, with 2) the correlation of the dwelling to its surrounding geographical features and to the natural topography in relation with the mountains which surround the village. The Hmong is an ethnic group who believe in a variety of natural, ancestral, and supernatural spirits which live in and animate all things4). Whose homelands are in the mountain areas of northern Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam (fig. 14)). And who has no tradition of written language4). Through understanding previous studies on Hmong in terms of spatial structure of their dwellings and villages made by R. Cooper4) and Hata, et al.5)6)7)8)9), the authors derive two important components that will generate Hmong's spatial recognition as below; 1) The main axis is an important spatial element to locate the dwelling in its environment. 2) The correlation between the dwelling and the topography is surveyed both in microscopic and macroscopic comprehension of its geographical features. The rule ‘the ancestral alter upward and the main door downward’ is a fundamental spatial notion of the Hmong, which can be shared by an ordinary boy in the village. The survey tries to reveal how this rule applies to their recognition. The geographical features of the village Keo Patu differs from those of the previous studies. The village is in a flatland surrounded by mountains and the spatial structure of the village is based on circler patterns. If the Hmong is divided into variants and generalization is dangerous4), the exploration in the field Keo Patu is worthwhile. Through the investigation of all 81 dwellings in the village, the main axis is identified for 75 dwellings, by means of recognizing the ancestral alter or the red cloth above the lintel of the main door, or of the resident's explanation. 57 dwellings are located in the geographical features according to the rule ‘the ancestral alter upward and the main door downward’. On the other hand, 67 dwellings are located in the natural topography in relation with the mountains. As a result, it became clear that the Hmong's spatial notion ’the ancestral alter upward, and the main door downward’ is preserved in two ways. One is as A) an simple order to generate the traditional spatial structure of Hmong villages situated on a mountain slope, and the other is in B) a resilient structure to keep the frame of the recognition by involving both conceptual understanding of natural topography in relation with the mountains and practical use of land surrounding their dwellings.
The fortified city of Cavite, located in Manila Bay, has played a remarkable role in the history of Spanish walled settlements in East Asia. Due to its geographical location and its inner harbor, this small town flourished for more than 200 years as a commercial and military enclave. Unfortunately, Cavite was obliterated by air raids during World War II, and nowadays just some traces of the former city's walls and urban fabric can be seen. In this context, this research aims at clarifying the current state of this fortified city and reconstructing the historical process of its formation and transformation. Extensive fieldwork was performed to clarify the current condition of this area; consultation of historical maps from archives and databases has provided the main chronological periods which have influenced its historical evolution. Also, it identifies the most representative extant structures regarding the fortification system and the urban fabric which it encloses.
This paper aims to discuss fundamental units forming urban settlement blocks and their development process which demarcate urban fabric with respect to the combination arrangement of urban dwellings types. Bhaktapur is known as one of the historic cities of the World Heritage Site in Kathmandu Valley. The analysis focuses on the house distributions that have common votary areas of the house guardian deity called chetrapatra and the aerial extent of the same surname (thar). Considering these into account, the authors classified urban dwellings into 9 types. We try to submit a hypothesis on the development process of planning type clusters of urban dwellings as fundamental units forming urban settlement blocks. chetrapatra is an iconic ritual artifact made of stone slab carved in a form of eight-pealed lotus, and it is placed in front of a house entrance or in a courtyard. People worship this stone when they go out to the street from their house or a lane. There are also cases when this type of chetrapatra is common to inhabitants who go in and out at the lane. We classify chetrapatras into 7 types based on ownership and locations. The areal extent for worship to chetrapatra is sub-divisions in the areal extent for worship to Ganesh shrine. But they must be owned respectively on either side of the street. The Newar population may be classified into various social status according to the traditional profession, caste, or other form of socio-religious associations. In Bhaktapur, their social status are divided into 3 categories. These are the Macrostatus system, thar and phuki. as proposed by Levy (1990). We conducted survey on the distribution of thar for our analysis to have information of kinship. We found five areal extent of a same thar in the case-study area. They all spread the both side of street but have the different plot depth perpendicular to the street. Next we classify urban dwellings into 9 types whether they have a common chetrapatrs or individual one and their locations, which we call ‘Planning Types of Urban Dwellings’. It should be noted that ‘Courtyard Dwelling Units’ is relatively old compared to the other types of urban dwelling units. In addition, this type has one common chetrapatra shared by all the residences surrounding the same courtyard. chetrapatra is placed in front of the entrance of a ‘Courtyard Dwelling Units’. On the other hand, ‘Detached houses facing the street’ tend to have their own chetrapatra. Finally, we analyze the distribution of ‘Planning Type Clusters of Urban Dwellings’ in the case-study area. The analysis indicated dominant arrangement patterns which are the one that include ‘Courtyard Dwelling Units’ on one side of the street and ‘Detached houses facing the street on the other side. Taking that into account, we found the particular arrangement patterns of ‘Planning Type clusters of Urban Dwellings’ developed across the street. Another important arrangement pattern is the one that ‘Incomplete Courtyard Dwelling Units’ often found on the plot backside of ‘Detached houses facing the street’. We regard them as two important typical cluster types of urban dwelling units. We suggest that the development process of such cluster types underwent 3 stages, giving great influence to the urban development in the earlier period.
1. Introduction In recent years, environmental-friendly town planning is required especially in newly developed areas. Meanwhile, environmentally-friendly town development in the existing urban area needs reflection of residents' needs, formation of a regional organization, and so on. Shopping districts organizations that carry out environmentally friendly activities aiming at contributing to the environment and raising the image are appearing nationwide, but still many shopping districts organizations think that revitalization and environmental consideration are not compatible. Our research proposed a framework of environmentally-friendly activities which are effective to activate shopping street. The purpose of this study is to clarify the residents’ participation motivations structure of the activities based on our framework which contribute to environmental effects and activational effects in local shopping streets. 2. Framework and definition of activities of environmental friendly shopping districts In this research, we defined the following as "environmentally friendly shopping district". (1) Environmental consideration activities leading to energy saving at the residences by encouraging to go to the shopping streets, such as holding events, and to staying longer in shopping streets, such as taking breaks by setting benches, and keeping children at shopping time (2) Environmentally conscious activities such as energy saving, resource saving, waste reduction, greening, recycling, etc. conducted at shopping districts and shops 3. Questionnaire survey In this research, we promoted the framework for the two shopping streets organizations by holding regular monthly meetings, and conducted a questionnaire survey for the residents in the surrounding areas of the shopping streets. 4. Questionnaire survey result a. The degree of interest in environmentally conscious shopping districts is influenced by sex, age, number of people in neighborhood association, household composition. b. Motivation to participate in activities such as purchasing refills is high. On the other hand, participation motivation is low with regard to activities with high labor burden and activities with low cost effectiveness. In addition, eco point cards common to shopping districts are important tools to give incentives to users. c. As a result of factor analysis, seven factors were extracted. Covariance structure analysis was conducted based on the results, and the formation factor model of "participation willingness in environmental activities at local shopping street" was obtained. Thereby, it turned out that "willingness of waste recovery" "willingness to participate in the community " "willingness of Environmental friendly purchasing" "willingness to contribute to improvement of the environment" have big influence on formation of "participation willingness in environmental activities at local shopping street". 5. Conclusion In order to disseminate environmentally conscious activities in shopping districts, it is necessary to revitalize local communities, conducting events and other activities in shopping districts, to notice what kind of activities contribute to save energy and resources, to give a lot of chances to buy eco-friendly products which have also economic benefits, and to strengthen regional communities. The framework which we proposed are expected to work well especially in the areas where many elderly people and young children live.
Yuriage Wharf Morning Market(YWMM) is in the process of reconstruction after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 2011. YWMM is located in Yuriage, a coastal area in Natori City, Miyagi Prefecture. Three weeks after the disaster, YWMM immediately restarted the small-scale provisional business for the purpose of delivering food to disaster refugees. Then one year later, at the original place, the business was restarted by using temporary buildings, leading to the completion of the first stage reconstruction project on December 2013. And further reconstruction is gradually ongoing. Through the process, YWMM has been leading the reconstruction of Yuriage area earlier than public projects in the aspect of prosperity and communication. It can be regarded as the regional commercial hub in the reconstruction process. This paper has two main objectives: to clarify the reconstruction process of YWMM itself, and also to clarify its role in the reconstruction process of the region. Main contents of the paper areas follows. In the chapter 4, the outline and the process of the reconstruction of YWMM are reported, especially in the aspect of facilities, funds and various supports. In the chapter 5, the situations of YWMM before and after the earthquake are analyzed, based on the general meeting report of YWMM, which includes several data such as organizations of the union members, number of events, annual activities and the balance of payments. The analysis reveals that YWMM played a significant role as a communication hub inside the region and also with the external region, as the result of various activities such as commerce and events. In the chapter 6, through the questionnaires survey in YWMM, the demands of visitors toward YWMM and the region is analyzed, from which the demands of local residents and visitors in the process of reconstruction are clarified. Those analyses leads to the following considerations. Firstly, even though the gradual reconstruction was a forced method because of the gradual fund raising, this restriction unexpectedly succeeded in encouraging visitors' participation to the reconstruction and realizing the project. Secondly, YWMM has provided a place for communication and interaction with visitors by their self-help efforts, which allowed YWMM to play a significant role in the reconstruction and communication of the region. Finally, YWMM has established human relationships not only inside the union, but also with various external organizations such as local government, NGO, volunteer organizations and so on, leading not only to commercial activity but also to other multifarious activities and communication.
This study focuses on the “urban renewal” in Taipei city, Taiwan. Urban renewal system in Taiwan is similar to the system of Japan. However, it has been utilized for the recovery after the 1999 Jiji earthquake (also called 921 earthquake). After then, the urban renewal system in Taiwan, especially Taipei has developed and evolved hugely. However, most of the previous researches about the system in Taiwan focus on the cases of recovery of Jiji earthquake. In this study, we first summarize and make clear the project execution process of urban renewal in Taipei city based on interview and literature review. We classify urban renewal projects into “Urban renewal Area” and “Urban renewal Unit” by their range and “Rights Transformation” and “Joint Construction Agreement” by the project execution method. What’s more, the “Right Transfer” type can be further classified into 2 types by whether submitting the “Right Transfer Plan” or not. In order to realize the characteristic of each type of them, we pick up 70 practical completed projects. We discovered that “Urban renewal Area” project takes relatively long period although they have higher ratio of agreement; besides, the bonus floor area is also higher. “Urban renewal Unit” takes shorter time and the rate of increase of the property right is higher. “Joint Construction Agreement Method” has extremely high rate of agreement so it takes short period. Beside, the distribution rate is high since these projects are leaded by land owners. On the other hand, “right transfer” takes long time but the rate of increase of the property right is higher. We also pointed out some issues including: (1) Although the 50% of designated floor area ratio is established as the limit of bonus floor area, other kind of bonus floor area institution could be utilized in the same time. So in most cases the total bonus floor area is nearly 50% and some cases are over the limit as a consequence. (2) Due to the abundant bonus floor area, all these urban renewal projects are rebuilt as high-rise building. This might cause the over-supply of property market and will also break the balance of local community and landscape. (3) What’s more, since the resettlement ratio of existing resident is totally low and the property value of these new building is too expensive, it’s considered that “gentrification” might occur and some strategy will be needed. Finally, the limitation of this study is that due to the amount of completed projects of “urban unit” type is not enough now. It is essential to pick up single case to analyze the concrete characteristic of “urban unit” type.
This research was conducted with the aim of contributing to support of refugees of non-designated emergency shelters. We examined setting up patterns of non-designated emergency shelters at the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake in Kamaishi City through analysis using GIS and interview surveys. Analysis result showed following patterns of non-designated
1. Effects of Tsunami Affected Area and Evacuation Behavior (1) Around outside of the inundated area : Many designated and non-designated shelters have occurred around inundated areas, as seen in the southern and the northern part of the port. (2) Area where the secondary evacuation were restricted by blocked routes : The evacuees remains in the hinterland of the flooded area because the road was submerged and blocked, as seen in the northern port area and the Hirata area. (3) Area where the ratio of vulnerable people with restricted ability to evacuate is high : Movement is restricted due to the characteristics of evacuees themselves, such as many elderly people, movement to the designated emergency shelters becomes difficult, and non-designated emergency shelters have occurred. (4) Near the intersection of secondary evacuation routes from other area : Evacuees gathered at the closed Kamaishi First Junior High School at the intersection of evacuation route from other districts and flooded area. 2. Effect of designated emergency shelters (5) Around inundated designated evacuation shelters : Many designated emergency shelters have been flooded and couldn't be used, and non-designated emergency shelters were occurring as alternative facilities, in the northern port area. (6) Around an overcrowded designated evacuation shelter : Exceeding capacity of designated emergency shelters in the northern port area, and non-designated emergency shelters were occurring as alternative facilities. 3. Cognition and usage of facilities (7) Public interest facilities : It was recognized by the residents from the time of the disaster, and was evacuated to a facility with publicness and high public benefit, such as schools and government agencies, temples and welfare facilities, accommodation facilities and restaurants. (8) Private facilities and houses in the area where the public facilities were not exist : Evacuation to private facilities and individual houses was done, in coastal areas of the northern port area.
We suggested the collection as measures against these results, it is necessary to prepare emergency shelters corresponding to the characteristics of the region and the evacuees before the disaster, predict the occurrence of the evacuees from the setting up of emergency shelters after the disaster.
In this study, the travel behavior of people in Tokyo after a large earthquake was modeled, and the levels of crowding of facilities for people who have difficulty returning home were estimated by performing simulations of people traveling on foot. The results showed that temporary shelters become most crowded when the earthquake strikes at 14:00 on a non-business day, a time at which there are many people (eating and shopping) in the city center with nowhere to shelter after the quake. The results also showed that support stations for people trying to return home on foot become crowded when the earthquake occurs at 14:00 on a weekday, an occurrence time that generates a large numbers of walkers. The number of people staying at train stations is highest when the earthquake occurs at 8:00 on a weekday, a time at which many people are commuting to work or school. It was also found that, when the earthquake occurs at 14:00 on a weekday, many people stay in the street on the arterial roads leading in various directions from the city center (segments beyond 8 km from the city center). Next, the effect of reducing crowding by providing people with information was analyzed. Shelters are likely to become more crowded as a result of providing people with information on the location of the shelters, whether the information is provided at the time of the earthquake or on a regular basis. On the other hand, the number of people having to spend a night at a train station or in the street is likely to be reduced. In addition, if information on crowding can be provided in real time after the earthquake, it may be possible to control rises in crowding at shelters. Further, by regularly providing information on predicted level of crowding, it may be possible to control imbalances in level of crowding between shelters. Finally, we analyzed the effect of reducing crowding through collaboration with private-sector facilities (opening up of facilities). The results of examining methods of selecting private-sector facilities for collaboration showed that, in the city center, it is effective to select private-sector facilities in the vicinity of shelters that are predicted to become crowded. However, on the outskirts of the city center, it is possible that private-sector facilities will become extremely crowded, and so it is preferable to perform multiple selections while checking crowding at private-sector facilities using sequential simulations.
In the building administration, it is necessary to improve existing buildings as earthquake resistant, fire prevention and energy conservation countermeasures. Grasp of the number of residual houses by building year is important. In this paper, the building year estimation method for existing buildings using "Housing and Land Statistics Survey" in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications(MIC) Bureau of Statistics. At first, the number of houses built in each year was estimated. The residual rate curve of the housing can be calculated using three parameters and three statistics (estimated housing starts before 1944, the number of new housing starts by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport since 1945, housing and land statistics survey). The building year distribution of housing in 2013 was estimated from the 2008 survival curve. The estimation result was similar to the statistics of 2013. This method was confirmed that this estimation method is effective for short-term future prediction. This estimation method is effective for grasping the number of residual houses for each building year which was previously difficult. For example, in the total number of homes, the total number of houses with residence, vacancy, in a lost house. Furthermore, changes in the number of residual houses by construction year were obtained by comparing estimation results of "housing and land statistics surveys" every 5 years.
In recent years, the associations in which the elderly households lend real estate assets to another household to help them change their residence have appeared. Although elderly households have much savings, they require an additional 60,000 yen to live each month. In addition, since the average life span has extended, there is a risk that they might use up their savings in later years of their lives. Real estate utilization of elderly households is expected as a means to improve this situation. Suburban areas have cheap rent rate compared to the central area of the city. Therefore, if the elderly households put out their real estate assets in the market, it will be possible to find new residents of their houses. The purpose of this study is to clarify the number of elderly single and couple households who live in big detached houses located in suburban areas and the features of suburban municipalities that the percentage of those households are high. At first, we analyzed the number of elderly single and couple households who live in big detached house. The analysis revealed that about 3.7 million elderly single and couple households live in residences which are over 100 m2 and about 42% of those households live in suburban areas. Then, we analyzed the features of the suburban municipalities where there is high percentage of those households by doing factor analysis. The result of analysis shows that about 38% of these municipalities are located in suburban areas and they are affected by two factors. One factor is the degree of urbanization. The other is population density of factory workers. Finally, we categorize municipalities where there is a high percentage of those households. As a result of cluster analysis, these municipalities can be classified into five types using the following parameters: households, residences, economic levels and industry. Type I is the area where progress in urbanization and percentage of factory workers are low. Municipalities of type I are located in the suburbs of metropolitan area Type II is the area where progress in urbanization and percentage of factory workers are high. Municipalities of type II are also located in the suburbs of metropolitan area. But they are far from the center of the metropolitan area than those of type I. Type III is the area where is not affected by two factors. Municipalities of type III are far from the center of the metropolitan area than those of type II. Type IV is the area that urbanization is not progressing and percentage of factory workers are high. Municipalities of type IV are far from the center of the metropolitan area than type III. Type V is the area where urbanization is not progressing and percentage of factory workers are low. Half of type V is located in the suburbs of metropolitan area. The other half is far from the center of the metropolitan area than those of type IV.
1. Introduction Aging of public facilities has become an urgent issue. On the other hand, Local government finance is increasing the severity by population decline and aging. From such a situation In April 2014, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications requested municipalities to formulate a “Comprehensive Management Plan of Public Facilities and Infrastructures.” In response to this request, all the municipalities have formulated a comprehensive management plan, but many local governments are thinking how to plan the individual facilities. Although there are many local governments who are considering implementing facility evaluation, information on specific evaluation methods is limited, and in many cases, evaluation is not implemented because of no know-how.
2. Purpose of This Study The purpose of this study is clarification the implementation status of the facility evaluation and concrete facilities evaluation method. As for quantitative evaluation, we will consider the concept of evaluation axis, the content of indicators, how to compile indicators, and how to classify evaluation results. As for qualitative evaluation, consider the viewpoint of evaluation and how to proceed with evaluation.
3. Research Method The method of investigation was conducted a questionnaire survey targeting municipalities that have already formulated a plan in April 2015. The survey items were the formulation status of the individual facility plan, the presence or absence of the facility evaluation, the facility evaluation method and the evaluation task and the result.
4. Research Result Studies have revealed the following. ·More than half of the municipalities that have formulated comprehensive management plans such as public facilities have decided to conduct facility evaluations, and many municipalities implement in a year or two after formulating a comprehensive management plan. ·Both quantitative evaluation and qualitative evaluation are necessary for facility evaluation, and the direction of individual facilities is determined after implementing both quantitative evaluation as a primary evaluation and qualitative evaluation as a secondary evaluation. However, in local governments with a small population size, many local governments determine the direction of individual facilities without conducting primary evaluation and secondary evaluation. ·Quantitative evaluation consists of three perspectives: building performance, usage situation, and cost. It is mainstream to evaluate by using two evaluation axes such as usage situation (software aspect) that summarizes usage situation and cost into one and building performance (hardware aspect). ·The viewpoint of qualitative evaluation can be summarized into three of "need for measures", "alternative possibility", and "placement situation".
In this research we conducted a long-term survey of the actual states of repair construction on buildings. From the investigation, we estimate the most suitable renewal cycle of the parts and equipment in buildings. If we know the appropriate renewal cycles of major parts and equipment in buildings, we can keep buildings in good conditions for long time.
1) In the first half of the analysis, we surveyed the current situation of repairing works conducted on 668 buildings. Preventative repair works are periodically carried out, however it was understood that the number and the cost of reconstruction after the malfunction takes much more proportion than those of preventative repair works. 2) In the middle stage, we researched the reliability and the failure rate of various part and equipment in buildings and estimated long-term tendencies. The rough life span of the building parts and the types of equipment were estimated from the calculated reliability functions. It was made clear that the life spans of them are almost about 30 years. The failure rate gradually increased a little around 15-20 years after completion. 3) In the final section, we used the total maintenance costs, calculated by the failure rate and the failure risks, and estimated the most suitable renewal cycle of the parts and equipment in buildings. As a result, it turned out that the failure risk has a large impact on the determination of the optimal renewal cycle. As for the electrical equipment, the suitable optimal cycle is around 20 years when the failure risk increases threefold. It will be around 15 years if the failure risk increases tenfold.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the architectural structure of buildings in paintings through analysing pictorial representations. What we mean by pictorial representations is the two-dimensional representation of architectural objects. More specifically, we examined Boki-e, a set of painting scrolls produced in medieval Japan, and identified the munamochibashira (base-to-ridge post) structure of the buildings painted on them. The pictorial representations may solely represent what we would see in reality or may include elements we would not see as well. The fukinuki yatai technique used in Japanese paintings since early times is the latter type of pictorial representation, providing a downward view of the inside of a building by omitting elements above a certain height, viz., roof and ceiling in the case of Boki-e. By architectural structure we refer to the framework of major elements that support the building. Techniques such as fukinuki yatai can capture the architectural structure of a building by presenting its relevant elements, including those that would be hidden from the eye from the chosen angle. We focused on the structure with base-to-ridge posts because whether it was used in medieval Japan or not was an issue. If we find that structure in paintings produced during that period, such as Boki-e, it is likely that buildings with the structure actually existed at that time. We selected Boki-e as the subject of our study because it had a number of characteristics that were advantageous for our purpose: it is painted clearly in a detailed manner; its year of production and authorship are determined; and it uses the fukinuki yatai technique so that we can see the structure of buildings. In order to know the details of the architectural structure painted in Boki-e, we paid special attention to how the joints of the horizontal (beam) and vertical (column/post) elements are drawn in the painting and discerned if the vertical post is separated at the joint or not. As for the horizontal elements, we carefully observed kugikakushi (nail head covers) and funahijiki (boat-shaped bracket arms) in particular. kugikakushi were painted on the uchinori nageshi (beams above doors or windows), and funahijiki had nokigeta (eave purlins) on top of them. We found that, of the buildings painted in the fukinuki yatai style, the two horizontal elements, uchinori nageshi and nokigeta, were shown at the same height. That is to say, the two horizontal elements at different heights in real buildings were painted as one material, either as uchinori nageshi or nokigeta. The conflated horizontal elements were merely set onto the vertical elements (with the technique called katafuta). As such, there is no separation of the vertical elements at the joints with the horizontal ones. Thus, we demonstrated that, among the vertical elements, those that reach the ridge are munamochibashira (base-to-ridge posts) as they are not separated at the joint with the horizontal materials. In our examination of Boki-e, we identified the characteristics of the horizontal elements by focusing on the nail head covers and boat-shaped bracket arms and analysed the pictorial representation of those characteristics. As a result, we found that in a number of cases the vertical elements, painted in different ways, were supporting the ridge directly (i.e., base-to-ridge posts) without being separated at the joint with the horizontal elements. We think that it is safe to assume that the houses painted in Boki-e represent those which existed in medieval Japan. Therefore, we concluded that there indeed were buildings with the base-to-ridge post structure at that time.
This article considered the Osaka Arsenal which J. Conder investigated after the Nobi earthquake, and it's following points to become clear. The Arsenal Office which Condor reported was written down as "honkyoku" in "Zenzu Meiji20nen-sirabe", and was designed in about 1875 by S, Yoshii. The building which Condor reported in "NOTES" as "the other principal buildings" were written down in "Zenzu Meiji20nen-sirabe" with "kajiba syadaiba” , and were built before September, 1885. The building reported in "NOTES" by Condor as "large workshop" was written down in "Zenzu Meiji20nen-sirabe" with "rokuroba”, and in "Enkakusi" with "honkyoku”, was started construction in about March, 1879 and completed in June, 1881. The plan of this workshop followed the original form until World War II, and the part was left until 1981. The adjacent facilities where Conder wrote in "NOTES" that suffered great damage by the collapse of the chimney, were called "tankoba" and "mizusitu" with "Zenzu Meiji20nen-sirabe" and the neighborhoods.
In the history of Khmer architecture, it is well known that there was a transition from wooden construction to stone construction during the early 10th century to the second half of the 11th century. Also well known in the course of transition there was a period when wooden roof structure with tile on the stone structure wall appeared. There was a famous study by J. Dumarcay on the construction of wooden roofs in these periods, and the critically revisited by Chika Sawada, Kunikazu Ueno, there are many unclear elements requiring further study. The connection of the wooden roof structure and stone structure wall was a very technical problem in the period of transition from wooden to stone structure. This report studied and organized the process of transition of the pole plate and beam at the upper part of the stone wall with a central focus on Preah Vihear because the monument had a history of continuous extension and reconstruction from about end of the 9th century to 11th century. Additionally, a comparison with other temples constructed in a similar age showed similar trace elements with Preah Vihear. Concurrently, the result of this study includes a new proposal to the construction process of Preah Vihear adding to proposals by H. Parmentier, and S. Sahai. Koh Ker monuments did not have a pole plate and put the beam directly on the stone structure wall, whereas the pole plate was generated after the East Mebon. The pole plate in this period was embedded in the upper face of the stone wall, and from around 1000 AD was put on the upper face. There are many cases where stone parts had the decoration of roof tile on the outside. Although in the early period the beam was thicker than the pole plate and the beam was set under the pole plate, from around second quarter of the 11th century the position of beam and pole plate reversed and beam set on the pole plate. The size of beam and pole plate became the same, and stone parts were used to cover the upper parts of the pole plate from rain water. Based on this study, the phases of the construction process and period of each building in Preah Vihear can be proposed with the other temples being the benchmark of age had wooden roof structure on the stone structure wall. Each construction period is possible to define become in the later period if the same technique was applied the process shows the upper limit of the period. 1) Jayavarman IV (928-941): attached building in Prasat Thom, transept of the gopura in Prasat Krachap, 2) Rajendravarman II (944-968), third quarter of the 10th century: East Mebon, Pre Rup, attached building of Banteay Srei (before reconstruction) 3) Jayavarman V (968- around 1000), fourth quarter of 10th century?: attached building of Banteay Srei(after reconstruction), attached building of Ta Keo, preceding building shaped as “一” (center part of H') at the west of Gopura III and building E in Preah Vihear 4) Suryavarman I (1002-1050), end of 10th century – first quarter of 11th century : Gopura I and II and west attached building shaped as “コ” (I') and east attached building shaped as “一” (H) of Gopura III, building F 5) Suryavarman I (1002-1050), second quarter of the 11th century: east attached building shaped as “コ” (I) of Gopura III 6) After Udayadityavarman II (1050-1066), second half of the 11th century – 12th century: Gopura III, IV, and V in Preah Vihear
This study discusses the characteristics and transformation of stupas which were the main constitutive element of ancient Gandhara Buddhist temples. The decoration in Gandhara Buddhist temples had been transformed stone sculpture into stucco; exposed stone masonry of remains, which is the target of conservation, seen at present is groundwork for stucco finishing or decoration that peeled away. However, previous Gandhara studies have been limited to only the layout and the finishing decoration from the art history and archaeological point of view. This study examines the stone masonry component of stupa plinths which have had conservation and repairing and also analyses the characteristics and transformations by examining field surveys in three areas of current Pakistani Central Gandhara, Taxila and Swat, and considering excavation survey reports of seven remains. The previous articles I~III have discussed the characteristics and transformation of stupa plinths in each area. In this article, i.e. IV aims to examine processes and dates of transformation of stupa plinths through the interregional comparison. We examined the forms of stupa plinths from five sites out of seven sites under study where the construction era remains were reported. And it is illustrated with chronological figure (Fig. 1). There seems to be no established classification of forms of stupa plinths, therefore this study attempted at trial classification and analysis based on only physical forms. There are circular and square types of stupa plinths in Gandhara, a square type is a majority. As a preconditions for analysis, we categorised the form of the square type of plinths into single, double and multiple story types, also divided single story type into plinths with pilasters and without pilasters. Double story type divided into two types, one is that the size of upper and lower story are the same, and the other type is that the upper story smaller than the lower story. The conclusions are as described below. - The majority was single story type followed by multiple story type. - The forms of stupa plinths transformed from single type to multiple story type. Single story types were in the early time, i.e. the beginning of establishment of Buddhist temple or just after that which is the first century A.D., and a lot of stupas of both with pilasters and without pilasters had continued constructing. Multiple story type started to be built later in the second century. - Single story type was kept constructing from the first century to the early half of third century, and until the fifth century especially at Butkara I site. - Significant regional characteristics were not found in the Central Gandhara; a unique double story type was found only at Takht-i-bahi site. - In Taxila, it was found that the height of multiple story type becomes higher as time advances, and single and multiple story types started to being built a little earlier than other areas. - Multiple story type was a minor in Swat, and unique forms which are presumed to be a double story type were found at all three sites. Thus it was found that stupas in Gandhara has common features in it's transformation and also has regionally differences in features.
In this research, about Ancestral Hall Architecture in She County, formation and division of Ancestral Hall in Lineage Settlements, further spatial structure and architectural qualities of Ancestral Hall Architecture has been investigated. The result is summarized as follows. I. About lineage settlements, according to inflow of immigrants, single-lineage and multi-lineages these two types of villages existed from Tang and Song dynasty until Ming dynasty. In both types villages, Ancestral Hall for worship Lineage First Ancestor or First Immigration Ancestor, Branch-Ancestral Hall for worship The Ancestor of A branch, Worthies-Shrine for worship specific person, lot of these Ancestral Hall Architectures have been built, and some of remains in country side were left. II. About Ancestral Hall Architecture, when entering the Ming Dynasty, because inheritance and branching of lineages and dispersion of the Lineage Settlements to neighboring areas, Total-Ancestral Hall, Head-Ancestral Hall, Major Branch-Ancestral Hall, Minor Branch-Ancestral Hall and Family-Ancestral Hall has been created, they can be classify into four types which is Ancestral Hall System (Total-Ancestral Hall, Head-Ancestral Hall), Branch -Ancestral Hall System (Branch-Ancestral Hall, Major-Branch-Ancestral Hall, Minor-Branch-Ancestral Hall), Family-Ancestral Hall System and Worthies-Shrine System. III. About Ancestral Hall Architecture, in Ming and Qing dynasty ling up Entrance-hall, Sacrificial-hall, Memorial-hall and Courtyard to creating one space-unit called JIN, the Basic type 3JIN-type was formed. Once more, from small type 1JIN3KEN to large type 5JIN7KEN various types appeared in same time. After, Ancestral Hall System using 3JIN5KEN, Branch-Ancestral Hall System and Family-Ancestral Hall System using 3JIN3KEN or 2JIN3KEN, plane format follow Ancestral Hall Architecture's classify became to settle. From these scale and size, scale of building can be change by increase and decrease number of depth (JIN) and intervals between two pillars (KEN). And, compare Ancestral Hall Architecture in Ming and Qing dynasty, remains in Ming dynasty were larger, in Qing dynasty both of Ancestral Hall and Branch-Ancestral Hall using relatively smaller scale of plane format than Ming dynasty. The reason is in Ming Dynasty Ancestral Hall Architecture was built only by powerful lineage, but in Qing dynasty Ancestral Hall Architecture was built by branched lineage more than powerful lineage. IV. About Frame format, because Entrance-hallSacrificial-hall and Memorial-hall constitute Ancestral Hall Architecture are using common, constructive structure is same no matter scale is large or small. Format of Entrance-halls have including Side-side Space, Wall-side Space, Side-central-side Space. Sacrificial-halls have including Side-central-side Space, Side-central-side-side Space. Memorial-hall constitute by Side-central-side Space. Most of Side and Central Space using Post & Lintel Construction by Central-bay sectional view, and Mix-construction which combining Post & Lintel Construction and Column & Tie Construction's feature has been used by Side-bays sectional view. Central pillar, KOYAURA is hanging over the ceiling, and Bracket Sets or Decorative Brackets has been used on Eave Column. Besides, by using Less-column-made or Shift-column-made in front or back colonnade of Entrance-hall, Sacrificial-hall and Memorial-hall, high continuity space can be created by Central-yard.
This paper aims to consider the historical development on transitional zone of dome employing triangles in Islamic mausoleums built from the second half of the 12th to the first half of the 15th century in Anatolia. When looking at the transitional zones of the target 50 mausoleums, the transitional zones can be classified into five types from their morphological characteristics (Table 1). Their morphological characteristics, and their regional and chronological distributions were discussed in the section 2. Based on the results of the section 2, the relationship between each transitional zone were considered with paying attention to the location, the foundation date, and the lower and upper end of transitional zone in the section 3 (Fig. 24). “Small Triangle” placing a small stone with two notched triangles were used at each corner of the octagonal lower end of the transitional zone in the earliest two mausoleums (No. 42 and 43) of all which were built in the middle part of Anatolia. This transitional zone continued to be used till the first half of the 14th century (No. 46) as it showed minor changes. Focusing on the other mausoleums of which lower end of the transitional zone is octagonal, although No. 2 in the first half of the 13th century had 16 triangles like No. 42, “Turkish Triangle” was used by enlarging each triangles. Since the more complicated “Turkish Triangle” were applied to No. 8 and 9 having the octagonal lower end, it is presumed that “Turkish Triangle” applied to the octagonal transitional zone had evolved more complicated and precise after the second half of the 13th century. “Turkish Triangle” also began to be applied to the mausoleums of which lower end of the transitional zone is square in the first half of the 13th century. In the 13th century, “Turkish Triangle” which had large and a small number of triangles (No. 3 and 6) or which looks like “Discontinuous Turkish Triangle” (No. 4 and 7) were used. However, it can be pointed out that “Turkish Triangle” became complicated with using a larger number of triangles than before in the 14th century (No. 12 and 13), and it gradually propagated to the west. Contrary to “complicating” mentioned above, “Small Triangle” used for the mausoleums of which lower end of the transitional zone is octagonal showed a change to the simplified transitional zone which used only one triangle at each upper corner of the body (No. 45 and 49). A similar change can be seen in the “Turkish Triangle” applied to the mausoleums of which lower end of the transitional zone is square. While “Turkish Triangle” had been used since the first half of the 13th century, “Discontinuous Turkish triangle” (No. 31 and 32, etc.) was created in the middle part of Anatolia as a different type of “Turkish Triangle” in order to provide four openings in the transitional zone, and then it was introduced into the west as one formulated transitional zone in the 14th century (No. 36 and 39, etc.). Furthermore, “Turkish Fan” was also created in the middle part of Anatolia as a new transitional zone that simply and smoothly compose each upper corner by 2 or 3 triangles (No. 14). In conclusion, the transitional zone employing some small triangles, which is “Small Triangle”, was created first in the middle part of Anatolia. Based on this transitional zone, the various transitional zones, such as “Turkish Triangle”, “Discontinuous Turkish Triangle”, and “Turkish Fan”, were created by the two conflicting methods like complicating or simplifying and their use areas were expanded to the western part of Anatolia over time.
In the process of reconstruction after the Showa Sanriku tsunami, a social improvement policy based on the movement of economical rehabilitation for villages was implemented in addition to the rebuilding of damaged houses and land at many villages. And, the author revealed how the villages after the Showa Sanriku tsunami reconstructed after the Showa Sanriku tsunami in his previous paper. On the other hand, there are not many studies on the reconstruction of the Meiji Sanriku tsunami. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify the reconstruction of the early stage modern state by analyzing the policy of the administration after the Meiji Sanriku tsunami and the reality of the reconstruction in the affected villages. The central government's involvement in the reconstruction was limited, the Meiji government only supplied fund. Moreover, the amount of fund supply was not sufficient. However, due to the fact that many donations from the private sector gathered, the amount of relief provided to the victims was enough to reconstruct small houses. On the other hand, local governments played leading roles. For instance, Miyagi Prefecture encouraged relocation of affected villages, and borne the cost of maintenance of the contact road. Iwate Prefecture dispatched staff to affected villages and supported industrial reconstruction. Using cadastral maps and land registers, the paper investigates the details of physical reconstruction of Kirikiri village, among the 122 damaged houses, 52 were found to have been relocated to the higher places. And it seems that it was restricted to live in an area close to the sea, despite lack of administrative guidance. Industrial reconstruction was promptly accomplished through appropriate measures according to the situation of the villages through efforts of staff dispatched from the prefecture and influential people of the villages. Even though it was not enough, the national fund was put into the afflicted area and used for the reconstruction of the victimized villages. Such situation was not seen in disaster recovery before the early modern (Edo period), which was limited to the relief of the poor. However, it was local governments such as prefectures and counties that played important roles in actually rebuilding industries and houses in the affected villages. However, it should be noted that some fortune, such as good fishery and large donations, helped the quick recovery after the tsunami.
From the middle ages, Tavoliere plain in Apulia Region was the center of the wool industrial and customs for the sheep farming was placed. Sheeps had moved looking for grass from the settlements of Apennnes during for winter. Tavoliere plain was a grain-growing district in Italy. A peculiarity of agriculture in southern Italy were land-use of extensive agriculture and an existence of a large land owner. The purpose of this study is to clarify the spatial structure of Tavoliere plain where grazing and cultivation coexisted in pre-modern times. In this paper, we look at the atlas of the pasture land in detail, and analyze the spatial structure while comparing it with the statistics and drawings of farmland. In this plain, the sheep tracks and pasture lands for migration were developed by the kingdom of Naples. Three kinds of sheep tracks are decided, the thickest roads extended from the mountains to Foggia. The narrow roads were stretched in Tavoliere plain to move to the assigned pasture land. The grazing area set in 23 blocks was about 15,400 carri (3802.5 km2) in total, of which about 8930 carri (2,205 km2) was pasture. Other than that it was crop cultivated land, vineyard, vegetable field and pasture ground for dairy animals etc. In the atlas “Atlante delle locazioni del Tavoliere di Puglia di Antonio e Nunzio di Michele di Rovere” (1686), roads for movement of sheep, lodging with livestock houses (posta), large-scale farmers (masseria) and dairy pastures (mezzana) ware drawn, but crop cultivation (portata) was hardly drawn. Compared with the drawing of the individual cultivated land, it turns out that there was also rotatable cultivated land in fact. On the other hand, there were few settlements in the plains, many in the surrounding hills. And around the village there were subdivided vegetable fields and fruit tree plantations. In conclusion, there were not only grazing lands for sheeps and posta in Tavoliere plain, fragmented land use including cereal crop rotation cultivated lands, pasture grounds for domestic animals, vegetable gardens and fruit tree plantations were done. And it was the movement of people and sheep from other areas that supported the development of the large-scale farm in the plain and the wool industry in southern Italy.
Pompeii had a grid pattern of narrower streets, which were suitable for one-way traffic. On this paper, the traffic-controlling is discussed, followed by the reconstruction of carts and some impediments related to the carts such as stepping-stones, public fountains, and parking animals/carts, and town gates. The main cart-traffic artery can be detected, finally, besides the broad streets called Cardo and Decumanus. Carts running in Pompeii: on the narrow streets a 4-wheeled carts were severely to be restricted to a minimum and the use of certain 2-wheeled carts encouraged. In addtion to the 4- or 2- wheeled carts, which should be preceded by a 'runner' (cursor) in Pompeii, pack donkeys and men carrying packs were also possible. The runner on the cart, who controlled the cart using the brake, was also definitely need, because of the slopes quite steeply in that town. Impediments on the streets: the stepping stone and public fountains were physical impediments against the cart traffic. Parked animals and carts, which also partially obstructed the streets, are negative evidence of well-regulated lane traffic. On a distribution maps of tethering holes of parked animals cut into sidewalks (Fig. 14) the designated find occurs in sufficient numbers and they spread for meaningful patterns to emerge as below. 1) All observed streets have holes cut into sidewalks on both sides except for a unique case of the southern part of Via di Porta Nocera. 2) Outside of the gates, there is no example of the holes. This means that animals could be quite popular in the transportation inside of the gates. 3) Some areas that form throughroutes to the Vesuvio, Sarno, and Nocera Gates tended to have a high frequency with which these holes are found, as well as a high occurrence at the wide streets around the Forum. 4) The holes in the north-east area of Pompeii occurred more frequently than in the south-west area. We possibly overestimate the capacity of Strada Stabia for transportation and underestimate that of Strada Consolare without any stepping-stones and public fountains as obstacles against cart traffic (Fig. 9). Gates: the town gates of Pompeii were built to a common design, narrowed to only one lane and providing one-way alternating traffic, except for the Ercolano Gate. That means the carts entering and exiting the town through the gates were stopped, even though the streets leading to the gates were enough to accommodate two lanes of cart traffic moving in opposite directions. An attempt has been made to classify these gates not by shape, but function, such classification do much to aid our understanding of the cart traffic. This comprehensive and orderly classification of their 5 types in Fig. 18: the highest is the Ercolano Gate build on almost flat ground with two-way lanes, two sideways, two passing places on both sides, and holding area on the outside. Main cart-traffic artery: Strada Consolare shows a few of design feature directly related to their function as the main traffic artery, most importantly to provide secure one-way alternating traffic, such as good visibility and waiting places. Cart drivers chose this route connecting to Via della Fortuna and Strada Stabia rather than the Strada Stabia leading to or from the Vesuvio Gate. Pompeian local government keep cart traffic moving not by standardising the construction of vehicles and streets, and not by controlling or regulating the behaviour of drivers either. But it forced cart drivers to follow the route they intended by avoiding snarled, inconvenient, and inefficient traffics.
The aims of this research are to understand the construction history, subsequent refurbishment, and use of existing oceanic architectures and to clarify the establishment cause, location, and facility use of oceanic architectures, from which we may recognize the current state of the oceanic buildings and propose new ways of using maritime areas in the future. First, a wide variety of facilities of oceanic architectures have been built all over Japan in line with economic growth since 1960. However, in the 2000s as public interest in oceanic architectures become sluggish, many facilities have been forced to close. Under these circumstances, the use of marine areas has been recognized again in recent years, and the interest in oceanic architectures has been reintroduced. For the survey method, we first confirmed existing examples using aerial photographs and clarified the operation status of the facilities. Based on this, we selected ten study subjects. We carried out on-site survey at the target facilities and conducted interview survey to local governments, facility owners, etc. In addition, we collected relevant design books and materials, understood the facility outline, construction history, usage trends, and the surrounding location. As a result, it was confirmed that oceanic architectures are closely related to the surrounding seas. In addition, it was confirmed that oceanic architectures have a certain base as regional entities, and increasing the usefulness of facilities can be achieved by acquiring new added values through continuous use of the maritime area.