The objective of this study is to develop a simple and practical model for predicting overall convective heat transfer coefficient in compartment fires. Experiments using a small scale (500mm cube) and a medium scale (1,500 mm cube) compartments were conducted to investigate the influence of ventilation on convective heat transfer coefficient. As a result, the following findings have been obtained. (1) Convective heat transfer coefficients in case that there are both of the flow induced by heat release of origin and the one induced by ventilation are always lager than in case that there is no ventilation. (2) The convective heat transfer coefficient can be divided into two components, i.e. one due to the flow induced by heat release of origin and the other due to the flow induced by ventilation. (3) The part of the convective heat transfer coefficient due to ventilation can be expressed as a function of the dimensionless opening mass flow rate.
It is important to treat a sound field with a public address system as a whole system. Therefore, special numerical procedures are developed to express a sound field as a system equation. Firstly, theoretical methods to identify system equations are introduced by applying finite element method and boundary element method to the inhomogeneous wave equation respectively. Secondary, an experimental method to identify a system equation is proposed on the basis of experimental mode analysis. Numerical examinations about calculation of impulse response with system equations and experimental mode analysis are carried out to clear numerical characteristics of system equations.
This presents social surveys on community responses to road traffic noise that were carried out by telephone in Sapporo and Kumamoto, which have different climates. The dose-response relationships for general annoyance and interference with activities showed no systematic differences between the cities. Applying path analysis to the response and noise data revealed similar annoyance profiles. However, the effect of disturbed TV/radio listening on annoyance was stronger in Kumamoto, which is probably a result of the custom there of spending a great deal of time in well air-conditioned rooms in this hot area. A scheme for the abatement of noise annoyance is also discussed.
In this study two experiments were carried. The aim is to investigate the effects of familiar noises with a moderate sound level of 60 dB LAeq on physiological responses, task performance and psychological responses. The results are as follows: 1. The effects of traffic noises on physiological response, task performance and psychological responses relate to the range of level fluctuation and whether the noise event is predictable or not. 2. Railway noise is easy to adapt because the event of railway noise is predictable. 3. Psychological responses fluctuate with the length of noise exposure.
An experiment on the evaluation of modelling of human face at a window was carried out. Such a modelling have been usually investigated only in the direction parallel to the window. However, in the present study the position of subject to the model and the direction of the model's face were considered. As a result, it is found that the modelling scale values are not efficiently estimated by the commonly used simple indices such as vertical illuminance ratio and that they are precisely estimated by a multiple linear regression equation, in which the parameters are quantities of light from and to the window and from the visual direction of the subject to the model.
This report describes a procedure to complete missing data of hourly sunshine duration in AMeDAS data. Mainly two completion methods have been examined. The first one is to replace the missing hourly sunshine duration by the data observed at one of the surrounding AMeDAS stations. On applying this method, the procedure to select the most appropriate surrounding station is necessary. The second one is to generate the missing data by linear interpolation using the data observed at the same station. Since the accuracy of the second method decreases in proportion with the length of the missing period, it can only be applied when the missing period continues less than the threshold hours investigated in advance in order to be applicable to various cases. Missing hourly sunshine duration in AMeDAS data during 1981 through 1995 have been completed by combining the two methods described above.
A model of the human body must reflect on physiological factors such as body surface area (BSA) and configuration factors between the human body model and its surroundings. In this study, a rectangular frame was fabricated and 3900 scales were incorporated to accurately measure loci of the specific points on the subject's body surface. The model of subject's whole body was then described on three dimensional graph and its surface area and configuration factor were compared with BSA measured with a ganpi paper method and the effective radiation factor (ERF) measured with a photografic method, respectively. BSA and ERF of models described with 16mm and 48mm coordinates showed no significant differences as compared with true values. Therefore, a roughly shaped model of maximum 48mm coordinates may be applicable with regard to BSA and ERF.
In order to indicate the effect of floor heating on the human body sitting on a floor it should be taken into account to estimate not only heat convection and radiation but also heat conduction between the human body and the floor. The objective of this paper is to introduce modified operative temperature to accomplish the above, and to verify the temperature using experimental data. Experiments were conducted in winter. Subjects were exposed to the following conditions : combinations of air temperature 20℃, 22.5℃ and 25℃, and floor temperature 20℃, 22.5℃, 25℃, 27.5℃, 30℃, 32.5℃, 35℃, 37.5℃ and 40℃ under still air at 50% relative humidity. The modified operative temperature calculated from the experimental data was compared with the modified operative temperature by numerical calculation of heat conduction and radiation interchange. They were fairly agreed with each other.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the thermal combined effect of the KOTATSU and an electric hot carpet on the human body. A series of experiments were conducted under the following combined conditions: three air temperature levels (8℃, 11℃ and 14℃) and three infrared lamp levels ('off, 'low' and 'high') with electric hot carpet level of 'high'. The following results were obtained: 1) The increase in thermal sensation vote with increasing mean skin temperature is apparent, and the trend is quite similar to the previous studies. 2) The mean skin temperature under using the KOTATSU and an electric hot carpet was higher than that under using only KOTATSU. The subjects seating at the KOTATSU with an electric hot carpet reported warmer than the subjects seating at the KOTATSU without a hot carpet. 3) Using the KOTATSU with an electric hot carpet has equivalent effect of 13℃ operative temperature rise at air temperature of 10℃.
In this paper a coupled simulation of radiation and convection is developed to investigate the convective and radiant heat transfer characteristics between a standing human body and the surrounding environment. The convective simulation, i.e. airflow simulation, is carried out using a low-Reynolds-number type κ-ε turbulence model. The radiant heat transfer is conducted by means of Gebhart's absorption factor method, and the view factors are obtained by the Monte Carlo method. The generalized curvilinear coordinate system (Boundary Fitted Coordinates) is used to represent the complicated shape of the human body. Fanger's model is adopted to investigate the internal heat transfer inside the body surface. The obtained results agree well with the experiments.
The amount of pollen particles intruded into dwellings were determined in laboratory and fields by optical microscope counting and quantitative determination of the cedar allergen. Collections were made by gravitational settlement for number counting and 8 stage-type Andersen samplers for allergen determination to obtain the concentration and the particle size distribution. 4 levels of ventilation rate were used to characterize the intrusion rate caused by the infiltration. Settlement in indoor space is small in quantity and the concentration of airborne particles, especially of small size, were higher. A comparison of the actual measurements and the theoretical prediction of the gravitational settlement which had been developed by us were made to prove valid.
Air filter leakage is one of the most important control point for verification and qualification of cleanliness of cleanrooms. In this paper, a model that expresses the number of penetrated particles through high-efficiency fibrous air filter with pin hole is proposed, by using 3 dimensionless parameters for the fundamental study of establishing filter leakage testing method. Leak rate and limitation of judgment caused by the difficulty of identifying the leakage particles from all the particles are calculated. The result of the calculation is that the face velocity have a great influence on the leak rate and limitation of judgment.
The measurements in a mock-up of the underfloor air distribution system with a pressurized shallow air plenum have revealed that a vortex or unidirectional air flow around the outlet causes the outlet air flow rate to be less than predicted. However, this can be improved by guide plates set around the outlet. Numerical simulation was carried out, and its results were good, only when the legs supporting the floor panels were included in the mesh-dividing process. The calculated distribution of outlet air flow rate was given practical accuracy through the adjusting procedure derived from the experimental analysis.
Streets are not space only for people to walk on. Especially, streets in commercial areas can be regarded as a place for many people to behave in various ways. Physical features of streets affect what people do on streets and how they do them. And existence of others may affect their behaviors, too. Also, what kind of behaviors people take affects the relationship with the street. It is, therefore, assumed that people's behaviors determine how they perceive the street. This study examines the factors which affect people's behaviors in various ways. At the same time, it also considers how streets appear to people depending on their kind of behaviors. At first, an evaluation experiment was done by showing picture of streets as stimuli. Factors in the experiment were width of the street, whether trees are planted or not, number of walkers and those who are staying, etc. As a result, it was found out that susceptibility of people's behaviors were strongly related to existence of others. However, this relationship was found to be dependent on the kinds of street; that is, in some cases existence of others disturbs their behaviors. Next, an experiment was done in which subjects actually behaved on some streets. As a result, it was found that 'suitability for human behaviors' depended on their attitude to perceive and behave on the street.
Thermal environments inside the continuous covered walkways located in Southeast Asia under the tropical climate were investigated on field observations in summer 1996, and evaluated by calculating SET^* and equivalent temperature of radiation. Solar radiation influenced thermal environment inside the continuous covered walkways. In daytime, SET^* inside the continuous covered walkways was lower than outside, however the evaluation for SET^* did not show comfortable environments. In nighttime, the situation was reversed. Curve of shadow for horizontal surface showed that at Taipei the continuous covered walkways shade direct solar radiation, however at Singapore does not shade.
This paper aims to describe and analyze the behavioral environment of single elderly residents in house, focusing on locational relationship of the behavioral places (sitting, eating, sleeping, and communicating with others) in their house and inside-outside relations. Used method were mapping of plan of the houses of 24 subjects in two areas - town area and housing complex area, and interviews with them. Findings are as follows. 1) The residents formed territorial hierarchy (from public to private) in their houses related to distance from entrance. 2) Two types of relationship between the hierarchy and house form were found - 'town type' and 'housing-complex type'. 3) These types affected meaning of outside space that the residents contact to at their sitting place.
The aim of this paper is to clarify changing of going out, doing for pleasure and using facilities for common use of the tenants who had lived in a home for the aged in 15 years. As a group of the tenants, significant differences were admitted at the frequencies of their going out and using the Japanese-style room and the gymnasium in 15 or 11 years. And by the case study, variety of their whereabouts dwindled and their leisures were changed in quality in 15 years.
To grasp user's characteristics of small scale workshops for disabled persons in Japan and to grasp their conditions of habitation and commutation, we made questionnaire survey in 1995 and examined following 10 indexes ;(1)sex distinction, (2)age, (3)rate of persons who have plural disabities, (4)rate of persons who need some help for walking, (5)rate of persons who need some help for excretion, (6)conditions before commuting to workshops, (7)way to commute to workshops, (8)means to commute to workshops, (9)hours for commuting to workshops, (10)consideration as to habitation for disabled persons. And we try to clear the characteristics by "main constituent of organization", "location" and "kind of disability".
In this study, the flow of action regarding to removing and reconstructing work(RRW) for preservation of historical buildings was made clear by examples. And the chenges of members that compose buildings were indicated clearly by symbolization of the members. The process for works of RRW was divided into 6 steps, and common elements of each work were extracted. And a matrix of 6 process of works and the elements of each work was made. By symbolization and this matrix, a framework that is able examine precise building system for preservation by RRW are shown.
We examined how correct the subjects identified scenes photographed on the way to college, and the tendency of their eye fixation on part of the way to college. The subjects were senior collage students and freshmen. The results were as follows. (1) The relationship of rate of identification between both of subjects was logarithm. (2) The average time of eye fixation was not different between both of them. (3) The main object of eye fixation was a building. (4) The tendency of eye fixation to special object was not different between both of them. (5) Some objects both of them saw often had high rate of identification.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how people understands the structure of interior spaces. Therefore, we developed new cognitive map "Puzzle-Map Method", and applied to the interior spaces of 10 typical planning elementary schools. As a result, it's very important to understand the interior spaces of elementary schools that the clear structure from entrance spaces to derivation spaces, effective relationships between elements and each space, and various spatial changings, i.e. open ceiling, slope, skylight.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influential factors in childrens' evacuation behavior. We surveyed children at 13 elementary schools and analyzed the influential factors by the ratio of routes taken towards and away from an assumed fire. The results are summarized as follows; 1)The ratio of routes away from the fire increase in proportion with the age of the children. 2)These ratios differ between same grade classes and also between schools. 3)These ratios are lower when the fire is on a lower floor than when it is on the same floor. It is important to train children and teachers for fire evacuation according to characteristics of grade, and school.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the campus design consensus between Master Architect (MA) and Block Architect(BA) as part of an Environmental Design Process by using the Master Architect Design Coordination System. To understand this subject, we analyzed discrepancies in judgment between MA and BA in communication, using the record of the design meetings proceedings. As a result, we found the following background to the final consensus: 1) The MA uses the Social power, stemming from special design skills and collected information, to settle differences. 2)The Social Relations Theory applies to settling of differences between MA and BA. 3) There is a consensus cycle that consists of three stages: consensus in conception, consensus in architectural form, and consensus in actual designing.
This thesis consists of two parts. First, the concept of 'form purification' is introduced, based on a review of multiple meanings as well as the importance of the preservation district zoning. On this basis, the indices for discriminating traditional aspects are examined through a field survey in each of the following three preservation districts; Narai, Ohmi-hachiman and Takayama, Japan. The usefulness of the indices; 'wall finish', 'roof-material' and 'depth-height ratio of eaves' are verified. These form the basis of the 'form-purification indices'; their definition and usefulness are to be shown in the second part of our study.
The purpose of this paper is to represent figure/ground perception of changing scenary image of landscape between daytime and nighttime, using image processing. First we investigate the colors of mountains, sky and buildings on photographs, comparing daytime and nighttime. Next we make gestalt images from the photographs, and concider the relation between the pictures and the elements (mountains, sky and buildings). Then we can see each changing scenary at daytime, twilight and nighttime devided figure/ground by deviding mountains, sky and town area.
A number of building damage surveys were carried out for different purposes after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. The damage surveys by local governments intended their use for property tax reduction while the survey by AIJ & CPIJ group aimed to get technical records. Quick inspections by many engineers were also conducted to mitigate secondary damage. This paper compares items of 11 surveys. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the methods of building damage evaluation and to discuss its difference in order to propose a new damage survey sheet based on the actual construction cost.
This paper presents a study on construction planning approaches for building projects with deep and large-scale underground work. Based on a variety of data extracted from seventy recent underground construction examples in Japan, a shoring method for a virtual model project is specified. A comparison in construction schedule and cost of the model is made between the cases with ordinary/conventional concreting procedure combined H-sections strut ("Kumitate shuuchuu kiribari" Method) and with top down construction procedure ("Sakauchi" Method). Rough estimate diagrams derived from a technical calculation program for shoring method will assist easy and quick selection of the most optimum construction method.
Architecture which supports both dwelling and economic activities plays indispensable role in making concrete form of social from early time. This study aims to make clear the roles of shophouses in urban living and regional development, through investigation of the using of building and town district, base on Malaysian social economic background. As the results, shophouses are important in 1) the dispersion of urban commercial and service functions, 2) the absorption and forming of multi-layered economic activities. Possibilities and indispensability, which are found from the spatial and system of shophouses; as a kind of acceptor for primary economic development and middle class economic growth, give important views for the formation of vivid urban life and diversity of urban activities.
Application of the computer-assisted construction management system in site, stored many kinds of construction progress data in computer. The stored data is expected to be used in construction planning phase, but the useful analysis for the stored data does not exist. The goal of this study is to establish the useful analysis for the stored data. This paper showed one kinds of analysis for the stored data of material handling in finishing work and equipment installation, in the automated construction system. We proposed the analysis based on the characteristic of the stored data, and the process of analysis from whole to detail. As a result, the methods are confirmed to be effective in feedback of planning of material handling in finishing work and equipment installation.
Tokugawa household Palace (KII feudal clan) was a typical example of feudal lords' palaces situated in Edo. This is a study on the exterior space of this palace. The results are as follows. 1) The plan of this palace was composed with tight relation to it's exterior space. 2) The exterior space of this palace was composed with materials which had regional character.
Using the archives of carpenter parties in rural villages of Settsu and Kawachi, we pointed out following. From the latter 17th century to the mid-18th century, domains had been completely fixed by the parties, which limited clients' choice of carpenters and caused various troubles. Against that, clients hired no-licenced carpenters and the parties coped with them by official notice. The regional union, which was remarkable from the mid-18th century, strengthened voices to regulations of the parties. Depending on these developments of clients, the parties who approved officially may have interpreted the control in their own way.
1. In Muko districts of Hyogo Prefecture, 32 of 38 schools were built of reinforced-concrete. 2. Ten free architects designed those school buildings. 3. In most cases, auditoriums were designed on the top floor, which was under the influence of elementary school buildings in Kobe City. 4. Each of architects has many different ideas, which reflect upon various design of schoolhouses. 5. Most of free architects set up the architecture office in their local city and they bacame master-architects there. 6. Architects such as Shimizu and Furuzuka set up the offices, made their living by designing elementary school buildings.
The grand tea-ceremony was held around the Higashiyama area, named "HIGASHIYAMA-CAICHAKAI". I have six materials which are useful to examine the HIGASHIYAMA-DAICHAKAI. Many guest-houses which were constructed in Meiji or Taisho era, were used for the place of this tea-ceremony. This tea-ceremony was held under the result of constructing the SUKI-KUKAN in modern period. At the same time, holding this tea-ceremony accelerated constructing the architectures and gardens ready for the as a place of tea-ceremony.
The Tokyo Municipal Office built wooden buildings for its 581 grade schools between 1932 and 1942 in the newly-added city area. For their smooth building, the office set and applied a design standard, which put stress on the low-cost building proof against wind, earthquakes and fire. It can be estiamted as one of the most systematic and well-designed wooden structures then. The standard was changed several tiems; the one revised right after the Muroto Typhoon in 1934 was the best among the standard's history and the ones after 1937 were related to the material control acts by the national government.
The authors investigated three marble buildings at Athena Pronaia Sancutuary in Delphi, Greece, in 1994-96. The objective of this paper is to report on the clamps which were used to connect adjacent blocks of these buildings and to analyze their shape, dimensions, use, etc. from the viewpoint of construction. The results of the analysis are concluded briefly as follows. 1) Each building had its own standard sizes for clamps. 2) The shape of clamps in two Archaic treasuries possibly depended on what kind of rock were used for blocks, but in the tholos only pi-shaped clamps were used for all the blocks. 3) The clamps came to be used even for foundations of the platform of newer buildings.
This research is a part of study on the characteristics of the modern movement in English Architecture through the activities of the MARS (Modern Architecture Research) Group in the English modern movement in architecture from its forming in 1933 to the disbanding in 1957. It shall be focused on the genesis and activities of the MARS Group in the 1930's and the process and internal and external influences of the MARS Exhibition called New Architecture in 1938. Methodologically, the study must be emphasized to discover and analyse the historical facts from the primary sources. Therefore, the aims of the study is, simultaneously to find and arrange the MARS as well as CIAM documents as a historiography of English modern movement in architecture.
This paper starts with a conviction that "Manyoh-Syu" poen no.52 is a text for the structure of Scenery. It is the last part of the hermeneutic thinking on the poem and the sequel to the previous paper on Scenery of "Yoshino". Considering the meaning of "Mii", or holly well, two places -Yoshino and Fujigahara- were integrated into the whole Scenery Structure of "Fujiwara-Kyo". In conclusion, the Scenery of "Fujiwara-Kyo" can be an example of the principles that the human being lives in the "Twofold-World".
Mercantilists formed a close league with free traders by sucking them up to new "Gentleman" class, and ruled England in the interests of the commerce and the Empire. Transformation of the architectural taste was continuously and finely graded as the English social order was. Snobs of free traders, who were looking for an adventurous advance into new worlds, inherited the idea of Palladianism and shared so called "Gentleman Culture". They mix the Palladian and the Gothick taste to make Palladian Gothiek. Rococo was agreeable for free traders who had strong bent for going to the expense of acquiring "surveyable" wealth". Decorated Gothic reminds snobs of a pleasant success story, namely promotion to be "Gentleman" class, of Middle Ages merchants. They mixed the freedom and universality of Rococo, and Englishness of Decorated Gothic to make Rococo Gothick. Then, Palladian / Rococo Gothick became a status symbol for newly born gentlemen of free traders.
Terada central settlement was one of dense settlements which form was popular in Kinki area. In it, there remains 'chinarabi-cho, made at 1857', and it shows the shape of settlements in Terada village at Tensho and Enpo era. It explains that the dense settlement was formed until Tensho era, and then, it spread for highway till Enpo era. On the other hand, the highway settlement had vanished in 16th century, and it appeared in 17th century. These phenomena show that the change of the settlements has much relation to the situation of the epoch.
My hypothesis is that the model of subjective interpretation is based on abstract information process. In order to model the subjective interpretation for streetscape we analyze a relationship between adjectives and three graphical attributes color, direction, and position. We focus especially on the graphical descriptors such as Lab color system, its autocorrelation and rough image segmentation, which correspond to the graphical attributes. Our psychological experiment indicates that the subjective interpretation consists of "general evaluation", "spatial", and "textural" factors. By analysing the relationships between these three factors and the graphical descriptors, we find that each factor requires different graphical descriptors.
For Computer Simulation of City Landscape, there is need for data of many buildings in the city. But data of these buildings were usually made simple volume figures. It cause to misunderstanding about scale of city. And we cannot know a standing point quickly to see a image or animation of simple volume figure for city landscape simulation. To avoid this problem, we try to synthesize data of building walls from parameters that are extracted from real image of building walls to use pattern matching with restriction based on architectural rules.