Sangenkyoutei is the rare system that local government supports residents to make local scenery. On this system, residents using garden plants mainly to make good scenery. In this study, physical and psychological influences of Sangenkyoutei were analyzed on following 2 aspects. 1) Physical environment....The layout of the garden plants was inspected. And the section model of the local scenery was classified into some type. 2) Meaning.... By the narrative on resident's talking session, the meaning of the living environment (ex. Local scenery, Garden plants.) and activities (ex. Gardening) was analyzed.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual use of the outdoor spaces (e.g. alley, colonnade) and the elements influencing the formation of community in Qilou districts. This paper analyses the characteristic of residents' behaviour in the outdoor spaces and residents' consciousness in daily life about the outdoor space. As the result of the analysis, we can find residents use the outdoor spaces as community spaces, and colonnades and alleys have some subjects for conservation and re-improvement to take over as valuable space for residents.
This study aims to consider possibilities of development management for residential area by non-profit organization through theoretical analysis and a case study about concrete ideas and systems of a pioneer project in the United States. Tierra Contenta Corporation, which is the non-profit organization in the United States, has been developing Tierra Contenta residential area in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This development aims to create mixed-income community in the situation of gentrification and urban sprawl. The important points of an argument to consider methods of development management by public-private partnership in Japan are following: One is that the roundtable consists of pluralistic individuals should be problem-based. It is indispensable for this roundtable to have privatization and constitution as the non-stock corporation. And the other is the project-based non-profit organization. Japan doesn't have a grounding in non-stock corporations culturally and institutionally, so that it means a kind of strategy to train NPOs fundamentally in Japan.
Forty-eight cases of collegiate lecture rooms were psychologically assessed by students during regular classes through a semantic differential technique. Multi-variable analyses were then applied first to extract the structure of evaluation and then to predict students' satisfaction which represented the first and primary factor, namely, “overall evaluation.” Other factors were “lecture content,” “acoustics” and “communication.” Spatial and environmental planning guidelines for enhancing students' satisfaction as interpreted from the multiple-regression equation which explained 72.3% of variance were lower students' density, higher level of illumination, curbing of natural lighting and increased main window area per total wall area. Larger room depth as well as larger desk size increased satisfaction. Illumination, however, should be given priority over room depth. Twenty to thirty percent of illumination increase should compensate twenty percent decrease in room depth.
The purpose of this paper is to find the knowledge of space planning with adapting group living space for the severe symptomatic residents life. Therefore we focus spatial characteristics of private room ,common space, corridor space. And we consider the relationship between residents with severe symptoms life and these space. This study leads some conclusions as follows. Severe symptomatic resident's life tends to be passive. And these people live narrow area at space. So, these people need some variety relationship with others, activity, spaces. In order to make those life, we need to plan opened private room which lived severe symptomatic residents, and make whereabouts near severe symptomatic resident's room. At the same time, these whereabouts make at corridor. In doing so, severe symptomatic residents are able to relate variety others, activity, and variety comes to these people's life.
This paper intended to explore the problem solving behavior (PSB) of people in design tasks through simulated design process for interior works using interactive genetic algorithm (IGA). Through analysis of people's problem solving process when evaluating the juxtaposed images, it was revealed that people tend to do what they are certain of firstly, and make harder decisions later. The strategy helps them to unfold the problem gradually. It was also found that people did not tend to move their eyes to a faraway image in the interface constantly, which is more convenient for them.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the current state and the change of construction method of external insulation and asphalt waterproofing of flat roofing. The object of this study is the Kodan Housing, covering a period of 19 years from the year of 1984 to 2002. The reasons for the change of construction method were clarified as follows: (1) improvement of the durability of buildings and the waterproof ability (especially from 1984 to 1992); (2) improvement of the efficiency and rationalization of construction (especially in 1984); (3) the securing of quality of construction; (4) readjustment with new materials, new building methods, and new regulation; (5) readjustment with the problem of human health (especially in 1992, due to the problem of asbestos).
Architectural space is composed by the interrelationship of three elements; relationship between interior space and exterior space which created the space by putting the wall, relationship between interior space and interior space which is based on arrangement and expanse of room and wall and human being who enjoy two relationships and move in it. So to speak, the architectural design is pursuit of the interrelationship of three elements, and what were created by behavior are the outline, zone, and path. On this research, we define three kind of factor, outline which means expanse to exterior space, zone which means continuity of rooms and path which means positioning to the main rooms. Furthermore, we analyze by comparison of those factors and consider the interrelationship of three elements.
In this paper, we first figured out the planning trend of nursing homes with small group units through gathering case examples and typifying spatial composition. Then, the influence of spatial composition on residents' living aspects in these facilities was studied in an all day observational survey of residents' staying places and their personal interactions. Consequently, this paper found that the spatial composition and care system can partially prescribe the ambits of residents' living and personal interactions as follows: 1) Residents' living tends to be completed in each unit, especially when the units are independent. 2) The spatial composition inside each unit has an influence on residents' selection of staying places when there are choices other than a place to dine, and at the same time, a commitment of staff and so on take place. 3) Residents' interactions naturally do not tend to occur beyond each unit. However, residents' interactions occur widely beyond each unit when adjoining units are connected and also some care beyond physical unit, e.g., joint management, is provided.
This study aims to clarify some issues and concerns in the system of vacant house renovation, a part of the Migration Promotion Project for Middle Aged and Elderly. Clarified issues include: 1)Although the renovation budget is limited to 1.5 million JPY, if the local government staff and tenants themselves are involved in the renovation, basic housing functions can be guaranteed. 2)By flexibly arranging rooms to meet with their lifestyles and making good use of outdoor space, current tenants are generally satisfied with their housing. However, despite the benefits, tenants are reported to suffer from coldness in winter. Thus, insulation reinforcement of living rooms and bedrooms remains as future work especially for middle aged and elderly tenants.
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify indispensable conditions of “Management of Regional Resources” with constant citizen participation. We take a case utilizing a local currency system to form spheres of interactions of regional resources and citizens, and examined whether the system functioned effectively. As a result, as well as five known conditions, we find that it is necessary to work the management scheme that other indispensable conditions, reduction of burden to costs and creation of friendship, are satisfied. And we conclude that the system function to satisfy every conditions.
The objectives of this research are to understand the use of traditional houses, to identify the associated tourism impact from the standpoint of maintaining houses in the World Heritage Site, the Old Town of Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China. This is part of an investigation of the problems related to the rapid development of tourism and its pressures on the Old Town of Lijiang, focusing on the use of traditional houses. The findings revealed that the following three points were influencing the transformation of the use of traditional houses. 1) The place transformation of each function, such as living, guest room, and etc. in the traditional houses. 2) The area transformation of each function, such as living, guest room, and etc. in the traditional houses. 3) The social transformation surrounding the traditional houses in the Old Town of Lijiang.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish colonial cities established in Cuba focusing on San Antonio de los Baños as an irregular urban model, which has two plazas in the urban core and various types of plot division. This study has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps from AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla) and field survey. We clarified the original plan and transformation of San Antonio de los Baños based on the analysis of block size, block division, and plot subdivision. This paper is significant to show the Spanish Colonial city that did not follow Laws of Indies.
This study offers a preliminary understanding of transformation process which has taken place within the City of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania focusing on Kariakoo area. The paper discusses intensively the process, typologies and impacts of the transformation by identifying both formal and informal factors of transformation. The study clarifies the process of transformation by analyzing chronological changes in blocks from the year 1920 to 2006. Based on the analysis, it was observed that since most of transformation process took place informally, some spaces' meanings and architectural values have disappeared as well as introduction of new meanings and uses of spaces within the transformed area. Effective use of spaces between buildings as well as the newly introduced underground level and upper level commercial spaces in Kariakoo was observed in this study. Based on the findings, the study acknowledges the role of informal sectors to transform the area and to create new and effective ways to utilize urban spaces. However, the study suggests establishing planning regulations based on monitoring the transformation process.
This study focuses on the change in the system from the transition of satellite cities to the new cities. And in the Beijing city planning (2005), the three principal new cities, YIZHUANG/TONGZHOU/SHUNYI, are recognized as the eastern development belt. Through the analysis of their development plan, the difference between satellite cities and new cities is examined. Finally, the summary is given.
This study aims to clarify the realities of the moving out of the residents after the land reajustment project following the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. We made a questionnaire of the residents in the Misuga-nishi district, Kobe City where the project was enforced. Clarified points are as follows: 1) The population of the district is 60 percent of pre-earthquake and 60 percent of current residents have moved in from outside the district. 2) Half the number of the residents who moved out maintain a relation to the district where they had lived before the earthquake. 3) Details of the moves of the residents are varied and lasted for an unstable residence period of varing lengths. Only the residents who owned their own houses were able to evade an unstable residence period. 4) The residents who had an unstable residence period depended on facilities and human relations in the district where they had lived before the earthquake. Moreover, they evaluated the environmental characteristic as high. The difference of the dependency on community support influences the achievement level of the residents in reconstructing their lives.
The role of public works in the future is to continue movement by the private organization after the business. Chance and the mechanismmaking are necessary for that. I took up the business that featured the theme of a coal mine as the one example by Minamisorati region in Hokkaido Moreover, the business was advanced by the method of Sorachi Subprefectural's supporting the independence of the Community development group. I analyzed it from the next viewpoint. (1) How does the colliery inheritance in the participation region remain? (2) It is a difference of the establishment details of the group. (3) It does because of the content of the activity and the business. The role that the business carried out is the following. The business activated the activity of the group. In addition, the business found the talented person and brought about activity from a connection between the talented people.
A role of night lighting is necessary for our life. It's essential that creation of good night environment is based on the role of night lighting. Night lighting has the public aspects, and night lighting is result of our behaviors. This study consists of two surveys for assessment of current situation of night lighting, one is survey to 740 municipal monitors of Yokohama City, and other is survey to 213 main local governments in Japan. These were carried out in 2005 and valid response rates were 58% and 52%, respectively. The result pointed that night lighting include plus and minus aspects for night area environment, and night lighting is both private and public problem. Anticrime effects of night lighting were expected by both monitors and local governments, but many residential streets were lacked the lightness, the lighting fixtures were placed inappropriately. Local governments were mainly concerned with light pollution and energy saving. On the other hand, monitors recognized effects of illumination design for night scene of commercial area too.
Local cities are faced with reduction and aging of their populations associated with the hollowing-out of city centers. In order to solve these problems, regulations including the City Planning Law were revised, requiring public administrations to formulate an upper level plan. This has made it necessary for public administrations to extract beforehand districts where downtown redevelopment is feasible. In this study, the authors investigated post-redevelopment ratings of Komagane City by residents in the city center and their intention to promote future downtown redevelopment based on the city's urban form characteristics. This paper also attempts to estimate districts where downtown redevelopment is feasible, with residents being willing to promote downtown redevelopment, based on the characteristics of urban forms.
The purpose of this study is to estimate land coverage change and the characteristic of urbanization in city agglomeration in the middle and lower of Yellow River valley using Landsat data and the survey data of land use condition. Firstly, we created the maps of the land coverage classification, and found the actual situation of the land coverage. Secondly, we investigated the change of the built-up area by the Kernel Density Presumption method, and analyzed the effect from traffic infrastructure, maked the characteristic of the urbanization clear. Finally, we analyzed the change of NDVI and concluded the characteristic of the urbanization in the city agglomeration.
This study aims to research the selling, general and administrative expenses of different ‘sales-construction system’ enterprises in Japan. The results of the research are as follows: There were two types of sales-construction system. One group adopted the sales-construction system that was done by the enterprise itself, so called ‘direct system’. The other group adopted the sales-construction system that was done by housing agencies, so called ‘agency system’. The selling, general and administrative expense ratio of the ‘agency system’ enterprises is higher than the one of the ‘direct system’ enterprises.
This paper aims to examine housing support for dwelling distress household such as elderly persons, disable people, foreigners etc. Housing support for them to occupy private rental housing is necessary because they tend to be refused contracts and occupancies of rental housing by owners. To grasp the general condition of housing support, the nationwide questionnaire survey for housing department of 849 local governments was conducted, 691 answers about support policies of local government and support activities of non profit organizations were collected. From analysis of these answers, some characteristics are observed: 1) refusals of dwelling distress household become obvious on major metropolitan areas and housing support policies are provided by local governments of these areas; 2) non profit organizations enforce support activities directly and inclusively for many kinds of dwelling distress household; 3) policies by local governments and activities by non profit organizations are complementary to each other and some cooperative relationships are observed.
The study catches the figure of the market through the understanding of the temporary shop's shed. Small pits and stone's arranged pits were excavated as the temporary shop's shed in the early modern at KOSUGE in IIYAMA city of NAGANO prefecture. Small pits are signs of the post with fixed end struck into ground. Stone's arranged pits are signs of the post with set in the basic point. From the analysis, it is thought that small pits developed with stone's arranged pits. This change means the temporary shop's shed was developed to reproduce the scene of a non-daily market easily.
As a result of my consideration of the architectual control on the samurai residences in the Hagi Clan to the middle of the 17th century, the following points were obtained: 1. In Hagi Clan, there were rules about given residences and its business before 1661 when “Oose-idasare-joujou”, the basic rules of the architectual control, was enforced. 2. In the then architectual control,we found rules about uses of residences that became problem afterwards.
This paper aims to clarify Fukozu-Matsudaira clan's residences built in different places, namely Edo (11 residences), Kyoto (1 resdence), Osaka (2 residences), Nagasaki (2 residences)and Shimabara (2 residences), then to extract the clan's self-made layout planning drawings from layout planning drawings archived in Honkoji temple and Hizensimabara-Matsudaira-Bunko library.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the building and the meaning of Buddhist Sanctum at Yoko-ji[永光寺]. A summary will be given as follows: 1. Yoko-ji was bigger than Soji-ji[總持寺], because Keizan Jokin[瑩山紹瑾] did not build Buddhist Sanctum and “Hattou”[法堂] in Soji-ji while he lived. 2. In Buddhist Sanctum at Yoko-ji, Keizan performed a lot of ceremonies such as “shukusin-shushou”[祝聖修正] and “sanji-fugin”[三時諷経] with “darani-fugin“[陀羅尼諷経]. 3. The “sanji-fugin” performed in Buddhist Sanctum at Tofuku-ji[東福寺] had a meaning as external incantations and prayers. In the case of in Yoko-ji, it is thought that he performed as external incantations and prayers too, because of relations with “Keizan-shingi”[瑩山清規] and “Esan-koki”[慧山古規]. 4. Because Keizan regarded “shukusin-shushou” performed in Buddhist Sanctum at Yoko-ji as important, it is thought that he regarded the existence of Buddhist Sanctum in itself as important too. 5. Buddhist Sanctum at Yoko-ji was called “Kakukou-hoden”[覺皇寶殿]. It is thought that Buddhist Sanctum at Yoko-ji was the architecture to enlightenment the client, because of Gido Shushin[義堂周信]'s explanation and a similar instance in gosan”[五山]. 6. Keizan defined Yoko-ji as the base of the sect, and the place meeting with client as ceremony. And he defined Soji-ji as “sosho”[僧所] where a Buddhist priest trained himself. These accords with that he regarded external ceremony as important in Yoko-ji, and he planned in Soji-ji around a “sodo” [僧堂].
The purpose of this paper is to clarify an architectural history and character of Chateau Kamiya. Chateau Kamiya designed by Okada Tokitaro(1859-1926) was built by Kamiya Denbee(1856-1922) in September 1903. This building was the oldest comprehensive wine distillery in brick in Japan. In Chateau Kamiya, administration building, wine distillery and wine storage in brick extant. That three buildings stay almost unchanged after the construction. Chateau Kamiya is the only comprehensive wine distillery constructed in the Meiji era. Chateau Kamiya is a precious industrial heritage.
Ryuunosuke Seita was born in 1880. He worked with professors in Tokyo high commercial school, and became Hamaguchi Corporation manager Co., Ltd. from 1920. He went to Australia in 1938 and taught Japanese. He goes back to Japan in 1942, died for pneumonia on April 24 in the next year. It is proper to think that former Yamamoto's house was planned as his house. The relations of Seita and Kazuo Hatoyama are not clear.
This paper focuses upon Mies van der Rohe's project for the competition of the Bismarck Monument in 1909-10 and its expression of perspective drawing or montage. Here we have reconstructed the plan of the monument and represented with the computer graphics method. Some characteristics of the ancient Basilica like plan, simplified ornament, colonnade and corner pier, horizontality and abstract design are picked up through the formal analysis during the reconstruction study. The characteristic dynamic composition in the perspective montage looking upwards on the base of romantic picture was verified through the experimental simulation study of composing Mies' base construction and Schinkel's imaginary cathedral in the picture of “Cathedral at the water”. Then we have discussed Mies' inherent inclination to classicism and romanticism as a modernism architect.
Since 14th century, in Venice there were the numerous noble palaces converted into the hotel. This custom is remarkable, particularly, in Venice and it continues also during all 19th century, while in the other European cities were built many grand hotels as a new hotel building typology. Finally, at the beginnings of the 20th century, on the Lido beach it starts to build some international Grand Hotel style architecture. Instead in Venice it begins to construct other new hotels, on-line of the reminiscence of the local traditional historical style. After the Second World War, also now, once more in Venice it is the fashion of conversion into hotels from the historical buildings of many different types.
The aim of this study is to clarify the rhetoric on composition of contemporary houses in terms of relation between windows. The characteristic of windows is the repetition of those in a house. First, the windows are extracted as a set in the house. Second, the relation between windows are analyzed in two levels of differentiation : sorts (shape / size / depth) and position (center / corner) of windows. Finally 12 types are clarified through the combination of these differences. Comparing every type and generation, we found that there are more types that could be regarded as a rhetoric of ‘contrast’ in 1970's-1980's and more types as a rhetoric of ‘similarity’ and ‘equality’ after 1990's.
The influence of modern Japanese landowners to their own properties was strengthened by the Land Tax Revision, which had guaranteed the individual landownership. This paper takes up Shinkyogoku as an example. Shinkyogoku is a typical pleasure-resort district in modern Kyoto which had developed at the beginning of the Meiji era. In this district landowners can be divided into two categories; the settled landowners and the absentee ones. Both landowners leased their properties to the small tradesmen and accumulated lots in order to invite theater owners who could attract enormous customers. However, the ways of land accumulation were different according to the landowners category. These managements brought about the formation of a shopping street and the enlargement of theaters in Shinkyogoku.
Under the Hague Convention, the states parties in peacetime must establish services or specialist personnel engaged in the protection of cultural property within their armed forces and introduce the provisions concerning the Convention into their military regulations or instructions. In the light of the philosophy of the Hague Convention, these measures are part of the most important matters. This paper aims to clarify whether or how these provisions have been implemented. As a result, for the both provisions, the situation and measures of implementation proved to be not enough, but partly, measures considered practically effective are found out.