The aim of this study is to clarify spatial formation of residential settlements on squatter area by analyzing spatial formation and utilization of houses and open spaces on Borei Keila which is one of the largest squatter areas in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conclude the results as below from the data mostly based on the field survey. 1. Simple beds, fire equipment and big water pot are the basic components of interior space. Houses over thirty square meters generally have separate living, dining, private and sanitary rooms. 2. Small open spaces and narrow alleys compose the residential block. Though this residential area was made by each self-built house, definite levels exists on width of the alleys. 3. Around eighty percent of houses have devices such as deep eaves and outside bed to connect interior and exterior space. 4. Outside behaviors are cooking, eating, bathing, washing clothes, discharging, conversation, play, taking rest, sleep, selling and buying, working and others.
The aim of this study is to grasp the features of furniture arrangements in elementary open space. As cabinets containing bags and learning aids and the movable partitions are large and necessary, they are the most important of all the furniture in open space. When the cabinets are movable, teachers set them in the several kinds of patterns in open space. In the classroom units with movable partitions, teachers set cabinets and partitions together to make their classrooms larger. The vacant space in open space is children's access to their classrooms and the positions depend on the entrances positions of classroom units.
This paper clarifies total conditions of users' types of day care centers for the elderly in a middle moutainous area where medical and care support coordination are provided, and discusses on their roles and systems. Questionnaire survey were held as for users' attributions of five centers in the area, every year for 2006-2008. Conclusions are as follows; 1. There are three users' types: the elderly who need physical cares, the elderly with dementia, and the elderly who are alone in daytime. 2. Follows are thought as roles of the centers; places where physical care services are provided, places where they stay in daytime, and places where they have social interactions. 3.Total number of users are increasing in 2-5% /year. And continuing users' attributions were not so changed. On the other hands, reasons of stopping coming to centers were death and entering hospitals. 4.The system of centers in the area is consisted of an integrated day care center where rehabilitation services are also provided and several day care centers for the elderly with dementia.
A purpose of this study is to derive a cognitive tendency of composition of layout and composition of elevation of the building. A “grid map method experiments” on an experiment object as "a building having the exhibition space". The cognitive tendency arrives from cognitive results such as composition of layout or the size of the building. The analysis uses the value that measured size such as an area, width, depth, the height and the elements of a tree or the waterside of the grid map. Analyzed a factor to have an influence on the recognition by comparing a cognitive elevation with a cognitive plane. As a result, the subject understood that I tended to cognition “width” small. Furthermore, the subject understood that I tended to cognition “an opened courtyard” greatly.
In architectural planning, room space areas are mainly decided according to physical spaces such as human body sizes, occupant crowd densities, and the sizes of furnitures necessary for the room. However, human beings are also psychological entities and naturally require psychological spaces1), 2) as well. In former papers8) 12), we proposed a planning method of capacity and sizes of room under consideration to keep personal occupied areas. In this paper, we report the experimentally grasped distribution of allotted personal areas of occupant crowd to be used in the method, and the result of examination that the distribution can be approximated as Poisson distribution.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how the villages in the plain field on the lower reaches of Yasu River, Shiga Prefecture, had formed. Especially, the role of the land allotment based on the Jyori-grid system and its influence on the formation of village's residential area are focused. In this paper, the flow of water for irrigation at different spatial level is analyzed. As the result, the mechanism to use water for irrigation effectively and the land use at the residential area are clarified, and the technique of the area formation of the residential area is presented as a spatial model.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the spatial structure of Kaliga-Butbut village, Northern Luzon, Philippines. This paper is composed of three main chapters. 1)Analyzing their space vocabulary, their orientation concept and territorial concept were clarified. 2) Land ownership varies by land use, like rice terrace, housing lot, pine woodland. As different from the rice terrace land-use, the concept of land ownership has weakened. 3) Analyzing the actual village map by these spatial concept, like orientation, territory or land ownership. Consequently, the role of the rice terrace in the village space was clarified.
The number of households is maintained after the earthquake, and a lot of senior citizens are doing the residence continuance though Wajima City Monzen town Touge who is the stricken area of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake is depopulation and an aged region. The senior citizen can continue residing because the life support network by the relative, the local resident, and welfare commissioners is constructed. There are a lot of senior citizens who are accomplishing the residence continuance by simultaneous using two or more support, and accumulating the support network produces the environment to which the senior citizen does the residence continuance easily.
After the Meiji-era, the forest around Shin-to shrine was refined as Shin-en (The forest for God) in order to keep shrine's authority. This Shin-en had also function as the Urban Park. This paper discusses an example of building of a shrine and a park in Okayama City. The Shokon-sha shrine (the Shin-to shrine dedicated the sprits of war dead soldiers) was built in 1869 on a hill Higashi-yama where the shrine dedicated Tokugawa Shogun from 1644 that was the most important memorial space for the governor Daimyo Ikeda. After the stationing of Army 17 division in 1907, the Shokon-sha shrine was rebuilt with the refined Shin-en Parks designed by the technocrat belong to Ministry of Imperial House as the authority for the sprit of soldiers of Imperial Army.
In Ginza, Tokyo's primary commercial district, a local association of business owners has organized Ginza Design Council which, without any financial and personnel support from local government, exercises design control over the district by consulting in advance with the developers who are planning to implement new projects there. This council has no legal base, and their rules are not legally binding except that such advance consultation is required by the local authority. This study tries to find out how such advance consultation has been evaluated by developers. It examines, by a questionnaire survey, developers' evaluation for the 162 projects that were submitted to Ginza Design Council from November 2006 to December 2008. The result shows that they generally appreciate the work of the council and accept the consultation scheme to the extent that they are aware of local characteristics that should uniquely exist in the district. It has also become clear that they have been trying to use local opinions to the best advantage of their projects, in which process specialists are playing an important role
The aim of this study is to clarify the consciousness structure of the activity to make use of historical brick of warehouse. The focus of research is quantifying consciousness, the value of activity, and the value of existence by analyzing user consciousness. The main conclusions are as follows; By using the qualification theory III , 4 independent of “popular- cultural activity” ,“individual- silent activity” , “local area- activity” ,“grouping- interest activity” were shown. By using covariance structure analysis, the potential structure which is composed the user's degree of satisfaction are analyzed from the data obtained the questionnaire results.
After Noto Peninsula Earthquake, many damaged houses were reconstructed by the rehabilitation method and consensus formulation to accept the designation of Historical Preservation District, which could preserve townscape characteristics, at Kuroshima District in Wajima City. These were achieved by several factors such as municipality clear policy, supporting system of Prefecture Government, key person activity and assisting activities of relating professional groups. The total time could be divided to four periods for formulating the consensus to the Historical Preservation District including restoration from the seismic damage.
This research is a comparative study of the cognitive patterns of complexity in the context of streetscape visual composition in Algeria and Japan. 80 visual arrays of streetscapes in Algeria and Japan have been collected and then presented to 20 subjects from different cultural backgrounds in order to be categorized according to their typology and degrees of complexity. The analysis has been structured according to 3 phases: 1) the typological clustering phase using cluster analysis; 2) the lexicon-based clustering phase using Hayashi quantification method type III as well as cluster analysis, which represents analyses oriented mainly towards the visual arrays as physical data. Finally, 3) the cognitive patterns clustering phase using factor analysis and cluster analysis, which is oriented towards subjects as Human data. The results showed that complexity, disorder, irregularity and disorganization are often conflicting concepts in the urban context. Algerian daytime streetscapes seem to be balanced, ordered and regular, and Japanese daytime streetscapes seem to be unbalanced, regular and vivid. Variety, richness and irregularity seem to characterize Algerian night streetscapes. Japanese night streetscapes seem to be more related to balance, regularity, order and organization. The research could figure out 3 basic factors, which are: 1) actors (man-made forms, human, etc.); 2) style; and 3) the combination of materials/activity/actors. The number of actors in each visual array reflects its degree of complexity. The higher the amount of actors the higher the degree of complexity.
The purpose of this study is to consider the changing scenery in evening. In this study, the division experiment of time sequential photographs was done. The result of the experiment supported the following two hypotheses. Hypotheses1: The change process of the scenery in evening has some feature change points not continuous, and has some stages. Therefore, the time zone between day and night can be caught by dividing at some time zones. Hypotheses2: The factor of the impression change is different, when the components or the composition of scenery is different. Therefore, the stages and the time zones are different according to them.
Cingapura Project is an example of the Brazilian attempt to solve the problem of favelas, or slums, in São Paulo city that did not succeed. Cingapura Project's effort focused on satisfying the most urgent needs of the low socio-economic population without regard for the non-physical aspects of favelas. The open spaces of Cingapura Project's developments do not allow for the development of healthy and sociable communities. They neither promote the integration of the developments with their vicinities, nor the inclusion of their residents in the city.
There are many small housing builders in Japan, a lot of which are generally principal contractors for wooden custom-built houses. They provide houses integrating various resources, but they don't own most of all. Therefore we are going to draw how they select and arrange resources through the results of the questionnaire survey and the hearing investigation. These researches were carried out with the purpose of gaining the production mechanism small housing builders share. This study led that small housing builders have the followings tendency on resource selection and arrangement; 1) to select components with big initiative, 2) to purchase components on each construction work, 3) to use particular carpenters and subcontractors belonging to their business partnership, and 4) to acquire newly carpenter or subcontractor to improve lack of the quantity or quality.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the situation of the elderly household and the welfare service needs and the subject of the method of providing the welfare service for elderly living public housing in Hokkaido. The results are summarize as follows: The elderly household that needs the life support exists widely in the public housing. The elderly household needs the continuance of living, and there are needs of the welfare services of the emergency call, the health counseling, and housework and the safety confirmations, etc. The life support by the public long term care insurance and the regional welfare service is requested.
With the resources left in Onoda Cement Company (established in 1881), this study examined the transition of a company organization in the Meiji and Taisho era. It focused especially on its hiring process and personnel distribution based on the each employee's credentials. The findings are as follows: 1) After 1901, due to the complexity of the company organization, the administrative department was expanded to five different sections. One of them was the engineering office which controlled the manufacturing department. 2) Shortly after the establishment of the company, the workers were assigned to two separate positions; “office worker” and “field worker.” The office workers were in charge of management and the field workers carried the labor work at the manufacturing sites. 3) The field workers were categorized into “workman and so forth” and “roustabout.” Furthermore, the former was subdivided into “factory hand” who were the regular staff, “trainee” who had a possibility to be employed as regular staff in the near future , and “temporary workers” who were employed on a temporary basis. The specific qualifications were required for each position. 4) The percentage of the staff in the position of “workman and so forth,” which was consisted of “factory hand” and “trainee”, was forty to fifty out of all of the field workers. The temporary workers accounted for forty to fifty percent, as well. The roustabouts accounted for ten percent. The female laborer accounted for ten to fifteen percent, but none of them was treated as regular staff. 5) At the manufacturing sites, the personnel distribution was adjusted corresponding to the number of each equipment/duty that the workers handled. 6) By introducing the continuous kilns (Dieztsch's one), the three eight-hour shift system was adopted. Furthermore, the personnel distribution of factory hands was determined based on both the fixed number of personnel and the present ones.
Today in Japan, there happens emergence of various professions and diversification of delivery systems. However, some points of the current building system don't accommodate to such changes, so it could cause damage to buildings' quality. To this matter, this study treats cooperation between participants in a building project as one way of enhancing buildings' quality. In these days, designers and constructors had close communication and realized high quality buildings in many projects. So the purpose of this study is to show a decision making process of design contents in Kyoto Takaragaike Prince Hotel led by Togo Murano and to consider how designers and other participants, especially constructors cooperated in this project.
This study focuses on current designs of commercial-use Machiyas in the central Kyoto City and discusses about design concept, architectural style characteristics, the inheritance of traditional style, and evaluates Machiyas peculiar to Kyoto from standpoint of Kyoto residents and outsiders, with the objective of understanding the current status and trend, and examining the effects of design guideline. As a result; 1)The classification of current designs was made into four attributes of traditional-Machiya, function-oriented, fusion, and. modern-Machiya The traditional-Machiya accounts for about 50% of all. 2)Evaluation by outsiders is more moderate than that by Kyoto residents in terms of awareness of traditional-Machiya appearance. The presence of traditional elements was well confirmed. Evaluation of street views by residents and outsiders showed a similar tendency
Today in Japan, there are so many old public facilities. External Insulation Finishing System (EIFS) have been focused on as the way to improve the performance of saving energy, and several studies of EIFS have been mainly made in cold districts. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of EIFS as the way of long life repairing for existing facilities. This study is by actual measuring the condition of a school repaired with EIFS and simulation with FEM. The main results are: 1. By EIFS, the thermal condition in summer and winter is improved a little. 2. By EIFS, change of the outside surface temperature is controlled and the difference of surface temperature between outside and inside are also controlled. 3. On the rooftop, EIFS is most effective in terms of control of surface temperature. 4. With FEM, the risk of cracking on the rooftop and walls is reduced by EIFS repairing. 5. On the rooftop without E.I.F.S., thermal stress is over cracking stress.
In an architectural space of Japan, there was a part supported by the traditional craft. However, it was basic that the traditional craft handed down many of technologies by the home. Therefore, material that showed the system of production, the form of business, and the relation to the society was a little and the previous work was also few, and consequentially little. In Kyoto of Edo period, in such and this thesis take up the material spread to the house of the cabinetmaker to make the imperial palace a customer. And, it is clarified to the cabinetmaker of Kyoto to have divided into the person who always goes in and out to the imperial palace and the person who was tendering at each work.
In the Taisho era, chanoyu was spread, and many sukiya-style houses and chashitsu were built. However, the architects had not taken positive attitude for it. This paper is a part of the studies that is going to clarify the positioning of chashitsu in modern architecture. In particular, the purpose of this paper is understanding of opinions about chashitsu on magazines. In conclusion, (1)chanoyu at that time was criticized; (2)however, the concept of the chashitsu was praised. Therefore, one may say that the groundwork of the opinion about chashitsu in the Showa era was formed in the Taisho era.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the architectural form of workers houses of the spinning industry in modern Japan, in view of case study on KURABO INDUSTRIES LTD. Ohara Magosaburou, the second president of KURABO, promoted two housing policies, one of which is to put each small-group of workers at each small dormitory and the other of which is to develop families of the workers therein. Ohara Magosaburou constructed at the early-period factories dormitories decentralized, and an industrial village that models garden city. However, at the beginning of the Showa era, the workers houses of KURABO changed to be different dormitories standardized similar to, that is, collective housing. The changing of the housing policies in the KURABO's case shows limitation of improving workers houses under excessive competitions.
This series of studies clarifies the mechanism and its elements of the silkworm houses in relation with the way to rear the silkworms based on the analyzation of more than 2500 sericultural books published in Meiji Period. This paper focuses on the eclectic rearing which adopts the advantages of cool rearing and warm rearing. Operation of the architectural elements allows adjustment of the rearing condition. The eclectic rearing has widespread through sericultural books. It's architectural operation has allowed to rear the silkworms in severe conditions such as summer and fall.
This paper traces some links of the development process of mountain huts through the example of the mountain huts scattered along Weston's trail on Mt. Yari in the Japan Alps. By the analysis of the mountain huts and the land on which they were built, the development process of the mountain huts was classified into four types. And the mountain huts were built by using the sites and the huts of the occupants (i.e. woodsmen and huntsmen, etc.) and by taking advantage of their knowledge and expertise of both the sites and huts.
Since the first Japanese public museum was opened in 1926, the public museums have been playing the role as main cultural facilities in regional community. The purpose of this study is to describe the development process of Japanese public museums by analyzing their spatial configurations. This study treats 109 Japanese public museums. Analyses revealed that the scale of the public museums consistently became larger after the 2nd World War, and the number of newly-established public museums has increased until 1980s. Until 1960s, exhibition spaces were core of public museums. Since the 1980s, there are two types public museums. One type is variety arrangements of functional floor areas. Another type has distributed organizations of exhibition spaces.
In succession to the previous articles to clarify a characteristic of Istanbul as Islamic city, this paper examines a relation between locations of Waqf facilities and properties and belonging areas of donators. As the result, locations of Waqf facilities in each place within the city correspond to the belonging area of donators. Locations of Waqf properties concentrated in a specific area don't necessarily correspond to the belonging area of donators. This phenomena means donators sought fiscal resources in the lucrative area. Consequently, it is one of factors to produce a difference of building density in each kind of facility.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the circumstances of the first contest of the furnishings for the public housing in“Tre Venezie” organized by the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (O.N.D.) in 1927, It was found through the study that the result of the contest was different from what the O.N.D. expected and the O.N.D. concluded it as an“experiment”. In addition, the O.N.D. found this reason as a shortage of“the taste of the public”in the furnishings produced by the contestants, then began to recognize its realization as one of the aim of the national contest in 1928-29.
Spaces in Mies's interior montages have the character either Miesian“flowing space”or“unitary space”, and in these montages both spaces indicate different expression especially in the relation between inside space and outside one. On the one hand, in montages for flowing space outside space is deprived of its aspects as outside space and becomes the extension of the interior space, and there is no outside space as the “otherness” to the interior space. On the other hand, in the montage that expresses unitary space has the outside space that symbolizes the outside as otherness and consist a schematic contrast between inside space as abstract space and outside space as space of otherness.
In the city planning process in 1920's under the City Planning Act of 1919, Okayama City showed the urban park planning belongs to a standard of Ministry of Interior. The standard was that the total area of the six species of urban parks is regulated in 6.6 m2 per person. Division of City Planning in Okayama City Bureau counted the historical Daimyo Garden such as Koraku-en established in 1689, Kairaku-en Park nominated for a park because of the existence of an important shrine and Okuichi Park around Shokon-sha shrine dedicated the sprits of war dead soldiers as the urban parks under the Act. Division of Forest in Okayama Prefecture that managed the Koraku-en Garden opposed this plan because the historical and cultural Daimyo Garden should be preserved as the heritage and proposed a plan the design on Misao-yama Natural Park as an alternate to keep the park area.
To support a characterized decision-making process in architectural design collaboration by even partners, we developed an asynchronous discussion tool with a decision-support function. We conducted a practical experiment in which a three-member design team discussed individual proposals with the developed tool and held face-to-face design meetings in the early phase of design collaboration, and then evaluated the developed tool. As a result of quantitative analysis of the discussion protocol in design meetings and the log on the developed tool, differences between experimental teams and control teams became clear. Experimental teams had the following three tendencies: 1. An idea was adopted by team members without discussion about its adoption in a design meeting. 2. An idea that obtained the agreement of a sufficient number of members on the developed tool was decided to be adopted in a design meeting and was actually adopted in team member's proposals. 3. Few members considered that there was insufficient time for a design meeting. In conclusion, it was possible the development tool supported part of the decision making in the early phase of design collaboration.