This study aims to analyze the preparation time and evacuation speed of multiple-passenger baby strollers with 4-6 children, during urban evacuation drills of nursery schools. The analysis of preparation time was focused in stroller set-up time and children boarding time. On sidewalk with inclination up to 5%, strollers with 1-3 conductors were driven at 1.3-1.6 m/s. Across an overpass bridge with 13%-21% of inclination, a stroller with 3 conductors were driven at 0.6-1.1 m/s. Speed tends to be affected mainly by slope inclination, children weight and quantity of conductor staff per stroller.
This study is intended to concern the possibilities of charging for public toilets in Japan. First, the authors organize an overview of 37 advanced cases of pay public toilet installed in about 50 years from 1960's until 2013. Secondly, we summarize the trial of improvement of public toilets in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, and thirdly, combine the design contents and design process of the pay toilet located at Akihabara, Chiyoda-ku .Through analyzing the actual condition of public toilets and results of questionnaire survey to users carried out in both 2006 and 2012, the challenges for implementing the pay toilet in Japan is proposed.
This paper reports the results of experiments in which two astronauts evaluate the volume and impression of the laboratory room and the storage room in the Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" of the International Space Station under microgravity, and 29 students evaluate the volume and impression of the two mockup rooms on the ground. The results are as follows. 1) The volume of the storage room of ISS was overestimated, or the volume of the laboratory room was underestimated. On the other hand, both the volume of the two mockup rooms were evaluated almost exactly. 2) Both the storage room and the laboratory room of ISS were evaluated as being "spacious", "not oppressive", "calming" and "comfortable". On the other hand, the mockup of the storage room was evaluated as being "not spacious", "oppressive" and "calming", and that of the laboratory room was evaluated as being "spacious", "not oppressive" and "not comfortable".
This research represents a learning model of cooperation behavior for disaster prevention to study the basic relationship between disaster and social reaction. Multi-Agent system on virtual space, where disaster periodically happens and agents learn behavior strategy, is set up. Agents pursue for property selfishly or cooperate for disaster based on their own parameter of cooperation. Then some parametric studies on disaster characteristics and behavior rules were carried out. The results showed that cooperation emerges when disaster scale is moderate. If disaster scale is too large or too small, agents prefer short-term gain. Regardless of such condition, cooperation generates when agents restraint each other by penalty on uncooperative agent. Cooperation and penalty criteria increase as disaster scale gets large. This implies a point in common with some former studies in humanities and literature.
The aim of this study is to clarify the role of metaphor in architectural design. In order to analyze the metaphor in the context of design process, we conduct experiment with 23 architectural students. Then, we describe the design processes of each examinee as semiosis based on C. S. Peirce's semiotics. By analyzing them from the viewpoints of deferent scale, we found various functions of metaphor both in micro and in macro process. The results are as follows. 1) It is possible to analyze the design process in detail by means of describing it as semiosis. 2) Students often create the designed object using metaphors in place of thinking about it directly. 3) Metaphor as a design objective determines the direction of entire design process.
This paper aims to clarify the spatial problems of a place for immigrants by analyzing a group of small shops built by immigrants in A housing complex. A residents' association established the land, which was built the shops. They had a role as a node for ethnic groups. But they were removed because the segregation had occurred. By analyzing their transition, following problems are found: 1. Locating to the outside of the living region. 2. The construction urged by the spatial form of enclosed land. 3. Lack of communication with the local residents. 4. Spatial closure of the shops.
The islands and mountainous areas of Japan struggle most from depopulation therefore village schools tend to be amalgamated and reorganized so many are lost. We hypothesized that a community cannot sustainably exist without an elementary school. We have studied three cases where residents' groups take residential support approaches developed specifically to enable the continued existence of their local school. The main objectives of the study are to describe and consider housing and residential systems for sustaining communities. In this paper we focus on the activities of the residents' groups and the characteristics of the newcomers. The results show that the schools are thriving because the residents' groups have managed to boost pupil numbers. Almost all new residents are young families who will expect a local school or nursery. We found that the activities by residents' groups are organized and working well. If the systems are independent from local government, residents' groups are free to implement their own local policies, e.g., choosing only family with children as new residents. But collaboration between local governments is so important to improve support systems that it is worth considering in the future.
In this paper we surveyed about existing ownership-condominiums (condo-owners' and residents' association) from the viewpoint of positioning of each association and officer cooperation. We found the four types of the resident organization; "integrated", "federated coexistence", " coexistence", and "neighbor association join", and analyzed the relations with the neighborhood community in the region, the establishment process of the residents' association, and the administrative authorization situation. We found that recently there is an increasing trend of "federated coexistence" than "coexistence". Then we considered issues of making ideal community organization in owner's condo, and analyzing the background and factor of residents' association establishment, we found that there are some problems and cons by "integrated" and "coexistence" in each. We propose that the local government should accept condo-owners' association that conducts the community activities as residents' associations for safety-nets with neighborhood community, and both the condo-owners' and residents' associations should make own bylaw for total activities and association fee in accordance with laws and regulations.
This research clarified the overall image of the development plans of Tianjin's British Extra Rural Extension. In the formation of British Extra Rural Extension, we can see that 1917's design was modified in 1925 and was carried out for the first time in the same year. The minimum intention of providing a comfortable life style by 1917's design was maintained by 1925's modification, which fulfilled the conditions required for a modern city. The difference between the two plans was the change from road pattern design to block space design. It can also be said that the pioneering designs such as the British Extra Rural Extension were seen in Tianjin's other concessions and also in other settlement areas in China. Since this type of modern city planning was taken up by many Chinese local governments such as Shanghai and Guangzhou, it is likely that Tianjin might have adopted the method later on.
This paper intends to analyze the retail trade areas in Special wards of Tokyo based on the consumer behavior model. Some metropolitan cities have well-developed traffic system, and since actual-distance and time-distance are not in direct proportional relationship, we can arrive at the destination faster than expected time. Therefore, retail trade areas in some metropolitan areas have more complicated form than Voronoi diagram. At first, we analyze the general attributes of the retail trade areas based on the customer behavior model. In particular, we discuss the geometric attributes of it and reveal the conditions for the unique form of it. Next, we construct some consumer behavior models, and estimate statistically with actual data. Furthermore, we visualize the retail trading areas in Special wards of Tokyo as a case study. The consumer behavior models are based on the Huff model and the MNL model, and taken attributes of the retail areas into account to reflect some types of consumer behavior. We reveal that the differences between the form of trading areas depend on some types of consumer behavior.
Recently, the concept of regional (territorial) development has attracted worldwide research attention. Affordable transportation plays an important role in sustainable regional development, since it catalyzes diverse movement of people and subsequent social interactions across multiple spatial levels. This idea is referred to as affordable access in this paper, and Belgium’s inexpensive railway system provides an insightful example. The present paper investigates the introduction and subsequent development of Belgium’s railway system from the early 19th to the late 20th century. Affordable access in Belgium appears to originate from the workman’s ticket first issued in 1870. There appears to be several important factors in the implementation of this plan: (i) the horizontal power relationship between urban and rural areas inherited from pre-independent Belgium territory, (ii) demands from laborers and activists to remedy the socio-economic problems caused by the exploitation of labor and temporary but signifiant depopulation in major agricultural regions, and (iii) densely developed infrastructure network as one of few available resources for solving growing inequalities between urban and rural areas. The analysis showed that affordable access had become nationwide by the early 20th century, and had structured territorial settlement. This paper also classifies Belgium’s demographic trend and analyzes the urbanization of a rual local from the middle 19th century to the early 21st century. The influence of affordable access in regional development is clarified. Largely driven by individual ownership of housing developments, affordable access equalized developmental potential across the territory. Consequently, regional development in Belgium displays a horizontal and egalitarian character. The majority of rural municipalities, regardless of their previous population history, were demographically stable and elastic. This characteristic may be regarded as fractal. From medium and small town centers to rural villages and hamlets, and part of the territory became a seed of urbanization, absorbing its population influx and subsequently generating a particular mosaic of residential urbanization. Finally, this paper investigates the quality of social life in rural Belgium. To this end, it analyzes the lifestyle of her young inhabitants. The results showed that rural social life and attitudes toward future living are enhanced by a cyclic process of urban–rural displacement. As a case study, the author qualitatively and quantitatively interviewed 21 and 150 students in Leuven, respectively, where the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium’s largest and most influential university, enrolls more than 50% of Belgian students studying at tertiary level. According to the empirical findings, affordable access not only encourages diverse social interactions and strengthens social bonds among rural inhabitants but also shapes individuals’ residential preferences. The analysis showed the importance of these social factors in the continuous urbanization of rural Belgium. Based on these findings, this paper summarizes the background of a socially emancipating transportation policy and its multiple roles in realizing urban–rural cohesion in Belgium.
This study clarifies the actual situation and problems of the initiative of Iida city, which is strongly addressing the original land use plan system by municipal ordinances and community service activities and actions called 'machi-dukuri' by community organizations. By the methodology of empirical analysis such as official documents and interviews etc., I clarifies the followings: In the both cases for decision-making of urban planning issues and for operating the original building regulation in community districts level, 'committee of community services' in community organizations are well functioned with careful supporting by staffs of community supporting center. Iida's case shows a kind of ideal land use management of local cities in near future.
This study focused on citizen participation and collaboration in the process of construction of public facilities. We tried to clarify the definition of citizen participation and collaboration. To be specific, we analyzed how collaborative efforts occurred from citizen participation as they transpired within the confines of an area where the collaborative relationship is being covered. We arranged this publicly-led participative concept of collaboration as it developed and as it eventually led into such a complementary relationship. In the case study, we found that collaboration occurred where active discussion had been conducted in the early stages of public participation activities.
In city areas, it is important to promote green space conservation activities in cooperation with the citizens. The objective of this study is to reveal the promotion process for green space conservation activity participation based on citizens' perspectives. 11 issues about participation were listed, and paired comparison analysis among these issues was conducted (n=1500). In the analysis by Dematel method, the priority of resolving was identified. The results revealed that the first priority of solving the issue in each attributes is "activity location". They pointed out that the presence or absence of willingness to participation affects the promotion process.
The pedestrian road network in mountainous cities has distinctive features when compared to that in flat cities. This study proposes a three-dimensional analysis method for measuring the accessibility for pedestrians in a mountainous city considering both the metrical attributes of mountainous street networks and a pedestrian's behaviors. The objectives are firstly to create a method to analyze the accessibility based on existing theories, secondly, to modify coefficients after analyzing the properties of the mountainous pedestrian road network, and lastly, apply the method for measuring the accessibility both in mountainous areas and in areas assumed to have elements similar to those of a mountainous pedestrian road. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, the usability and rationality of the method are demonstrated by simulation and application. Then, the accessibility is quantified and interpreted visually for practical use. Lastly, the characteristics of accessibility in mountainous cities are presented.
Structure of the inter-city network and integration of various facilities is changing. In the Tokyo metropolitan area, the flow of people has changed greatly over the past 20 years. Comparing the 70 cities including Marunouchi, Akihabara, Ginza, Shinagawa, Shinjuku and Shibuya, by Tokyo metropolitan area person trip survey of 20 years ,we grasp the structure change of each area's people assembling availability. To understand what is happening the flow of people's transaction and surrounding region,we study the urban economic effect what changes each change value of that urban economy. CGE(computable general equilibrium) model is effective as econometric models for that. It is intended to use CGE model of this study is to ana-lyze the economic effects of changes in flow of people in urban network.
The average use years of bathroom, kitchen-units and toilet is not clear, though each is not long in comparison with that of house. But it is important to grasp those as the basis of maintaining and replacing such equipment. In this study, I estimated those by analyzing the data based on a questionnaire to about 4 thousands of the residents of detached houses in 5 suburban estates. Use years of bathroom averages 20-25 years, kitchen-units less than 25-30 years, toilet 15- more than 20 years. Moreover, those of bathroom and kitchen-units are extending in these 40 years. It is pointed out that there are some problems in this situation, because, for example, these average years are much longer than 10 years, which is the general holding period of replacement parts by manufacturers.
This paper verifies the circumstances underlying the floor plan of the Ueno Museum. It also explores the relationships among the Ueno Museum, the Educational Museum, and the Kyoto Museum, planned during the early Meiji period. The floor plan of the Ueno Museum is characterized by straight lines that symmetrically divide the floor into rectangles. The divisions formed a route flow line leading visitors through all of the exhibition rooms, starting from the entrance hall.
This paper investigates the 1966 exhibition “From Space to Environment,” held at Matsuya Department Store in Tokyo, Ginza, involving the architects Isozaki Arata and Hara Hiroshi. This exhibition's subtitle was “Synthesized Exhibition of Painting + Sculpture + Photo + Design + Architecture + Music,” which was instrumental in introducing the terms Intermedia and Environment Art (Kankyo geijutsu) to Japan. This paper examines the exhibition installations studying primary sources and clarifying the formation of the collective named Environment Society. This paper analysis the impact generated by the topic of “Environment” seen through a different point of view rather than the one of art movement establishment of the time.
I analyzed the residential works designed by Isoya YOSHIDA in order to clarify changes of entrance through the Taisho era and the Showa era.The points of analysis are : relationship between scale and the number of entrance, adjacent chamber of each entrance and interaction, function of each entrance. The results are as follows. As the result from reduction on the Katte-guchi after 1940, the difference between the Katte-guchi and Uchi-genkan became ambiguous. Then, a trend of proximity between the Katte-guchi and Uchi-genkan became pronounced in terms of the function and layout.
The "Kokenzu"(Cadastre） seldom remains in Edo period. Minami-Hatchobori area remains both the original lot and the substitute lot of the "Kokenzu". Therefore, it is possible to track the movement of the original lot and the substitute lot at Minami-Hatchobori area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of the movement of each lot by tracking the movement more specific to the original lot and the substitute lot for Minami-Hatchobori area. This study consists of four contents: 1. Formation process of Minami-Hatchobori area, 2.movement process of each lot, 3. "Kokenkin"(land price) of the substitute lot, 4. Movement of the substitute lot by petition.
They say that the restoration of the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum is a model to distinguish between ancient and new architectural materials. This study has proved that the intervention was a part of public activities to embellish the city of Rome in the first half of nineteenth century. In this period, it was necessary for the triumphal arch to reinforce its fragile condition caused by the past destruction such as vandalism and transformations.
This thesis aims to clarify the visual perceptional circuit by using several sorts of virtual indoor space model in simple rectangle shape. And the 29 virtual interior space models (9 models in the experiment-1 and 20 models in the experiment-2) which are created on the computer were shown on 40 subjects and had the experiment to make them select "an intelligible view" in each models with changing of width and height. As a result of scrutinizing the motion situation of an intention of 8 sorts obtained in this way in all the models, the hierarchical structure of each intention became clear. That is, the mechanism that the 5 types of intentions worked as a primary element in "the preference of an intelligible view", and the others worked as a secondary element was arranged.
Discussed items are as follows. 1. Relationship between Shintaro Kiuchi and famous architects. : How did he collaborate on the production stained glass works with them? 2. It has a problem in chronological order to conclude that Shintaro Kiuchi made the stained glass for St. John's Church designed by J. McD. Gardiner. 3. Relationship between J. McD. Gardiner and Kenji Araki in the Gardiner Architect Office.
The author's answer to the misunderstandings that has bearings on the central point of questions by Dr. MATSUNAMI are shown. The important aspects are indicated as follows: 1.The definition of the achievement of Shintaro Kiuchi. 2. The relationship between famous architects and Shintaro Kiuchi.