In this case study, we aimed to revealed the reality of life support services quantitatively in the rental housing for the elderly. Conclusions were as follows : 1. Agency, description of how to use appliance, consultation was required in order of life support services. 2. The elderly requiring care needed about 1.7 times as many services as the self-supported elderly. 3. In view of the time series of the day, emergency response was required regardless of buisiness hours. Therefore, it is important to place the resident staff. And, in view of time series of months of residence, it had been confirmed that is cost nearly 5 months in response to the service demand from them. 4. According to the questionnaire survey, in service in the residence, many elderly wanted the service with a dangerous behavior such as changing light bulbs. And, in the service outside the housing, they wanted the service to help out, such as courtesy van.
Resulted from China's urban housing reform, company housing allocated in the past has been entirely separated from companies and become privately owned. The paper examines such housing, studying how the residents have altered the interior space, and discussing the existing issues with the living environment and influences of family changes on residents' living style. It is found that altering the interior has not improved the living environment. Instead, such housing will, with time, become inadequate to live in while residents' lifestyle and family status change. The paper asserts that such housing will prove problematic as continued residence into the future.
The features of courtyards as common space in courtyard style settlement of Patan City are clarified through the investigation of ownership and their uses. A block of three interconnected Buddhist monastery courtyards namely; Ilanani, Sasunani, Kwabaha was selected for the survey. Several tasks such as collection of legal documents, interview with relevant officers and residents, observation of activities in the courtyards throughout the whole day were conducted to identify the owners and the uses of courtyards during the field survey. From this study, following discoveries were made: 1) Ilanani and Sasunani are public land owned by Government whereas Kwabaha is a private land owned by its Sangha. 2) Ilanani is used for various purposes such as living space, religious space, commercial purpose, parking space and pass through space. 3) Sasunani is mainly used as living space. 4) Kwabaha is used not only as religious and sightseeing space but also as a living space for priest's family and rest area for public.
This study has clarified the availability of the courtyard as an interaction space that alleviates the closed human relationships caused by the downsized life unit in unit-type children's homes. The ideal methods in the plan to complement human relationships include, 1) whole planning involving the courtyard as an interaction space, 2) line of flow that facilitates the staff-children interaction, 3) installation of enclosed place and outdoor furniture etc., 4) space planning involving nature and living things. Furthermore, the planning to generate natural interaction with people from different unit by installing buffer spaces at the entrance of each unit is needed.
In Japan, recently we adopt small class programs instead of usual full students' classes for teaching in consideration of the students' individual abilities. The aim of this paper is to grasp the features of small class programs and learning space use in elementary schools. Proficiency-dependent teaching is the most popular way especially in mathematics classes. Students are divided into three levels such as primary, basic and advanced, according to their understanding. As these programs need more rooms, teachers manage to find out the additional rooms. Teachers make the appropriate classrooms vacant, and use them for small group studies. On the case of no vacant classrooms, they use several kinds of special rooms. Open space is not suitable for these programs because of the noise and the mutual visible access.
The number of children on waiting lists to attend authorized day-care centers is rapidly rising in urban areas, but securing land and the building for the centers is very difficult in those areas. Aiming at the waiting-list child cancellation, the promotion to the non-registered day-care facility that fills an original standard is done in some municipalities. So, the survey was done in Sendai City that was one of such the municipalities. 1) The standard of the SENDAI HOIKU-SHITU nurseries is severer than that of another municipality, but the number of facilities compared with the population is more than that of other municipalities. Moreover, about 70 percent of the whole were the nurseries established from of old. 2) "Small-scale management" and "Use of existing buildings" are the characteristics of SENDAI HOIKU-SHITU nurseries. To fill the area standard, extension and rebuilding to existing buildings were performed in the cases that shifted from KATEI-HOIKU-SHITU nurseries. 3) To deal with the problem of the area standard, in the case where the lease building is used it borrowed the room, and in the case where the ownership building is used rebuilding of home and the use of the vacancy were done. 4) The users with high income seem to be using the SENDAI HOIKU-SHITU nurseries because there is little difference between nursery school fees of the authorization day-care center. However, the users with low income were hoping for the authorization day-care center where the fee is cheaper.
The local facilities, the 'ZENRINKAN', have provided services to the local inhabitants since 1934 in Kanazawa. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the actual conditions of changes of services and building usages of the 'ZENRINKAN', and to discuss on the relationship between them and reasons that enabled dynamic changes. Literature documentation and hearing investigation were conducted. Findings are as follows. 1. Twelve ‘ZENRINKAN’ have continued until now with changing services according to changes of local needs and social systems. 2. They made extensions, repaired buildings, or changed room usages in order to manage to the changes of the providing services. 3. There were a few cases that services occurred after buildings were built, in such cases of promoting services as pilot projects. 4. There have been always some services in a building, and the services and building usages have continued to change. 5. As reasons, we think that the ‘ZENRINKAN’ is not a merely service provider but a local organization that unifies some services and that they did not use subsidies which restricted change of building usages.
This research aims to study the spread space and the impression within a room with one opening towards a juxtaposed room. The experiment was conducted using 1/10 scale models. The observers described the perceived spread space and evaluated the room impression. The authors found a direct proportionality between the height of the opening and the shape of the spread space, and also with the relationship between the rooms. The distance between the opening position and the viewpoint height affects the shape of the spread space. The visibility of the room edge is the most important factor of the spread space.
The unified floor plan, with no interior division except for service spaces, is one of the most characteristic modernist spatial types for residences, as exemplified by the Farnsworth House (Mies van der Rohe, 1945-51). After World War II a number of such houses, referred to in Japan as “one-room house”, made their appearance. Here we aim to illustrate and examine how Japanese architects of the time extrapolated a design theme from this model, based on a study of such work as it appeared in architectural publications. Initially, two aspects of the unified floor plan concept were selected, and each scheme was then subjected to a “KJ-method” analysis (originated by KAWAKITA Jiro). First, we scrutinized the architect's intention in adopting a unified floor plan. Secondly, we attempted to assess each architect's distinct view of the spatial character of the prototype, as exemplified in his deployment of this model. At this point, the composition of each house was correlated with regard to two aspects involving relationship between inside and outside. Namely, positioning of apertures and the interrelation of building to site. Finally, the mediation between each architect's thinking and the final composition has been plotted in terms of this dual classification.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial composition of contemporary Japanese houses that have functions other than a dwelling. First, problems of discussion were analyzed on following 4 aspects. Where is the location of the addition functional part and buffer domain in the site? What relations do they (the addition functional part and buffer domain) have on ground level? What is the circulation line feature of the buffer domain? Where does locate the buffer domain in the housing space, interior or exterior? Secondly, relations of the housing part, the addition functional part and buffer domain are represented by diagrammatizing division of volume of the whole construction just as a tree diagram. Finally, by arranging analyzed results as above, we extract typology of data having common feature.
There were many historical buildings and Urban Traditional Houses in the downtown of Daegu where had been established in the old castle district in 1737. Recently, more Urban Traditional Houses have been disappearing by the progress of urbanization and modern life style in Daegu. This paper will examine the current condition of the Urban Traditional Houses including converted one, and it will identify the habitants' perception for conservation or development of the houses and townscape in the old castle district of Daegu. The results are as follows. 1) The number of family member in 75% of the houses is three and below. And the age of 67% householder is sixty years old or more in this area. 2) Some remaining Korean houses in Jingorumok Area are split type of houses which were large Urban Traditional Houses constructed before 1920. 3) Regarding the rooms and equipments of Urban Traditional Houses, the level of satisfaction of almost inhabitants living there is very low. In contrast, regarding the townscape, the level of satisfaction of almost habitants living or working there is relatively high. 4) Many habitants living in the Urban Traditional House are adverse to the conservation of this area. However, Many shop owners using the Urban Traditional House are agree with the conservation of this area.
This paper is intended to draw the structure of urban improvement (Shikukaisei) in Gifu during 1887-1889, focusing on the operating bodies and organizations around them and their financial resources to promote the plan. This urban improvement which is the early example among modern local municipalities must be understood through the dynamic relation that connects various incidents in the same period, such as the park improvement, construction of the red-light district, opening the chamber of commerce, and relocation of the railway station. This paper clarifies that Gifu Shikukaisei accomplished dynamically by merchant volunteers, who would be the main bodies in Gifu City born after this urban reformation, using government officials with own forcing fund.
The major purpose of this study is to demonstrate the improvement programs in crowded urban areas with wooden houses, which are unique to the individual area in terms of the project results and the collection of self-reconstruction. This paper intends to reveal the developments of various improvement projects and self-reconstruction, specifically the developments of living-environment improvement in relation to major roads for town planning. The findings of the research show that self-reconstruction differs significantly in the way they are implemented, depending on the progress situation, maturity and area characteristics.
To clarify the status of households of living in housing in Hanshin-Awaji great earthquake disaster area after the reconstruction, it is useful to analyze for habitation structure on other large-scale disasters. The purpose of this study is to suggest for the estimation of the situations of households in small area, and to clarify the habitation structure of Hanshin-Awaji great earthquake stricken area after the reconstruction by using the method. The results on this study, the estimation method is clarified that the error is very small. This method can use for estimation of other contents data. As analysis of habitation structure of stricken area, it is found house buildings have been changed high-rise and concentratedly in large stricken districts of three wards, and as the residence household, it is found that low yearly income households decrease.
After the 1995 the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the 11 areas with most severe housing damage were classified as Reconstruction Land Readjustment Project areas. For the 10,000 households of these areas, many who wanted to return to their former residential areas, Kobe City built 528 units of public housing with priority for people who lost their houses due to the Reconstruction Land Readjustment Project. However, by 1999 when they were constructed, only 405 households entered these units. This study aims to evaluate why this number was not higher. The resulting main points are as follows. There was a lack of timely information for residents, which lead to many people moving to distant temporary housing and then public housing in other distant areas. For people who stayed in the former area, who built their own temporary housing, on stayed in small public housing nearby, they can receive timely information and participate in the planning process. Especially renters were at a disadvantage, as most of them couldn't directly receive government information that land owners received.
A long-term purpose of this research is to construct the best physical setting to improve communication in the city. We seek to develop an understanding of how to use the space through in depth investigations concerning communications in a public space such as a public square. The reason we studied this was to discover the best way for public space planning to proceed. A new space distinct from the public square will be recognized by this research. (1)When we compared holding a festival as a temporary exhibition in the pedestrian underpass, i.e. not only using the passage for its designated function, there was a significant difference caused in the amount of traffic. The amount of traffic increased dramatically when the festival was held. (2)The difference was noticeable in the pedestrians' walking patterns when holding it compared to when it was not held. That is, when not holding the festival, most pedestrians tend to walk in a straight line. On the other hand, when holding it, people were observed walking in a straight line, zigzagging, and wandering. It was also observed that, when not holding it, most pedestrians walk in the center of the underpass, and only a few people tend to walk against the wall. Additionally, it was observed that pedestrians were easily able to navigate the passage even when an event umbrella was set up when holding the festival. (3)When the festival was not held, people did not liger in the passage, but when holding it, people frequently lingered for extended periods. Not only did pedestrians linger, but there also considerable communication observed taking place between the exhibitors, the exhibitors and the pedestrians and among the pedestrians themselves. This was in sharp contrast to the amount of communication noticed when the exhibitor held an event in a wide street space.
Building density, along with building-to-land ratio and floor area ratio, is an index that could quantitatively inform us the volume of a city. Conventionally, method of measurement for building density defined a gross data which took into account of existing network such as streets and rivers. However, this research considers a way of reading urban forms through utilizing what is defined here as "building density on block", which measures the number of buildings within net zones enclosed by streets. Carrying out this process using maps of Nagoya from differing years, enabled clarification on density changes occurred in this city in the past post-war 50 years.
This paper focuses on both of compact built-up area city and none-compact built-up area city in outer metropolitan area, and aims to examine the influence of compact built-up area on situation of commuting, inhabitants' environment, life time, and residents' evaluation of those items. The main result is as follows. Concerned to compact built-up area, situation of commuting, inhabitants' environment, leisure time, and residents' evaluation of those items are same or better than that of none-compact built-up area. This shows compactness of built-up area has some influence on those items and evaluation of these items. And it can be said even the compact built-up area city in outer metropolitan area, favorable inhabitants' environment is ensured.
The aim of this research is to verify the possibility of applying cleaning quality management methods to commercial facilities. The research method is as follows. Firstly, a survey is conducted to clarify the focal points for the customer when evaluating cleaning quality, including water drops on floors, and dust on glass surfaces. Next, based on the results of the survey, evaluation subjects such as ‘floors’ and ‘display cabinets’, and evaluation items such as ‘water drops’ and ‘dust’ are set. The evaluation level for each of the respective evaluation items is also set. Finally, by conducting customer evaluations at a certain commercial facility, insights are obtained to enable a judgment that the application of this method to commercial facilities is possible.
There is a traditional dispute about the regal matter of the architect contracts between owner and architect in Japan. This dispute is whether the architect contracts should be applied to Ininkeiyaku or to Ukeoikeiyaku. The one is similar to the issue between the professional responsibilities and the recent tendency of the professional responsibilities. The professional responsibilities are inclined to meet the general principles of the contracts. The considering of this dispute defines the architect's responsibilities for remedying defective buildings. This paper tries to explicate the regal matter of Japanese architect contracts considering the architect's responsibilities in English law and American law.
The research of a way to plan Tahoutou pagoda was paid attention for reasons of remains and Japanese traditional architectural reference books. Dr. Hamazima pointed out the way that diameter of the upper story was utilized in “Siwari-sei” theory of over all clumn spacing of the lower story. It was so interesting and I felt his point have ring of truth, because of my verification. However, the early Isiyamadera tahoutou pagoda and Kongouzanmaiin tahoutou pagoda made use of other technique, so I couldn't suppose that diameter of the upper story was decided with “kansu-sei” theory and “Siwari-sei” theory. Therefore I verified the technique a regular octagon was used as underlay in Tahoutou pagoda of mediaeval period, because I noticed to diameter of the upper story used twelve column of circle.
This paper discusses what attire the Yaku-daiku were dressed in during a ceremony. The Yaku-daiku were carpenters working at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. They were divided into two groups, and broken down into three levels. The highest level was Daiku, followed by Toryo, and Cho. Their attire showed the following three points: 1. The higher position he was in, the more formal attire he was in. 2. Carpenters in the main group was in more formal attire than those in the assistant group was in. 3. Sometimes Cho were individually in different attire. These differences were related to both their ceremonial procedures and their position.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between spatial configuration and ceremonies in Heian-kyu Palace. This study presents the following points. 1. The Dobisashi is an unique space that only used in Heian-kyu Palace, playing a role in the square with the gate and gallery in the Ugi (the ceremony in rainy day). 2. According to the ceremonial documents about Heian-kyu Palace, the usage of the Dobisashi in the Ugi has been developed during the mid - to -late Heian Period. 3. During the relation between the Dobisashi and Ugi, it's clarified that the Dobisashi in Heian-kyu palace a special space for Ugi.
This paper takes up regulation between beams for the Tenshinin reception hall which is a semiautonomous subtemple of Obaku sect the Manpukuji for an example. This reception hall is what moved the Houzouin of construction from the character of a roof tile and the construction application for 1715, and the roof of Sikoro has had influence of the regulation between beams for 1668 pointed out in the conventional research. This paper On the other hand, the investigation in the half-demolition repairman for 2000-04, Based on the radiocarbon 14C dating performed to replacement material in 2011, the construction for 1715 is rebuilt, and the roof of Sikoro will point out a possibility that rebuilt is also influence of the target regulation in 1670.
Namerikawa was a stage in Kanazawa-Han. Ota-ya was a lodging used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han during Edo-Era. Through the examination of historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1) In 1625 the house of Kirisawa family was designated to Ota-ya. 2) In 1690 the designation was canceled and the house of Kirisawa family became Honjin. 3) Plan of Ota-ya in Namerikawa was simlar to plan of the house of Kirisawa family in 19th century.
This paper aims to clear housing plans, sales methods and backgrounds of the National Housing Exhibition in 1955 and the Demonstration Housing Project in 1961. In the case of the National Housing Exhibition in 1955, the government requested nongovernment architects and contractors to provide housing plans, which attached importance to economic efficiency. These plans were also demanded to be earthquake-proof, wind-resistant and insect-protected. Architects and contractors also responded the requests, and realized rational one-storied houses different from traditional Taiwanese shop houses. In the case of the Demonstration Housing Project in 1961, the government took charge of planning and construction of housings, and established concrete planning and principles. Furthermore, it tried the new construction methods and the standardization of the size of wooden doors and windows. And it also promoted multistoried housings as urban residences which were harmony with infrastructure and urban planning of Taipei.
The intention of this paper is to explicate Yoshiro Taniguchi's architectural thought about the meaning of the tea room through inquiring into his articles. The analysis consists of three chapters as follows : Chapter2 illustrates some aspects of the tea room that Taniguchi found out. Chapter3 clarifies the meaning of the tea room as “waki” through analyzing its functional and structural quality and movement as self-sacrifice. Chapter4 explicates the meaning of his keyword “seed” detected in the tea room, which is analyzed in the term of precedence.
This paper has examined and made formal analysis of the sketches included in the 5th chapter of “Alpine Architektur”, especially the sketch titled “Grottenstern”, by Bruno Taut, and has clarified that its ornamental forms were composed of the historical forms, vegetable forms and crystal forms which are collected and unified into an utopian figure. It is also found how the cosmic ideas of an expressionistic novelist Paul Scheerbart were put into concrete forms and various formal elements and the expressionistic construction were generated by Bruno Taut.
This study is to consider how “Kaishochi” (the open space in the block), which was planned in initial Edo town, transformed into the housing lot, emphasizing on Minamidenma-cho. To understand the changing process of “Kaishochi” I based my analysis from the historical maps and historical records of Minamidenma-cho. The analysis of this paper consists of three contents;(1) the formation process of “newly developed alley” when “Kaishochi” became the housing lot in Minamidenma-cho, (2) inspection of the fact that the substitute lot for “newly developed alley” moved to “Kaishochi”, (3) change in a role burden by the substitute lot. To consider the process that “Kaishochi” transformed into the housing lot, “newly developed alley” is built, and it has been developed while moving the lot instead of “newly developed alley” to “Kaishochi”.
This paper examines management methods of individual waqfs in the commercial area of Istanbul with focusing on a relation between locations of donated facilities and objects to which profits from Waqf properties were allotted. As a result, donators, who especially belonged to the place away from the commercial area, made use of profits from Waqf properties in the commercial area to promote development of the belonging area. This phenomena means the accumulation of individual waqfs encouraged the monetary liquidation inside the city by distributing benefits from the commercial area to all place in the city beyond the areal bounds.
The Borobudur remains were restored by total dismantlement and reconstruction. It took three years to select this measure. The discussion to decide the measure can be said as the essential part of this restoration project, and moreover, a lot of documents show that various factors, not only the discussion at the official meetings, but also the private communication between related parties, and their own policy or philosophy, had much influence on the decision. This paper illustrates the process of deciding the restoration measure for the Borobudur Remains in detail by examining both official and private documents.
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate ideas and programmes of the Architectural Association which was established in 1847 by British young architectural draftsmen, Robert Kerr and Charles Gray by historical investigation through the writings and discourses on their concerns in the 19th century Britain. The ideas and programmes of the AA are as follows: 1. The background of establishing the AA was during the appearance of the notion of architectural profession in which the system of pupilage did not succeed very much, while there were many associations organized in order to promote and educate own members to become as gentlemen. 2. The ideas and programmes of the AA were to supply the room and chance for architectural education to capture the knowledge and philosophy through the scheduled discussions and lectures, as well as exhibition. 3. The AA as preparatory school for becoming architect was developing as modern architectural school after introducing the examination for accreditation of diploma.