In the preceding paper, it was shown that attaching small weights to a membrane (called MAW) improves the sound insulation in a low frequency range. By applying this membrane to membrane structures, the sound insulation is improved without decreasing a light-transmission efficiency. This paper represents results op an experiment on the sound insulation which was made to confirm capabilities of utilizing this membrane for membrane structures. The experiment results are as follows: 1) Existence of the sound-insulation mechanism has been confirmed under incidence condition in a diffuse sound field. 2) A double layer membrane consisting of MAW and an ordinary membrane has above 10 dB greater transmission loss in a low frequency range than that of the ordinary and ordinary roembrane. 3) The effect of MAW on sound insulation disappears when the thickness of an air layer is less than 100 mm. The thickness of over 500 mm has to be kept in order to get the effect of MAW.
In an effort to develop a new appliance, a "Breathing Wall," that can efficiently be used in a passive solar system designed for temperate climate regions, we investigated the transition and thermal characteristics of an aluminum foil-constructed, multi-airlayered body. Since such bodies have been reported to have advantages/disadvantages, based on these, we carried out a design calculation which led to the construction a prototype wall having an experimentally determined thermal conductance of 0.43 W/m^2-℃. The wall is 70-mm-thick and has eight airlayers between aluminum foil sheets separated by horizontally running spacers placed at 10-cm intervals from top to bottom.
The heating and cooling systems in the municipal apartment-houses at Sapporo, Kyoto and Naha are compared and discussed for the purpose of improving the thermal environment and enegy conservation. The results are summarized as follows: 1. In Sapporo where heating the whole house is accepted, adequate insulation and air-tightness works drastically. 2. In kyoto heating and cooling equipments are operated on occasion. Condensation is usually observed even in apartment-houses which are thermally insulated to meet with local standard. Inadequate insulation with open fire heating equipment accelerates energy consumpution and indoor air-pollution. 3. In Naha cross-ventilation in summer is effective, nevertheless, mechanical cooling practice is gaining the growing popularity to enable residents to lessen thier casual visibility through openings, thus ensuring mutual privacy. These facts show that energy conservation measures are required to adapt to the regional resident's living style as well as to the regional climate.
For the purpose of using soil as a heat source, we conducted a long-term heat collection experiment emploving a steel pipe pile as a heat exchanger with soil. From the experimental data, we confirmed that the quantity of heat collected from the soil per day was to be about 23kWh and the high performance of coefficient (COP=3.3) for the GSHP, in a stationary state. Numerical calculation results agreed well with the long-term experimental results, which showed that the calculation method could estimate the heat collected rate from the soil during a long-term operation of the heat collection system.
The purpse of this study is to examine an acceptable level of indoor garbage odors. We experimented with "odor bag method" and "entering room method" in this study. We used the garbage sample of mixed vegetables, fruit, fish and tea leaves stored at 30℃ for three days. 0n "odor bag method", we measured odor concentration by organoleptic test, and odor substance concentration by gas chromatograph and some detection tubes. The subjects voted odor intensity, unpleasantness and acceptance of odor on both experiments. The results were as follows: 1) Concerning the acceptable level, there is no statistically significant difference between "odor bag method" and "entering room method". 2) The acceptable level of indoor garbage odor with odor concentraion is 6.9 by "odor bag method" and 11 by "entering room method". 3)We can evaluate the acceptable level of indoor garbage odor by methylmercaptan concentration in the sample air.
A method of fault detection in thermal storage tank and results of applying to data which are generated by simulation and are obtained from an actual thermal storage system are presented. In the fault detection, a physical model is used for a water thermal storage tank of multi-connected complete mixing type, and unknown parameters of the physical model are identified from measured data. Faults can be detected by comparing value of identified parameters with value of the identified parameters under normal condition. In this report, simulation study was conducted in which several faults in storage tank, such as insulation damage of tank wall or abnormal water level in tank, were tried to detect. Furthermore, an analysis of identified parameters of the model is presented for measured data in an actual system.
A mixing model of multi-connected complete mixing tank for thermal storage system under strong buoyancy effect is presented, and the accuracy of the mixing model is studied by comparing the calculated temperature profile in tank with the measured profile. In the mixing model, water entering from connecting pipe is assumed to form a plume and to mix with ambient water at height where the plume stops, while one-dimensional diffusion model is applied to the whole tank and temperature profile in the tank is calculated with numerical method. Velocity in connecting pipe is calculated by applying a model in which pressure profile at both side of the connecting pipe is taken into account. Temperature profile in tank calculated with the mixing model is compared with experimental results under various condition and measured data in an actual thermal storage system.
In this paper, we proposed a simulation model in order to predict the fixture selection in a toilet room, as follows. (1) The authors intoroduced the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Fuzzy-AHP (F-AHP) to analyze the behavior of the fixture selection for use. (2) In using Fuzzy integral, decision makers were classified into three types, which were additive, superadditive, and subadditive groups. (3) In additive case, fixture selection behavior was analyzed by AHP. And in nonadditive case, which is superadditive or subaddilive, they were analyzed by F-AHP. Then, we proved the proposed model was efficient to design the fixture arrangement by simulation analysis.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of materials for ground surface and artificial waste heat on local scale distribution of air temperature. For the investigation, field survey of thermal environment on the site of exposition was carried out. Firstly in this paper, A air temperature distribution measured by fixed point observation was discussed. Secondly, by using thc result of migratory observation of air temperature, two types of regression analysis were examined. 0ne is a multiple regression analysis between air temperature and land use ratio, the other is a regression analysis between air temperature and sensible heat discharge. From these results, it is clear that relationship between the local air temperature and land use within the circle about 100m in radius is close in nighttime.
Comfort is one of the most important keywords on research and development of environment or environmental technologies. But, the concept of comfort is not confirmed, and it seems that the meanings of comfort or pleasantness is not recognized correctly. The purpose of this research is to comfirm the concept of comfort, and to propose the structure of comfort and pleasantness. Examining the concept of comfort in the various research field of architecture, town planning and psychology, the levels of comfort and pleasantness were sorted and arraneed into 6 stages based on the up-to-date informations of the neurophysiology. These 6 stages are expressed using general words "comfort" and "discomfot", and consist of 4 levels of "comfort" and 2 levels of "discomfort". In this paper, the third level of "comfot" which is the most important level for human beings is emphasized and the limits of technologies for comfort and pleasantness are also described.
In a series of our theses we have been analysing the co-relation between the popular dwellings and the frontage of residential lots in the built-up area. This paper deals with the rebuilt houses after World War (II) in the built-up area where had been inhabited by the "Samurai" (warrior) clsses and "Chonin" (tradsman) classes in EDO era. Conclusions are as follows, The arrangement of the kitchen in the house has been freed through the improvement of equipment systems. The living spaces have been improved for the daily life of families. On the other hand, the traditional suite of guest room ("Zashiki") has been decreased into only one room in the housing plan. And its room has been alocated in the ground floor, too. The private rooms have been constituted at the first floor. The main roof style of the rebuilt houses do not inherit the saddle roof or the saddle with the pent roof which had been used to the traditional style.
Determining the boundary within which community facilities are generatecd under the influence of shopping centers is expected to give us basic data for planning of attractive New Towns with the adequate mixed land use. In this study, we clarify how community facilities are generated around a new shopping center in built-up area. The conclusions based on surveyed areas are as follows, (1) the influential boundary of a shopping center is 200m〜400m away from the shopping center; (2) the influential factors of generation of community facilities are the distance from the shopping center, the population, the land use zones, and the location of main streets or railway stations; (3) community facilities around a shopping center are classified into five types according to their location.
This study is intended to clarify the function of joints in recent post and beam wooden construction systems. It is recognized that each joint consists of three parts : a wooden member and two types of metal fittings. The relationship between posts and beams are categorized into two types. Considering to the timing of setting those members, three stages are common features of the joints. The direction that the beams are connected to other members, and functions of fitting members are clarified. In addition, the degree of dependence of the three parts of many joints is proposed to evaluate the role of joining function.
This paper is part of a series of researches into affordable places for being in the city. It attempts to discover the importance of the neighbourhood park and the quality of communication in public open spaces by observing the activity patterns in Sinlong-park and investigating through questionares and deep interviews. Through profile analysis of the group character existing in the park and the patterns of social contact followed by users who join with and communicate with other users, we believe that the park is serving as an important place for local communication, and each user can easily contact with other users and collect a wide range of information. That the user of Sinlong-park can follow desired behavior patterns and thereby achieve personal goals is considered to be an instance revealing the park to be an affordable place for being in Taipei.
The purposes of this study are to make clear the relations between elements of street landscape and its evaluation, and to develop the methods of rural landscape planning. We adopted two consepts, the one "sequence of landscape", the other "consecutive scenes of landscape". We made experiment for evaluation of these landscape using Semantic Differential method, and we compared these evaluation and analysed them synthetically. As a result, we comprehended that evaluation on street landscape in rural area are consisted of several keywords; nature, impression, change, continuity. And cognition of plural elements (e.g. mountain, river, sky and farmland) enhance evaluation on its image. On improving or preserving of street landscape, it's important to make proper arrangement of peculiar elements in rural area.
This thesis intends to envision a perspective for Taipei City planning based on analyzing these three plans related to evoking its transitional process. It is the author's hope that by investigating such process, how the Comprehensive Planning of Taipei City pursing its realization through a conceptual and physical level to a more concrete and integrative one can be decoded.
This paper deals with the system of the Programmed Operation of Improvement of the Living Conditions (OPAH) in France and its application in urban and rural areas and makes clear the relevant characteristics. Conclusios are as follows : (1) The OPAH in urban areas cover one miner part of old quarters in city and its object is to revitalise such areas by the return of inhabitants as a result of entire process from the improvement of housing conditions. (2) The OPAH in rural areas cover a group of villages and towns which usually forms a county. The aim of operation lies in implementing the reuse of vacant houses and to provide local construction campanies with more impetus and activities.
This paper experimentally analyzes the cognition of open space. Subjects 'walked through' a street simulated by 3-D stereo GIS, and were asked to judge which side of the street has more open space. The result shows that the shape and the position of open space have significant effects on open space cognition. Based on the result, we presented a model explaining the cognition of open space. In the model, we judge whether we are inside or outside of the open space, and the maximum visible area of the open space. It was found that the maximum recognized area is stored constantly while we are inside of the open space.
The double standards by the planting agreement based on the preservation law of urban green and the building agreement based on the building standard law contributes mainly to greening of detatched housing area. The most important item influencing effect of planting among items of the agreements is the structure of hedge or wall. The correlation between effect of planting on hedge or wall of roadside in housing site and application of the structure of hedge or wall of the items was made clear through the research on the actual condition (79 detatched housing areas of the double standards). Also, the correlations on effect of greening between the structure of hedge or wall and another 8 factors (set back distance, lot scale, developer, conclusion method, topography, area scale, sanction age, regional differences) were made clear.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the deveropment of plans and design of the main hall of Buddhist temples of the Rinzai Zen sect in the Edo period. The contents of this paper are as follows. Introduction. 1) The plot plan of the Rinzai Zen sect in the Edo period. a. The plot plan of the Myoshinji Zen sect. b. The plot plan of the Gozan Zen sect. 2) The main hall of Rinzai Zen sect in Keityo era (1596-1615). 3) The main hall of Rinzai Zen sect from Genna era to Jyokyo era (1615-1688). a. Design of main hall differs from the scale of plan. b. The degeneration of Menzou. c. The altar of two types (Toshibutudan and shoudo shinzern).
This study attempts to clarify Dutch architect J. L. M. Lauweriks' educational activities in the Nether lands. It became clear that Lauweriks played an active part in educationaI fields of applied art and architecture, for greater part in his life, as an educator or as a director. Lauweriks' educationaI activities affected in the development of the history of modern Dutch architecture and applied art, as regards below two point. (1). Popularization of method of geometricaI construction, so called "proportiesysteem". (2). Influence on architects of Amsterdam school, especiaIIy in the field of interior design. And as an distinctive feature in Lauweriks' educationaI activities pointed out an character, missionary zeal of theosophicaI thought.
In A. Ch. Quatremere de Quincy, the imitation is considered as "production of resemblance of a thing, but in another thing which becomes the image of that thing". What enables the pleasure is not the identical repetition of an object, but the differentiation or analogization depending on the image, which makes the border of the parts and their relation. This invention which must produce the pleasure is also to seek "the happy combinations of preexistent elements". It is the rules of the nature as an "illimitable circle" which assure that fact. The imitation of the nature as "a common model" can be regarded as a inter-textual moment which makes possible the sedimentation, reactivation and deconstruction of meanings of urban architecture as artistic works, that are idiomorphic by each architectural linguistic community.
This research deals with the image of the appearance for Japanese and Taiwanese traditional architecture. To approach this problem, an experiment was conducted to Japanese and Taiwanese with thoes architecture's slides. The image and member/element that strongly influenced on the image were represented by the subjects. The image was considered on the relations with member/element. The conclusions are as follows; 1) The subjects had similar pattern of cognitive structure to Chinese semantic scales and that cloud be used for representative rating scale: gorgeousness-modesty, strictness-looseness, hardness-softness and order-disorder. 2) The images for all architectures in this research were mainly in modesty-order, strictness-hardness, and looseness-softness. The members which strongly influenced on the image are roof and column/wall with various layouts, shapes and colors. 3) Japanese traditional architectures are represented as to be stricter-harder than Taiwanese because of their straight/perpendicular members, Taiwanese as to be looser-softer than Japanese because of their gentle and sloped members, mainly in temple.
By the photos of the mountains of eastern Kyoto, the relations between a change of color and distance (between view-point and view-object) were analyzed by the data recorded by RGB/HSV on computer monitor and XYZ of CIE (Commission Internatinale d'Eclairage). As a result, three specific characteristics were noted as follows: 1) At the 4-5km point there is a transition from one color to another. 2)To the boundaryline at 4-5km the color of the mountain becomes blue with the incresing distance, and over the line (4-5km) it becomes white. 3)A primary factor of the change of color is brightness.