日本建築学会計画系論文集
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
86 巻 , 784 号
選択された号の論文の24件中1~24を表示しています
  • 経年変化にともなう生活領域の変化に関する研究 その6
    藤谷 英孝, 小林 秀樹
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1612-1619
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Introduction

    It was clarified the changes of territoriality for urban low-rise housings, high-rise housings and existing residential areas. These analyses were mainly focused on neighborhood relationships. However, focusing on the marital relationships and the family relationships between parents and children, the changes of the territoriality in the home has not been considered.

    Purpose of research

    Then, paying attention to the setting up room by different decision-makers, the changes of territoriality in home are considered. In addition, the theory of territoriality in home proposed in the 1990s is examined.

    Research method

    In this study, the first survey was conducted on students at Utsunomiya University from 1989 to 1993, and the second survey was conducted on students at Ashikaga University in 2020. Furthermore, the change of territoriality is cleared by comparing the survey results of the past and present.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, we would like to state the following these points.

    (1)Regarding the house layout and residency type, there is a tendency that Static residential class has Tsuzukima Zashiki and Migrant residential class doesn’t have one.

    (2)Although Patriarchal type and Semi Patriarchal type tend to be Static residential class, Matriarchal type and Egalitarian type tend to be Migrant residential class in respect of parental territoriality type and the residency type.

    (3)There are many three generations for Patriarchal type, while nuclear families and office workers for Matriarchal type and Egalitarian type in the matter of occupations and household type.

    (4)As for house layout, the increase in LDK type is remarkable and the number of houses with guest rooms is decreasing. Therefore the dwellings are westernization and the openness of dwellings to invite guests is declining.

    (5)Regarding the changes of parental territoriality type, there were many Matriarchal and Patriarchal types in the past, but the Egalitarian type is increasing significantly.

    (6)In the matter of the Egalitarian type, we can further focus on the parent-child relationship and distinguish two types. These types tend to be Migrant residential class in the LDK type.

  • 中園 眞人, 三島 幸子
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1620-1629
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In this paper, we will track and discuss the changes in enrollment numbers of infants in nursery schools since 1960 in order to estimate future enrollment trends. First, the trajectory of enrollment numbers in Yamaguchi Prefecture is established. Second, an attempt is made to estimate future numbers of infants who will attend nursery school (and thus facility and capacity needs) by considering attendance trends as they relate to the number of infants in each household type. In addition, a consideration is made concerning whether policy effectively addresses supply and demand for childcare in the intermediate and mountainous areas of the region, where the population has decreased. Birthrate figures are added using the current facilities planning strategy of the district entities.

    The results are as follows:

    1) In the whole prefecture, the number of nursery schools and their total capacity increased from 1960 to 1980. This was due to the increasing birthrate: a larger number of infants were born and needed childcare. From 1980 to 1995, as the birthrate decreased, the number of nursery schools and total capacity also declined. The number of children attending nursery school trended upward with the increase in double-income households. In rural areas, however, the downward trend continued due to the declining population and fewer households . This has been especially noticeable since 2000.

    2) The results of these calculations show that the number of infants attending nursery school has been decreasing slightly since 2005, when there were 25,600 children. The number of infants needing childcare increases with the trend of double-income households. The results of our calculations cause us to estimate that 22,700 children will need childcare by 2035. The trend of childcare enrollment numbers also relates to the income levels of the households; those with lower employment income show a downward tendency in attendance, particularly in rural districts. The enrollment number of children in nursery schools in 2005 decreased to 6,400 and continues to decline. These results allow us to estimate 3,900 children attending nursery school by 2035. There is a larger decrease in the number of infants attending nursery school in rural areas than in urban areas.

    3) Results showed that this estimation of nursery schools and their capacities was effective by defining the rate of change. There was a small decrease from 2015 (209 nursery schools for a capacity of 19,900). In 2035, those numbers will be slightly different (181 schools for a capacity of 18,300) in urban areas.

    On the other hand, the number of nursery schools and capacity decreased steeply from 2015 (when there were 92 nursery schools for a capacity of 5,490) to the estimated number in 2035 (60 nursery schools for a capacity of 3,630). Results show a downward trend in the rural districts in comparison to urban areas. Therefore, a realistic and effective method to ensure an adequate number of schools and capacity in the future can be created from tracking vacancy trends year by year in both the intermediate and mountainous areas.

  • 三輪田 真人, 積田 洋
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1630-1640
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In the design of a high-rise building façade, we clarified which parts were segmented and recognized, including the segmentation factors. Furthermore, the psychological evaluation of the upper and lower part of the façade, which was divided into the whole façade, and the segments, was obtained. In addition, it was possible to comprehend quantitatively the shape and material of the constituent elements of the façade, and their mutual relationships.

    (1) The structure of the high-rise building façade depends on the shape of the elevation of the whole façade, the shape of the openings, and the material of the upper part of the façade, which is the reference floor, and the shape of the material of the lower part, which is the bottom space, such as the entrance. The representative types were categorized and typical examples of each category and their characteristics were shown.

    (2) The segmentation line of the façade was determined experimentally, and one segment without segmentation was set to one segment, two segments to 19 segments, and three segments to 16 segments, and it was clear where each segment was segmented. In addition, the most common types of segmentation are 14 in the upper and lower part of the façade, which is divided into two segments.

    (3) According to the text mining analysis, the “segmentation reason” of the façade was based on “switching” a part of a “window,” “design” and “volume” of “building,” and “segmentation” by “change” of “structure.” “Difference” in “color” and “material,” and “difference” in “shape” of “plane” were also found as segmentation reasons. The factors dictating the high-rise building façade segmentation have been clarified.

    (4) By analyzing the psychological evaluation structure, important psychological factors for evaluating the façade were extracted. For the whole façade, the following seven factors were extracted: the unity factor, the evaluation factor, the symbolic factor, the three-dimensional factor, the attractiveness factor, the design factor, and the openness factor. In the upper part of the façade, the following six factors were extracted: the symbolic factor, the unity factor, the evaluation factor, the three-dimensional factor, the design factor, and the openness factor. In the lower part of the façade, the following five factors were extracted: the symbolic factor, the evaluation factor, the design factor, the unity factor, and the three-dimensional factor. Comparing the whole façade to the upper and lower part, the two values of the symbolic factor (stand out–inconspicuous) and the evaluation factor (ugly–beautiful) were represented by a common evaluation scale. This is the most important measure for façade evaluation.

    (5) Quantification theory I analysis, the evaluation of representative factors, and the correlation between the shape and the material constituting the façade became clear.

  • 総合的な視点から見る日欧米の空港・航空施策
    丹羽 菜生, 丹羽 太一, 秋山 哲男
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1641-1651
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative analysis of aviation policies in Japan, Europe, and the United States based on international agreements, from the comprehensive perspective of the integrated development of hardware and software for the use of aircraft as a series of air travel by persons with disabilities, in order to accumulate knowledge that will contribute to the policy formulation of Japan's aviation administration regarding the transportation of persons with disabilities, and to clarify the direction that will contribute to the revision of policy formulation that Japan should execute in the future.

    Specifically, we trace the process of enactment of international treaties as well as laws and regulations concerning the use of aircraft in Japan, Europe and the United States, and conduct a comparative analysis of administrative documents on airport and aviation policies to clarify what is the idea of a security of movement so that a wide variety of people can be transferred safely and smoothly in the use of aircraft, which requires international agreement.

    International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) positioned provision of special assistance that respects the dignity of individual persons with disabilities as a way of the access to air services.

    In Japan, large major airports have achieved a high level of performance in terms of hardware and reached services of quality including each air carrier and airport operator's own software measures. On the other hand the concept of ICAO's support is left to the voluntary efforts of those operators, that does not guarantee the rights of persons with disabilities as in Europe and the United States. In Europe it has historically developed the concept of guaranteeing the rights of persons with disabilities while improving the guarantee of passenger rights, and in the United States it has expanded the guarantee while realizing the claims of persons with disabilities based on the prohibition of discrimination. ICAO's concept of support is based on the concept of rights, and it is found that the laws and regulations guarantee not only the maintenance of facilities but also the management of human support for smooth use of aircraft by persons with disabilities internationally.

    A comparison with the Europe and United States shows that in Japan the establishment of human assistance to ensure the mobility of persons with disabilities who use airplanes is a key to further enhance the level of software. In order to ensure the same level of mobility for persons with disabilities as in Europe and the United States, it is necessary to position the right of mobility for persons with disabilities in the aviation and the barrier-free related laws as well as in Europe and the United States. To this end, the Basic Act on Transportation Policy, which is a higher-level law, also clarifies the rights of persons with disabilities to travel by air equally as other passengers. As a result, it will be possible to establish a institutional development from a comprehensive perspective in aviation administration that will guarantee the mobility of persons with disabilities.

  • 内平 隆之, 中嶌 一憲
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1652-1660
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Introduction

    To investigate the effect of social inclusion on the prevention of isolation and loneliness, we developed a simple screening tool to evaluate social isolation and loneliness, conducted an interview-format questionnaire survey in the Station Marche (open-air market on the station square), and examined the effectiveness of the Station Marche as a social prescription.

     

    Materials and Methods

    We conducted a total of four questionnaire surveys from August 2019 to December 2019 in the Station Marche in Fukusaki, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. We gave our surveys to 406 visitors and analysed the responses of 197 residents of Fukusaki that were selected from all survey respondents. By combining the Japanese version of the abbreviated Lubben Social Network Scale and the Japanese version of the University of California, Los Angeles’ Loneliness Scale, we developed new indicators to evaluate social isolation and loneliness. In addition to the questions about isolation and loneliness in our questionnaire surveys, we asked about involvement in the Station Marche and interests in living services and community activities. We performed a non-parametric test for each questionnaire item, conducted a multiple comparison procedure of the questionnaire items for which statistically significant differences were found, and compared the effect sizes.

     

    Results

    First, the frequency of visits to the Fukusaki station area according to the isolation and loneliness status was placed in the following descending order: the non-isolated and non-lonely type, the isolated and lonely type, the non-isolated and lonely type, and the isolated and non-lonely type. A Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed that there were statistically significant differences between the isolated and lonely types in terms of the frequency of visits to the station (𝑝 = 0.001). The multiple comparison procedure showed that the frequency of visits to the station for the isolated and non-lonely type was significantly lower than that for the non-isolated and non-lonely type (𝑝 = 0.002), and the effect size was moderate (𝑟 = 0.27 [0.09, 0.44]). Second, for interests in living services according to the isolation and loneliness status, the Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed that there were statistically significant differences between the isolated and lonely types in terms of the rental office service (𝑝 = 0.012). The multiple comparison procedure showed that interest in the rental office service by the isolated and lonely type was significantly higher than that by the non-isolated and non-lonely type (𝑝 = 0.011), and the effect size was moderate (𝑟 = 0.41 [0.20, 0.58]).

     

    Discussion

    The results of this study were as follows. First, including the isolated and lonely people who do not usually visit the station, the Station Marche was a place that any type of isolated and lonely person could visit often. Second, regarding interests in living services, since the isolated and lonely people were more interested in a rental office service than the non-isolated and lonely people, there was a statistically significant difference between the loneliness types with different levels of social isolation. We believe that our results make a significant contribution to show the effectiveness of the Station Marche as a social prescription for isolated and lonely people.

  • ―瀋陽市尹家街道・曙光集落(朝鮮族の開拓集落)事例に―
    張 然, 山崎 寿一, 山口 秀文, 曲 藝
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1661-1671
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Research object

    This is the second article of the series study aiming to grasp the actual situation and characteristics of rural land transfer, and the planning issues related to rural land use. In the first article, it is proved that based on the major object of farmland transfer, all the 15 villages of Yinjia Subdistrict can be divided into 3 types, and different types of villages face different land use issues. And the research object of this paper is a Korean-Chinese pioneer village, Shuguang village in Yinjia Subdistrict, which is classified into “Lending to operators outside the village type”.

    Research topics

    1) To master the historical background, institutional background and social background of rural land transfer.

    2) Grasp the real state of farmland transfer and homestead transfer, and their supporting factors.

    3) On the basis of the above investigation 1)-2), comparative analysis of farmland transfer and homestead transfer was carried out, and the trend of land use and management of the whole village was investigated.

    4) Prospect the future issues on land use and management.

    Research methods

    Data collection and field investigation were carried out from Sept. to Oct. 2017, and from Oct. to Nov. 2018.

    Conclutsions

    ① Before the construction of Shuguang village, the land of Shuguang village was farmland of ciyutuo, Guangrong, Majia, Xilala. In the process of village construction and daily life after the completion of the village, Shuguang village has established a deep geographical relationship and trust relationship with surrounding villages and surrounding areas, especially ciyutuo village.

    ② In recent years, in the process of urbanization and agricultural and rural modernization in Shenbei New District, there have been a large number of agricultural operators with farmland demand, as well as rural residents with homestead demand, and urban residents with the desire to return to the countryside.

    ③ In October 2018, all the farmland of Shuguang village was lent to large agricultural households of Ciyutuo village, agricultural cooperatives of Huangjia street, animal husbandry enterprises of Shenyang and farmers of Majia village. No abandoned land was found.

    ④ In October 2018, 150 of the 159 homestead were used or managed by registered residence of Shuguang village, relatives and friends living near Shuguang village, rural residents of other villages, and urban residents of Shenyang. And there are nine idle homesteads.

    ⑤ The historical changes of land ownership and land use, the geographical relationship between villages and regions, the formulation of relevant policies and systems, the change of land demand of local residents and organizations, and the functions of villagers' committees are the important factors to promote land transfer.

    ⑥ In the future, it is very important to seek sustainable land transfer.

  • 田中 由乃
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1672-1682
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In the Czech Republic, under socialism, it was stipulated by law that a part of the construction cost of a new building should be allocated to artworks, and several works of figurative art can be seen in the prefabricated panel housing estates. However, the relationship between the area development plans for specific areas and figurative artworks, as well as the present situation of figurative artworks, has not been fully clarified. This study examines the public space planning within the housing estate, the intention of the installation of figurative artworks, and the characteristics of the existing figurative artworks in the housing area, with a focus on Jižní Město (JM), one of the largest housing estates developed under socialism in Prague, Czech Republic.

    JM has two areas named JM I and II, where the primal development took place between 1971-85 for I and 1981-92 for II. In this paper, the intentions of the public space plan and the installation of the figurative artworks are first clarified by using the archived materials on the JM I comprehensive development plan. Next, the characteristics of the existing artworks are clarified by comparing them with the original installation plan of the artworks identified from the literature and field research.

    From the archived documents and plans, it has been determined that the spatial planning of the JM I development, including figurative artworks, was begun by various specialists such as architects, engineers and artists from the beginning of the development of JM. Besides, it was intended to be in harmony with the surrounding environment within and outside of JM. Five groups of residential areas within JM I were designated by the themes of labour, friends of the nation, youth, joy and socialism, and a square and various artworks according to the theme were designed in each group. According to the articles in official journals “Architectura ČSSR/ČSR” and “Československý architekt” published under socialism, the proposals submitted to the competition for open spaces, where design and aesthetic value were included in the evaluation, did not fully meet the expectations of the jury. As of 1982, it was stated that the results of the competition had not been realized.

    If we look at the works of figurative art whose existence has been confirmed, we found that most of the artworks were confirmed to exist in the groups of labour, youth, and joy, while two works were found in Group 2 on the theme of friends of the nation, and one artwork was found in Group 5 on the theme of socialism. Reasons for not being able to confirm its extinction could be that it was planned but not eventually installed, it was installed but removed, or it exists but has not been found.

    The existing artworks can be regarded as traces of the elements that constituted the public space in the original development plan under socialism. While artworks with a distinctly political tone do not exist as a result, the existing artworks which have universally acceptable theme can be remained and reevaluated in public spaces.

  • 片岡 裕貴, 太幡 英亮
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1683-1691
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study is to find an analysis method using visualization of the network of the collective form of architecture. This is based on a social background of declining population and urban generation because more flexible and creative methods for realizing the collective form are required in a shrinking society compared with the regulated design codes and other methods used in a growing society.

    The collective form is architecture recognized as a group with a shared feature such as similar design or a road or square. The relationship connecting architecture is called linkage. Linkages have varied and hierarchical structures in which large collective forms comprise small collective forms, so a collective form may have a very complex structure. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the complex structure from a network science perspective.

    This study is in the early stage of research, so we selected a survey area in which the group is easily recognizable. The target areas were two university campuses (Nagoya University and Nanzan University) and one historical townscape (Arimatsu). We conducted field surveys on the forms, materials, colors, and shapes of plazas and roads, and extracted the elements give linkage to the collective form.

    We analyzed those data using Cytoscape, which is designed to analyze complex network such as computer networks. First, we performed an ESE analysis using an algorithm that minimizes the energy, assuming that nodes (buildings) repel each other and edges (linkages) are springs. Consequently, we clarified the network structure between architecture subset (small collective form) and whole set (large collective form). Next, we performed Mcode analysis using an algorithm that extracts clusters with strong relationships from the overall network. Consequently, we visualized the strength of the linkage in each cluster in the collective form.

    In conclusion, in this research, we proposed an analysis method that considers buildings to be complex networks.

  • 小林 剛士, 鵤 心治, 宋 俊煥, 白石 レイ, 杉原 礼子, 吉田 雪乃
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1692-1703
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In recent years, unused land has been experimentally used for urban regeneration, and support projects from the national government have been established for them. On the other hand, the street food project in Portland, Oregon, US is paid attention as a method for urban regeneration while solving various problems of them.

    By clarifying the method of this project, the impact on urban regeneration, and the issues, it will be important knowledge for local cities in Japan, which also promote the utilization of low unused land.

    From these backgrounds, the purpose of this study is to consider the future of Street Food Project by clarifying its impact on the surrounding urban space and urban activities and its position in sustainable urban planning. Specifically, this research summarizes the following points regarding the project of Portland, Oregon, US.

    First, the outline of the project was organized by referring to the documents, ordinances, and plans that describe the project. Next, it was clarified the relationship between the food cart located in the parking lot of the Central City Plan District and land and building use of surroundings, and the activity of visitors.

    Furthermore, the issues and future prospects of the project will be summarized based on the results of hearing surveys conducted with departments in charge of Portland and Multnomah County.

    The conclusions of this study are as follows.

    (a) Food carts are located in parking of the commercial center near the central transportation hub or along a public transportation line connecting to there. (b) From the use of land and buildings around the pods, the formation of the pod is considered to be effective in control for the occurrence of competing restaurants, vacant stores, and vacant lots. (c) From the pedestrian traffic, the more food carts locate, the more pedestrian there are. In addition, there are more pedestrians on the sidewalks near the pods. Compared to the ethnic composition of Portland, non-white races use more pods. (d) Portland does not reflect Street Food Project in their plans. Persons in charge of it are aware of the health and safety issues of the project. However, they have not considered the establishment of land use regulations for location, and recognize it a useful method as a temporary land use until unused lands converted to intensive land uses. (e) Some of the blocks where the food carts are located have been redeveloped for commerce, offices, hotels, and housing, while retaining the role of pods. In some cases, the demand for land has been increased by the temporary use of unused lands, and it has been converted to long-term intensive land use by a private developer.

  • 清瀬 正太郎, 十代田 朗, 津々見 崇
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1704-1714
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Amami Oshima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, is expected to develop new types of tourism in the future because of increasing momentum toward its selection as a natural UNESCO World Heritage site and the introduction of low-cost carrier (LCC) flights to its airport. Accordingly, a further increase in the number of tourists and the expansion of its customer base are forecast. This study considers the transition of the relationship between tourism and accommodations in Amami to form a basis for establishing sustainable tourism in the future.

    First, we divided the research periods into four categories in terms of the transition to the types of tourism in Amami, and then clarified the characteristics of each and named them as follows:

    Period of Southern Island Tourism (Period I: 1970–1984): Amami was expected to function as a marine recreation base, and it conveyed the image of being the “Southern Island” prior to the recognition of its unique culture.

    Period of Envisaging a Tropical Resort (Period II: 1985–1994): Despite the image of having a tropical culture, Amami leadership were aware of the resort development happening in Okinawa and therefore focused on golf courses and resort development.

    Period of Diversification in Tourism (Period III: 1995–2010): Against a background the diversification of consumer needs, there was a successive promotion of experience-based tourism utilizing resources such as forests, culture, marine leisure, and the improvement of tourism facilities.

    Period of Promotion for Inscription on the Natural World Heritage Site List (Period IV: 2011–2018): The leadership of Amami wanted their island to become a natural World Heritage site and a unique tourist destination. Therefore, they expanded the island’s customer segments and tourist areas through the introduction of LCC flights.

    It can also be said that this change might be taken as a multilayered approach regarding the image and the activity of the island’s tourism offerings or as a diversification of the style of the stay.

    Next, the following content regarding the transition of accommodations in Amami were clarified, focusing on the number, type, and location.

    (1) The change in the number of accommodations has certain characteristics in each area.

    (2) Focusing on the types of accommodations, the ratio of “guesthouses and resort inns” accounted for more than 50% of the total from around 2000.

    (3) Regarding the location of the accommodations, from 1970 to 2000, the number of accommodations decreased; they had been concentrated in central cities such as Naze and Koniya. After 2000, guesthouses and resort inns began to appear in northern Tatsugo, Uke Island, and Yoro Island.

    (4) Among the recent accommodations, the small-sized ones account for about 80% of the total. We have noted some unique facilities, such as those offering tourists a simulated experience of living on the island.

    As mentioned above, this research concerned the introduction of diversified tourism activities, such as nature experiences, cultural experiences, and the expansion of the area where the accommodations locate by considering the relationship between the tourism trends and accommodations in Amami from 1970 to 2018.

  • 山﨑 敏昭
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1715-1725
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study examined social status as expressed in the Settan-type farmhouses, specifically in relation to cases in which the bargeboards (hafu) were not equipped.

    The Settan-type farmhouse was a widespread architectural form of farmhouses in the Kinki region during the Edo period. Settan-type farmhouses have been recognized as houses that indicate the social status of their residents. This notion has been supported by the idea that only families of higher social statuses within settlements were allowed to have bargeboards on the roofs at the front sides of their houses.

    I have been conducting research on the expression of social status by bargeboards on Settan-type farmhouses. During the course of my research, I have been able to confirm, in records from the Showa period, the existence of two Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped. Prior research has suggested the possibility of the existence of Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped. In addition, during my examination of old records and other written material from the Edo period, I have found an article about a house of which bargeboards had been removed. Nevertheless, no prior research has focused on Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped.

    Therefore, the present study employed the following three steps. Firstly, the distinguishing characteristics of Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped, were extracted from the records from the Showa period. Secondly, written records from the Edo period and extant structures were examined to assess for the detachability of bargeboards in Settan-type farmhouses. Finally, having completed the above steps, the bargeboards of Settan-type farmhouses was discussed afresh.

    The Showa-period records on Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped, revealed that the presence (or absence) of bargeboards was determined neither by floor plan type nor by year of construction. The records, however, contained passed-down information explaining why a bargeboard could be absent. Meanwhile, the Edo-period records revealed, along with reasons for the removal of bargeboards, that Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped, called “komae” had been widespread in the area where Settan-type farmhouses existed. In addition, it became clear that the houses were built in such a way that it was easy to attach and detach the bargeboards as necessary.

    Consideration on , Settan-type farmhouses with which bargeboards were not equipped, based on the above results led to the inference that the two houses recorded in the Showa period had been rare remnants of cases that were in fact widespread in the Edo period (but had largely disappeared by the Showa period). In addition, the detachability of the bargeboards suggested that the social statuses of families expressed by the bargeboards had been fluid rather than fixed.

    As such, the results of this study presented a new perspective that could supplement the understanding about Settan-type farmhouses and their historic value.

  • 中西 大輔
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1726-1732
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In the Edo period, people extended or renovated their houses under the building regulations. The building regulations themselves have already been analyzed much. However, the process of the application under the regulations hasn’t clarified enough, partly because the character of the architectural rule was different in each place. This paper tries to reveal the process of application for extending or renovating a house in the Kamigamo district, and considers the character of the rule in this district.

    To clarify this, I investigated diaries kept at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. It was revealed that these diaries are essential documents about the shrine management. Before the modern times, Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine governed the Kamigamo district. Therefore, when people wanted to construct something in this district, he or she was required to apply to the shrine for the permission of the construction. The diaries recorded what proceedings the resident took if he or she planned the extension or renovation of their house.

    As a result of this study, the following three points were clarified:

    1. In the case of extension, the resident in the Kamigamo district had to follow three procedures. First of all, he or she applied to Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine for the extension. Next, he or she was inspected the plan site by priests at the shrine. Lastly, he or she applied to the magistrate’s office through the shrine. Exceptionally, he or she was exempt from a few processes. Extension of eaves needed only the first process. Extension of an earth floor or addition in a backyard needed merely first and second process.

    2. In the case of renovation, the resident there had to follow the same three procedures. Although in the cases I collected this time, any renovation didn’t need the third process, Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine considered whether the shrine needed to apply to the magistrate’s office for the construction. Exceptionally, the resident was free from a few processes. If the floor plan or the front of a house was not changed, the resident had to follow the only first process.

    3. Based on the case of extension and renovation, it is thought that construction of the front side of the premises and the habitable space in the main house was under rigid rule. Firstly, it was common whether the construction was seen from the street or not. Secondly, extension of earth floor or building huts were exempt from application to the magistrate’s office.

  • −煎茶会図録による煎茶席の空間特性に関する研究 その3−
    櫃本 聡子, 濱田 晋一, 麓 和善
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1733-1740
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    The following were found, after over viewing planar composition mainly the decoration of the floor of the 51 target materials on illustration of the green tea ceremony.

    The planar composition of green tea ceremony room can be classified into 14 types.

    Period Characteristics: Until the early Meiji period, the main focus was on tea ceremony, but in the latter half of the Meiji, people's interest shifted to the app.reciation of tools. Along with this, the plan with the shelf is adopted from the Toko-only plan. And original designs have come to be preferred in themselves.

    Area Characteristics: In Tokyo, there were many exhibition, and the emphasis was placed on the app.reciation of the tools rather than the tea ceremony, and shelf was preferred. On the other, in Kyoto, it was emphasized to enjoy the tea ceremony, and Because the subject of the tea ceremony can be expressed clearly, the Toko-only plan was preferred. In Osaka has a wide variety of kinds and planar configurations, and the composition of the tea ceremony is interesting.

  • −大正末期から昭和初期の室内気候学の興隆−
    高橋 彰子, 元岡 展久
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1741-1751
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper clarifies how insulation was studied in the process of modernization in Japan, by extracting documents related to heat insulation from indoor climatology researches which were studied from the end of the Taisho era to the beginning of the Showa era (1923-1933).

    During the Meiji era, Japan accepted the concept of heat insulation from German hygiene, but could not develop it independently. However, from the end of the Taisho era to the beginning of the Showa era, the Japanese indoor climatology studies presupposed Japan's unique climate, building materials, building construction methods, and lifestyle customs. In these studies, the basic knowledge about heat insulation was obtained for the first time in Japan.

    Insulation in the Meiji era was aimed at preventing diseases by maintaining room temperature. However, in this period, in addition to this purpose, the purpose of saving fuel for heating was added. In other words, the concept of energy saving by using heat insulating materials has risen. In addition, this period was the time when the heating load calculation began to be performed, and as a condition for performing this calculation, a method for actually measuring the thermal conductivity of building materials and a method for calculating the thermal conductivity were studied.

    Also, in the first half of the period, most of the researches on indoor climatology were done by hygienists in the Toda laboratory of Kyoto University. However, as the times went down, the research ratio of mechanical engineers in the field of heating and refrigeration increased. The study of architectural heat transfer by mechanical engineers generally overlaps with the dawn of thermal physics in Japan. At the end of the term, the research of architects such as Saburo Soshiroda and Masanosuke Yanagimachi became conspicuous.

    Furthermore, in the first half of the period, many studies were conducted on the thermal properties of individual materials, but when all of them were completed, the thermal transmission rate of complex walls was studied. Subsequently, the situation when it was constructed as an architecture became the subject of research. In these series of studies, the theory of architectural heat transfer was developed.

    The research results on heat insulation during this period became the cornerstone of the establishment of heat insulation standards by the academic societies after the WW2. In addition, the roots of the most general concepts related to heat insulation, such as "insulation and energy saving", "internal/external heat insulation", " heat insulation and airtightness ", "thermal conductivity of building materials", "thermal transmission rate of the wall " and "degree-days" can be seen in the indoor climatology researches during this period.

  • 南 龍協, 西澤 泰彦, 砂本 文彦
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1752-1763
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the background and process, its characteristics of establishing the Japanese military bases in Seoul during the early modern era of Korea, and to establish it in the history of urban history in Seoul. In 1882, the Japanese army established a military base in Seoul for the first time, followed by several relocations, and finally in 1904 built a permanent base with brick barracks in Pil-dong near Namsan Mountain. The characteristics of the establishment of Japanese military bases in Seoul and the relationship between urban formation in Seoul are summarized as follows.

    First, the Japanese military bases in Seoul are closely related to various events surrounding Korea in the early modern era, and was established following changed according to the following process. (1) In the wake of the ‘Imogunran’, the first Japanese military base was established at three locations in the northern part of Namsan Mountain (1882-1885). (2) In the course of the ‘Sino-Japanese War’, a second base was established in the ‘old Samgunbu’ in front of the royal palace (1894-1896). (3) Under the influence of ‘Agwanpacheon’, which the King Gojong escaped to the Russian legation in 1896, the Japanese military base was relocated from the ‘old Samgunbu’ to the ‘Yanghyangcheong’ and ‘old China telegraph office’ (1896-1904). (4) With the conclusion of the ‘Komura-Webber Memorandum’, a permanent base was established in Pil-dong. (1904).

    Second, the establishment of the Japanese military bases in Seoul were linked to the location of the Japanese legation. Because the Japanese military stationed in Seoul was aimed at guarding the Japanese legation under the ‘Jemulpo Treaty’, the site had to be set up near the Japanese legation. However, the military base in the ‘old Samgunbu’ reflected the special situation of the Sino-Japanese War.

    Third, around 1900, the method of setting up a base by the Japanese army changed from ‘borrowing land and facilities’ to ‘owning land and building new facilities’. After the signing of the ‘Komura-Webber Memorandum’ the Japanese troops, which were able to stably station their troops, tried to build a permanent base with the residents in mind. However, when a permanent base was constructed in Seoul, the permanent ownership of the base and the protection of Japanese residents were important a big concern, which was different from the establishment of a base in homeland Japan.

    Fourth, the Japanese military bases were in line with the formation of the Japanese settlement, which occupies an important position in the formation of the city of Seoul in the early modern era. In 1885, the first Japanese settlement was set up near the previously existing Japanese legation and Japanese military base. In 1896, the Japanese military base was moved at both ends of the Japanese settlement street in response to the protection of Japanese residents and the expansion of the Japanese settlement towards Namdaemunno Street. In 1902, the new Japanese military base constructed in Pil-dong that was near the Japanese legation and Japanese settlement. After all, in urban structure of Seoul, northern foot of Namsan Mountain was formed as a Japanese settlement. It is probable that the beginning of urbanization in the area at the northern part of Namsan Mountain was the result of the establishment of the Japanese military bases, which played a role in protecting Japanese residents.

  • アルド・ロッシ「設計の理論」における“テンデンツァ(傾向)”の理念
    片桐 悠自
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1764-1774
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper examines reconstructing Aldo Rossi’s lecture in term of the word la tendenza before establishing the movement called “La Tendenza” after the XV Milan Triennale in 1973. Focusing on the lecture titled “Le teorie della progettazione (The Theories of the Project) “, the paper detects theoretical origin of tendenza during the years when Rossi taught in Politecnico di Milano as professor.

    In those years, he wrote educational articles and articulated L'analisi urbane e la progettazione architettonica (The Urban Analysis and Architectural Project), first published in March 1970, for the results of the academic year of 1968/1969. The book contains four essays written by Rossi, titled “Premessa (Preface)”, “L'obiettivo della nostra ricerca Lezione. (The purpose of our research: Lecture)”, “L'idea di città socialista in architettura (The Idea of Socialist City in Architecture)”, and “Le teorie della progettazione”.

    First, it considers the first volume of I quaderni azzurri (QA01), written in 19 June 1968 as Rossi’s diary. Just before the academic year of 1968/69, he catechized himself and the term tendenza appeared. Also, he associated the idea of tendenza with the term of La teoria della progettazione.

    Second, it deals with the book L'analisi urbane e la progettazione architettonica, in which Rossi presents the term of tendenza for the students and assistants in his Gruppo di ricerca (research group). Judging from

    “Premessa” and “L'obiettivo della nostra ricerca. Lezione”, Rossi demonstrates the idea of tendenza as common theme for the group. Following QA01, Rossi puts importance on scelta e tendenza (choise and tendency) and tries to define tendenza not as a stopgap manifest but as results of plurality of their researches.

    Through “Le teorie della progettazione”, Rossi evaluates the urban projects in the 19th century, for example, Haussmann’s reconstruction of Paris and G.A. Antolini’s Foro Bonaparte Project. For Rossi, Foro Bonaparte represents precise historical moment and una tendenza, for it anticipates modern vision of the city, with absolute force in the prominence on the map as the plan.

    Then, with Paul Klee’s dairy, Rossi explains transformation from una tendenza to la tendenza inside the artist’s state of mind. In his opinion, architecture is only built for dominant class but could become “reactional architecture which could anticipate revolutionary image”. Interestingly, Rossi not only regards Bauhaus as architecture for dominant class which could have become revolutionary but also urges the audience to doubt the dogma of architectural education that succeeds Modernist Movement.

    In the lecture titled “L'idea di città socialista in architettura”, presented in advance of “Le teorie della progettazione”, Rossi reckons abandoned Utopian projects to Modernism, influenced by Carlo Aymonino’s viewpoint on Tony Garnier and that of Leonardo Benevolo on the phalanstère. Finally, in the end of lecture, he cites the phrases of Leon Trotsky in Literature and Revolution (1924). Trotsky explains the art of tendenza in Soviet Union, which battles the compulsion of party’s principles to the artists. In the reversal sense that Rossi defended Stalinist architecture, he also respects the liberty of the state of mind in artist, citing from Trotsky’s phrases.

    Furthermore, on Socialist City, the term tendenza referred by Rossi from 1968 to 1970 can overlap the idea of Città analoga. Rossi points tendenza for the state of mind of artist, which enables us to investigate the process of making own works toward the architecture of tendenza.

  • 鈴木 明, 加藤 龍馬, 長谷川 香, 山名 善之
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1775-1782
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In a previous paper on the Modulor (1943–1949) research that began after the Second World War, the authors focused on the repeated transformations in representations of the human body due to the deepening of the theory, and thereby verified that the “occupation of space” concept was attained by correlating every part of the human body and human gesture to the Fibonacci Series, based on the Golden Ratio.

    This paper is intended to demonstrate that for the Unité d’Habitation Marseille / UHM (1942–52), the first project in which the Modulor was applied, human figures were depicted in the design drawings. By the time this project was completed, a total of 35 to 90 staff members of ATBAT (Atelier des Batisseures), organized within the office of Le Corbusier (1987–1965), had produced more than 2,700 drawings. How was the Modulor implemented within this complex process?

    By investigating the drawings, it was discovered that the design staff, including Le Corbusier, depicted human figures in 141 drawings, in order to enable the introduction of the Modulor. Were the human figures used to aid the adoption of suitable Modulor values for suitable building locations and parts, that is to say, for evaluation and verification?

    The verification of this hypothesis is as follows:

    1) The basic material comprises 2,742 drawings in the drawing archive UHM at the Le Corbusier Foundation.

    2) From domestic and foreign publications related to UHM, items related to the Modulor were organized in chronological order, in order to understand the introduction process.

    3) For each drawing, the locations to which the Modulor had been applied (apartments, roof-terrace, common spaces, pilotis etc.) and the Modulor numerical values that had been adopted, were arranged in chronological order, and the ranges and tendencies of the numerical values were considered.

    As a result of the above considerations and analyses, it was ascertained that eight Modulor values (27cm, 43cm, 70cm, 86cm, 113cm, 140cm, 183cm, 226cm), taken from the body and its extensions, have been used for the heights of building elements in the apartments and the roof terrace of UHM. It was also ascertained that, among these Modulor values, 86cm was adopted in most places. This is described in the book Modulor I, and confirmed in our previous article. This supports the necessity of the raising of the right hand, which places the hand at a height of 86cm. It was ascertained that, by depicting human figures in the drawings, the design staff shared the “occupation of space” concept and respected these numerical values.

    In addition, feedback from the introduction of the Modulor to UHM revealed that a line at a height of 86cm connects the kitchen counter to the loggia table, as an element that integrates the loggia space from the kitchen to the dining and living area in each apartment. It was also found that the parapet (160cm high) on the roof terrace gives a sense of unity to the body for exercise, play, and recreation.

    Unlike the planning theories of modern architecture based on rationalism and functionalism, unlike the pursuit of manufacturing efficiency, and furthermore unlike the geometry-based tracés régulateurs previously used by Le Corbusier, these are alternative architectural principles based on active body dimensions, suitable for postwar living spaces.

  • ヴォロディーミル デレズニチェンコ, 塩崎 太伸
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1783-1791
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper concentrates on the concept of capsule architecture and its application. The study uses the definition of a capsule provided by previous studies as a basis and follows the common trend of reevaluation modernist practices with the focus on capsular designs from the 1930s and their modern successors. The paper aims to create a comprehensive view of the history of the development of capsule architecture and supports the idea of the continuous nature of such development. In order to achieve this study collects 265 cases of capsular buildings as well as separate capsule examples and inspects them from different aspects to observe major trends. The research showed that the concept of capsule architecture, despite being interpreted by architects in different ways, usually falls into three main categories which can be named ‘mental’, ‘growing’, and ‘mobile’ capsules. Some capsules’ design can utilize all of these categories, and, in principle, be claimed by an architect as a universal and flexible architectural tool. Also, the concept’s application directly reflects on capsules’ basic characteristics namely shape, function, materials, size, number of capsules per structure, and method of capsules’ arrangements. This helps to better classify capsules depending on their application and construct a capsule’s common image. Therefore, a capsule generally can have a rectangular and various custom-made shapes, bear mostly residential function, made of plastics or metal, and has a size of approximately fitting inside 3 to 7 m3 cube chosen as a tool of measurement due to a big number of custom-made shapes where it is difficult to obtain correct measurements. This is partly because capsules can have a shape allowing conglomeration with similar units, so a capsule can have joints, consoles, legs, etc. If capsules form a single structure, in the built examples this number tends not to exceed 50 units, while in the unbuilt section this number is more spread among different scales of capsular structures able to grow to thousands of units and entire capsular cities. Lastly, the method of capsules’ arrangement already well defined by previous studies and is as follows: (1) the capsules spreading on topography, (2) stackable, (3) plug-in, and, notably, (4) the capsules inserted inside a grid and which are the rarest type. The general characteristics of capsules allow demonstrating the common image of a capsule as a phenomenon in the architectural realm and showing the potential and usefulness of capsular designs over conventional architecture and serve as a basis for the further research onto capsule architecture.

  • −戦時国土計画・地方計画と都市計画の関係−
    齋藤 駿介
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1792-1803
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper clarifies the relationship between the regional development planning which was strongly influenced by the national land and regional planning, the preceding urban planning, and wartime urban planning, by taking the Sen’en region as a case study; examines its ideas and reality; and considers the characteristics of wartime urban planning.

    The central ministries, such as the Cabinet Planning Board, the Civil Engineering Bureau, and the Planning Bureau of the Home Ministry, worked to formulate the national land and regional planning and implement related projects, but their views did not necessarily align, and its concepts were not systematized.

    On the other hand, in the Sen’en region, under the leadership of Shigeyuki Kanamori, the director of the Sendai Civil Engineering Branch of the Home Ministry, they formulated the Sen’en Regional Development Comprehensive Plan, which was a comprehensive regional development plan, based on an original systematic view on national land and regional planning. The Sen’en Plan was designed to make the Sen’en region an industrial city by utilizing the production base of Kamafusa Dam and Sendai inner and outer port construction as its core projects. Although previous studies did not elucidate the relationship between urban planning and national land and regional planning during WWII, by clarifying the process of how the Sen’en Plan was designed, it is found that civil engineers’ advocacy of integrated regional development concepts linked indirect population and industrial local dispersal concepts through industrial infrastructure development to actual industrial city construction in provincial areas, and that urban planning and national land and regional planning were closely linked.

    However, the preceding discussion about the development of the region and urban planning strongly influenced how the Sen’en Plan was formulated. Though the intentions of individual entities such as the Home Ministry, Miyagi Prefecture, and each municipality were not necessarily in accord, they had the purpose of industrialization and urbanization in the Sen’en region in common, allowing for the smooth drafting of a grand development plan for the whole region.

    In response to the formulation of the Sen’en Plan, wartime urban planning in Sendai specialized in projects related to industrial development in the city’s east and south. First, the eastern part of the city was incorporated into the urban planning area. Next, the land readjustment that was enforced by public entities in Nagamachi and Haranomachi was actualized. In addition, existing urban planning streets were added and changed. Tagajo, where the construction of a naval arsenal was proceeding, also saw the actualization of projects for land readjustment, the development of streets and elementary schools, and river improvements. However, these projects were stipulated at the locations of military arsenals, and the original concept for Sen’en region as a whole was not realized. In this way, wartime urban planning in the Sen’en region was innovative in that it was planned and implemented based on the urban planning concept as a comprehensive plan that made incorporations not only in terms of enhanced planning standards and wider planning areas, as clarified in previous research, but also in terms of plans for future land use across the whole region. However, in reality the plan was not actually feasible, partly because the construction of Kamafusa Dam and Sendai outer Port was frustrated. Thus, as was the case in other regions, the project focused heavily on military and munitions demands.

  • 金井 健
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1804-1814
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study aims to identify the conditions necessary for a better succession of modern architectural heritage as a daily activity in modern society. As introductory research of it, this paper has examined the state of modern architecture as “cultural properties” through the transition of administrative policies and discourses.

    The idea of “cultural properties,” was firstly appeared with the Cultural Properties Protection Law of 1950. This concept has greatly expanded its scope as time goes by, away from the old-fashioned artistic point of view, under the newly introduced administrative committee system.

    Both the unusual circumstance under the occupation by GHQ/SCAP and the progressive social atmosphere expecting to rebuild the social system accelerated the creation of the brand-new concept of “cultural properties,” that embraces cultural things and matters in the society, by the members of the Ministry of Education.

    After 1950, the new administrative committee system, namely Cultural Properties Protection Committee, promoted the discovery and evaluation of cultural property reflecting the social trend. Consequently, the viewpoint of value evaluation has shifted from a chronological perspective to a typological perspective, which became a factor in expanding its scope to include modern architectural heritage.

    Following the legislative philosophy of “cultural properties” as mankind's common heritage, the administration accepted all types of historic buildings such as shrines, temples, private farmhouses, townscapes, and modern architecture as synchronically equivalent social wealth. Legislative measures have also been put in place for a new type of “cultural properties” through establishing a new system and enhancing system operation.

    In 1999, Conservation Planning was standardized as a tool for appropriate protection measures of “cultural properties” that could optimize the active use of modern architectural heritage. However, a proper understanding of its philosophy has not penetrated the world of architectural preservation in charge of actual planning work, in the world of the general construction industry, and even in the level of administrative practice involved in system operation. Thus, the system of Conservation Planning has not yet fully demonstrated its merits.

  • 建築資料論としての研究素材の通覧と類型化
    齋藤 歩
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1815-1826
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    1. Introduction

    This paper elucidated the useful scope of archival processing for architectural materials regarded as research materials in architectural history after the modern age in Japan, where the way of processing architectural materials has not been established yet, and therefore, many unprocessed materials may exist as hidden collections. First, records surveys and records processing from the 1980s to the present were summarized (Chap. 2–4). Subsequently, the records were characterized into architectural material types by comparing architectural research material types to research material types from history and archaeology (Chap. 5). Finally, the usefulness of the archival processing was examined for each type of architectural material (Chap. 6).

    2. Phase 1 (1985–1996): Systematic surveys

    First, Terunobu FUJIMORI conducted two location surveys on architectural publications and drawings of “Modern Japan” from the first year of the Meiji era in 1868 to the 20th year of the Showa era in 1940. Both surveys focused on Japanese architects who first appeared during the Meiji era.

    3. Phase 2 (1997–2007): Systematic processing and Interest in archival science

    Second, the research records by Chuta ITO, the pioneer of architectural history in Japan, were processed in the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). His work included more types of records than that of any of the abovementioned architects. In 2000, the National Museum of Nature and Science in Japan commissioned a survey by the AIJ on “architectural materials.” The AIJ continued this survey as its own project and conducted the study tour to the US in 2013. The tour led Japanese architectural historians to show a keen interest in collection policies and archival processing for managing and preserving architectural research materials.

    4. Phase 3 (2008–): Expanding surveys and studying processing

    Subsequently, the AIJ conducted a national survey on “modern architecture materials,” commissioned by the National Archives of Modern Architecture, which opened in 2013. Some educational institutions had begun both processing architectural materials and studying their processing during Phase 2. These differ from archival processing in that they focus on architectural drawings, and one drawing was considered a basic unit.

    5. Comparison

    Then, the targets of the surveys and the processing were characterized. Before Phase 1, research material types related to architectural history were mainly remains and documents. In 1930, Saburo HORIKOSHI classified architectural research materials made in the Meiji era into six types; however, it was only after the war in 1945 that serious studies on the Meiji era as the modern age were conducted. In this chapter, those architectural material types were systematically categorized by being compared to research material types from history and archaeology. Based on the architectural material types, the targets of the survey and the processing were characterized.

    6. Consideration

    After examining the usefulness of the archival processing by referring to four types of architectural materials, it was found that archival processing was highly effective for research records by historians or design records by designers. Those records are called “secondary architectural materials” or “architectural design materials” in this paper.

    7. Conclusion

    Archival processing was highly effective for architectural materials such as architectural records by historians or designers, after the modern age in Japan. However, exceptions may occur depending on (i) the activity of the records’ creator, (ii) the records’ owner, and (iii) the age of the records’ creation.

  • 中山 利恵
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1827-1838
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper analyzes the depiction of "ARAI" work-related documents from around the Edo period to clarify the objects used for "ARAI," the operators who performed the ARAI, and the respective activities involved in ARAI jobs.

    In this paper, in addition to the three historical documents described in the previous paper, 10 new documents relating to ARAI from around the Edo period were discovered. In Chapter 2, the contents of the description of ARAI in these 10 historical documents are exhibited in chronological order. In Chapter 3, based on the results of Chapter 2, the objects applied for ARAI are exhibited. Lye is used as a cleaning solution for the ARAI of wooden surfaces, and "Hot lye" has been used since the early 18th century. Also, "Buckwheat straw," which is more alkaline than rice straw, can be used as raw materials for lye. Further, it turns out that Sasara brush and scourer made of rice straw were used as tools to physically rub wooden surfaces. Similar tools are used in current era traditional ARAI. Chapter 4 described the ARAI operators. Until the mid 17th century, plasterers were performing the ARAI. However, it was revealed that at the end of the 17th century, a specialized craftsman named " Nanto Arai-ya Hachiuemon" existed during the repair of the Horyu-ji Temple. Thereafter, it was exhibited that the ARAI was carried out by professional craftsmen described as "Arai-ya" and "Arai-kata". In Chapter 5, the activity and types of ARAI are described.

    In Chapter 6, the transition of ARAI in around the Edo period is considered. For ARAI during the establishment period from Keicho to the Joo era (early to middle of the 17th century), only the straw, which is the raw material of the lye, and time and labor required for ARAI is depicted., and ARAI was conducted along with wall paintings by the plasterer.

    ARAI during the development period of the Kansei era to the Genroku era (late 17th century to early 18th century) accounted for approximately half of the historical documents at six items (five items in the Genroku era and four items from the Horyu-ji Temple document). The most specific descriptions of raw materials, chemicals, tools, and activities were written on the front gate of Horyu-ji Temple Oyuya in 1696. Also, "Arai-ya" and "Arai-kata," who are specialists in ARAI, first appeared in the recorded documents. During the maturity period from the Tenmei to the Tenpo eras (late 18th century to early 19th century), scaffoldings dedicated to ARAI were built. In addition, at Chion-in Temple in 1836, three types of specifications, "Arai with hot lye," "Arai by wiping," and "Wiping," were used according to the operating site, and a four-step operating unit price was specified. In the maturity period, it is considered that ARAI became generalized as an independent occupation, its specifications were established, and different ARAI types were explicitly displayed along with the unit price per lot for repair work of specific sizes.

  • 増留 麻紀子, 朴 光賢, 柴田 晃宏, 鯵坂 徹
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1839-1850
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper outlines Matsui's career, and clarifies the characteristics of his architectural activities in I) Tokyo, II) Milano, and III) Kagoshima period.

     

    Matsui's career

    I) After graduating from the Tokyo University of the Arts in 1956, he joined the Isamu Kenmochi Design Institute and was promoted to director and chief designer in 1963. He collaborated with Mikami and Sugiura, who were his classmates at the university, and this relationship continued until his later years. He was also engaged in educational activities as a part-time lecturer at Musashino Institute of Technology from 1965. In particular, being worked at the Kenmochi Design Institute was a turning point for Matsui, as he met Gregotti.

    II) Matsui participated in the Gregotti office, which had begun activities in Milano since 1968, and came to play an important role as a partner architect when Gregotti Associati was established in 1974. He also was involved in education with Gregotti, who was a professor at the university. Matsui sought to obtain an Italian architect qualification (Architetto), but although he passed the qualification test, he was unable to register due to nationality issues, which prompted him to return to Japan. It is speculated that his experience in educational activities in Italy and the fact that the Department of Architecture of Kagoshima University at that time planned to invite a professor architect, led to start for his career as a professor at Kagoshima University after returning to Japan.

    III) In 1983, he joined the Faculty of Engineering, Kagoshima University as a Professor of the Department of Architecture, retiring in 1997. He was also appointed to the Kagoshima Economic University in 1999 and retired in 2003. In his later years, he was also active as an artist.

    Matsui's architectural activities

    I) Matsui was in charge of the interior and furniture design, especially he designed furniture and fixtures with same height using modules, as well as color schemes. In this period, Matsui cultivated Kenmochi's design ideas, such as the importance of understanding the sense of scale and conveying details using the actual size drawing. In addition, through the collaboration with Kunio Maekawa and Sachio Otani, various architectural ideas and design methods were cultivated in Matsui, and it can be inferred that he had an integrated view of interior design and architecture.

    II) Under Gregotti, Matsui was involved in large-scale projects such as city planning in addition to architecture, and the scope of design for him had expanded to the urban scale. Simultaneously he had a great influence on the projects and management of the office with an accurate understanding of Italian architectural culture. He also worked independently recognizing the importance of his own individual activities. The works during this period were characterized by linear composition, grid composition of square modules, using of squares in plan, elevation, and openings, aligning the top edge of building against the different ground level.

    III) Matsui left behind three implementation works that are reminiscent of the works of the Milano period, but also show his unique expression using the Trompe l'oeil and color painting. He was involved in research activities related to Italy and also served as a member of urban planning and other committees.

     

    In addition, Matsui contributed for the entire period, serving as a bridge between Japan and Italy to introduce each other's architectural culture.

  • −都市規模と地域居住者特性に着目して−
    曽我部 哲人, 牧 紀男
    2021 年 86 巻 784 号 p. 1851-1862
    発行日: 2021/06/30
    公開日: 2021/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    In National land planning, there are two significant issues, population decline including population uneven distribution and catastrophic disasters. In prior studies, catastrophic disasters may make worse the population uneven distribution. However, to evaluate the impact, it is necessary to understand the general trend of population uneven distribution. Based on the background, the purpose of this study is to evaluate demographic condition and motion in each region in National land planning scale. For the purpose, this study classifies regional characteristics by principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis using National Census in 1995 and in 2010, and evaluates demography in each regional typology divided by regional characteristics and 5 urban area scale (Capital, Mega city, Medium city, Small city, and Town) based on central city scale in the area.

    The result of classifying regional characteristics shows that there are 4 types of regional characteristics common to 1995 census and 2010 census; Urban region which have much population and large tertiary industry worker rate and residents living in apartment housing rate, Rural urban mix region which have large over 3 persons household rate and both of primary industry and non-primary household rate, Aged region which have large over 65 years old population rate and non-working household rate, and Primary industry region which have small population and large primary industry worker rate. In large urban area, there are much urban region, and the less scale urban area has less urban area rate.

    The result of evaluation of demography in each regional typology shows that different demography depends on regional characteristics and urban area scale. In demographic condition, urban region has more population than other regions, and the larger urban area scale, the more population. On the other hand, in same regional characteristics, the population pyramids are similar between different urban area scales. In demographic motion in 1995 to 2010, urban region in Capital area, Mega city area, and Medium city area increase their population. On the other hand, Urban region in Town area, and other regions in the area smaller than Medium city decrease their population. In addition to total population change, population change rate by age group shows 9 groups depends on both of regional characteristics and urban area scale. That results shows uneven population distribution which many people concentrate to Urban region in Capital area from small urban area and decrease population in such region, and the demographic trend is depending on both aspects, regional characteristics and urban area scale.

    In conclusion, this study clarifies uneven population distribution based on 2 axes, regional characteristics and urban area scale. The result shows that there is difference of demography inside of regions depends on their regional characteristics and population concentration trend to urban region in large urban area. In the future study, this study will be useful to evaluate the difference of demographic impact by the event (i.e. disaster) in each regional typology.

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