The Ministry of Construction's Notification 1441 (2000) on "Verification Method for Egress Safety from a Fire Floor" is composed of a set of prescribed characteristic input values for fire load density, occupant density and so on, coupled with simplified formula to calculate fire and egress behavior. By combining them with building design variables such as room area and ceiling height, nominal escape time margin is calculated. To clarify the degree of safety implemented in the verification method, the stochastic variability in input values and uncertainties in calculation formula have been examined. Based on existing research and survey results, variability and uncertainty are expressed in terms of probability density functions. This work has clarified that : (1) Two variables (fuel load density and occupant density) are recognized as type A variables which contains inevitable stochastic variation. Six variables (walking velocity, specific flow rate, time to start escape, fire growth rate over combustible contents, fire growth rate over lining materials and time to smoke filling) are recognized as type B variables, which contain knowledge uncertainties due to incompleteness of prediction method. (2) The coefficients of variation are large in both type A and type B variables ranging 13 to 235 %. There is a need to reduce uncertainties associated with type B variables. (3) The partial safety factors vary in the range of-0.45 to 4.97. There is a possibility to rearrange the partial safety factors to obtain better balance between variables.
This study was carried out in order to construct a model to predict thermal sensation in thermal transients, by examining the relation between thermal sensation vote and physiological data related to thermoreception obtained by subject experiments. A regression model consisting of five variables, mean skin temperature and its time derivative, temperature of tympanum and its time derivative, and heat flux at'skin surface, was used to describe thermal sensation vote in thermal transients. When four different sets of regression coefficients were given in accordance with the heat flux at skin surface, which was considered to represent degree of thermal transients, the time series of calculated thermal sensation agreed with the thermal sensation vote. It was thus shown that thermal sensation in thermal transients could be predicted by the model proposed in this paper.
This paper reports on test house measurements and simulated prediction for the proposed a low energy house with air-circulation in brick walls. Distribution of thermal mass, arrangement of heat gain/exhaust elements, combination of other devices and operation scheme control the indoor thermal environment and reduces of air-conditioning load. The first stage, the thermal performance of a brick house was simulated to compare with other types of wall structures, and it was possible to improve the thermal performance of a brick house with utilization of heat gain/exhaust elements. The next stage, a test house was constructed to validate experimentally the effect of proposed devices. Direct solar gain and Trombe wall effect are the object in winter in terms of heat gain. Earth cool tubes and solar chimney effect by Trombe wall are measured to estimate the cooling amount. We proposed a real size model house with air-circulation in brick walls combined with a solar air-heater, Trombe wall and cool tubes, and the thermal performance of it was simulated as the third part of this paper. Experimental results on the test house were used to validate the accuracy of the simulation programs. As for the seasonal heating/cooling load, the brick house with air-circulation was estimated about 20% less than a normal wooden structure house.
The purpose of this study is to utilize the concept of exergy to discuss the meaning of well water 'coolness' applied to a ceiling radiant cooling system. A house in Chiba was equipped with a ceiling radiant cooling system using well water, and with outdoor sun-shading on the South-facing window. We conducted measurements of indoor thermal environment and electric power consumption in the summer of 2001. The results showed the following : 1. The ceiling radiant cooling system consumed cool thermal exergy from well water and emitted a small part of it as cool radiant exergy from the ceiling radiant panel surface. 2. When cooling system was used, not only the ceiling radiant panel but also the surrounding walls and floor contributed to the radiant cooling effect by emitting cool radiation exergy. 3. The well water pump consumed about 56 times more exergy than the ceiling radiant panel and the circulation pump consumed about ten times more exergy.
This paper presents physical models that are used for analyzing numerically the transportation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials in a room. The models are based on fundamental physicochemical principles of their diffusion and adsorption / desorption (hereafter simply sorption) both in building materials and in room air. The performance of the proposed physical models is examined numerically in a test room with a technique supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two building materials are used in this study. One is a VOC emission material for which the emission rate is mainly controlled by the internal diffusion of the material. The other is an adsorptive material that has no VOC source. It affects the room air concentration of VOCs with its sorption process. The floor is covered with an emission material made of SBR (polypropylene styrene-butadiene rubber). An adsorbent material made of coal-based activated carbon is spread over the sidewalls. The results of numerical prediction show that the physical models and their numerical simulations explain well the mechanism of the transportation of VOCs in a room.
This paper discusses ductless air conditioning systems using large temperature difference air. Low temperature air is available from low temperature chilled water made by ice storage systems. Supply air is once introduced to ceiling plenum chamber and supplied through ceiling-mounted diffusers to the room served in this system. Thermal comfort in the room is satisfied by the ductless air supply system using large temperature difference air.
This paper describes the field measurements and the simulation study on air-conditioning system with thermal buffer zone. Passage located on the perimeter of a building can serve as a thermal buffer zone, which diminishes the effect of exterior thermal loads. Measurements were made in underfloor air distribution system with buffer zone using air curtain and the result of the measurements was compared with that of CFD. In addition, two types of air-conditioning system with thermal buffer zone and conventional FCU system are discussed in terms of their characteristics.
The result of this study is shown below. 1) Under the current system, in the small autonomous bodies, the atmospheric-pollutants (such as dioxin) may generate from the incineration, and the utilization of the waste heat from the incineration is not in progress. 2) In the less-populated areas, the decrease of the amount of waste by the interval treatment is small, and the rate of the waste to be finally disposed is high. Moreover, the burden of the management budget is large. 3) However, in these areas, waste separation and recycling with participation from the local citizen are seemed to be effective.
For the purpose of finding out methods of designing shower heads, the effects on optimum flow rate and comfort condition were examined by using shower heads whose size and angle of holes were systematically changed. To grasp physical characteristics of each shower head, the experiments concerning the distribution of the force and the volume of water were conducted. Optimum flow rate and comfort condition data were gained by the subjective experiment, and the relations between those and the force were explained. And also, optimum flow rate and flow rate when actually taking a bath were experimented by using commercially available shower heads. As a result, optimum flow rate was strongly effected by total force when the subject was hit by shower. Optimum flow rate can be predicted by total holes area, which is determined by hole size, and hardly effected by hole angle. The result of experiment using commercially available shower heads showed that optimum flow rate is related to total holes area, and the volume of hot water by each action is in proportion to optimum flow rate.
This study explored how subjective evaluation of townscape are influenced by presentation settings such as the size of the picture on screen, the distance between screen and observer and the angle of view of the picture. Experiments of townscape evaluation with several presentation settings were held, and following results are obtained : 1) The size of picture have little influence on almost all rating scales. 2) The distance between screen and observer have strong influence on the rating score of spaciousness and activity, however it have small influence on scales such as preference, beauty and harmonious. 3) Smaller viewing angle than real situation make the area of point of attention wider in the frame of picture.
In this study, outdoor microclimates were investigated at a detached housing area with in leafy canopy in summer. And characteristics of microclimate created in the site were clarified from a viewpoint of spatial shape and constituent material of outdoor space. Relationship between thermal radiant field and spatial shape was shown within the site, including gathered trees remained in the south of the site. Wind environments on the central passage and south space of each house were grasped considering inflow from the surrounding area. And air temperature distribution in the site was grasped and effects of surface temperature and wind environment on the distribution were shown.
In Part 1, a simulation system was developed to examine human spatial orientation in a virtual weightless state. By conducting experiments in several routes of connected modules, we found some relevant variables for spatial cognition errors. Part 2 clarifies the causes of spatial cognition errors by the similar experiments using more complicated routes. The results showed the errors were able to be explained by two causes. One cause was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially more often when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. The other cause was that subjects were incorrect in the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns.
In this study, calculation program for life-cycle waste, landfill and CO_2 emissions (LCW, LCL, and LCCO_2) from commercial buildings are developed. The influences of various design options on LCW, LCL and LCCO2 of model buildings are analyzed. The results are as follows. 1) In LCW, steel structure has smaller impact than reinforced concrete structure. In LCL, however, reinforced concrete structure has smaller impact than steel structure since the recycled-efficiency of concrete is high. 2) Extending the life of building and improving recycled-efficiency of construction waste have same order effects on decreasing LCL. 3) Using recycled aggregate for structural material increases LCCO_2.However, using blast-furnace slag cements for structure concrete can reduce it.
The color of the red clay walls of a 'machiya' (former Takato Houses) in Kamogata, Okayama Prefecture was measured and described with L^*a^*b^* color description method. The clay used for the walls of the house is from the soil of Mt. Youshou nearby. The earth of Mt. Youshou was geologically investigated at the outcrop and through literature on geology. Mt. Youshou is composed of the late Cretaceous rhyolite, tuff, and breccia. The summit area of Mt. Youshou has not been eroded since the early Pleistocene and its earth is deeply weathered and is a red color. Its grain size and chemical elements were also analysed. It turned out that the red color of the earth is from Fe-ion. Secondly, in order to identify the coloring elements of the clay walls, the authors used the newest handy type X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and the results of the measurements at the place showed that this red color comes from Fe (Fe_2O_3). Thirdly, the comparison was made between the color averages and color distribution of the red clay walls of former Takato Houses and those of the red clay walls of other important cultural properties of which color the authors have been measuring. Lastly, using the average value of the measured colors at many points as an object color, the colors were reproduced in a computer color matching system, and a highly precise result was obtained.
The purpose of this study is to explore the formation and building process of coal-mining settlements, through case studies of 3 middle-class mining industries. They were similar in production level, although their capital scales and management policies varied. Normally, mining settlements locate in remote areas, whereas it located near existing residential areas and farmlands for a locally owned mine. In terms of growing rates, mines and their settlements with large capital drastically expanded during the war and post-war period, and did not experience constant growth. In contrast, small mining communities grew constantly over the periods. This indicates that national policies affected larger mines much stronger. Residential structures in mining communities had been rather temporal, and become more permanent after early Showa period. At this point, settlements distribution patterns were formed. In all 3 case studies, there were upscale facilities and housing supplies for most employees. The distribution patterns were deeply related with personnel management policies.
This study was conducted in order to analyze the present conditions of the rheumatics and to make it clear what they really need from the viewpoint of house repair. We carried out questionnaires and personal interview surveys to the rheumatics in 2001. The results were as follows. The rheumatics expect that house repair will enable them to lead comfortable life. But the present conditions are far from their satisfactory. The first, a shortage of the specialized knowledge of the builders is quite serious. The second, the support systems of house repair for them have not been fully organized yet. Besides, house repair costs too much for them.
In this paper, we discuss public facility location from equity and efficiency point of view on forcusing on distance between the users' location and their nearest facility. First, we define two measures : (a) average difference of distance as the measure of equity ; (b) average distance as the measure of efficiency. Second, we show the analytical expressions of their average differences under regular and random facility distributions. Third, we formulate biobjective programming problem to find Pareto optimum solutions and to solve the equity and efficiency maxmization problem. Finally, we apply the model to evaluate optimal location of public facilities in Tsukuba City.
The users of night nursery school are more varied to those of day nursery school. The need of night nursery school will rise. The closing time of night nursery school can be divided in four types. Night nursery schools and night & day nursery schools are deferent in nursing style, attitude also in size, form of the facilities. Active playing requires better facilities and better nursing. We got seven nursing functions for indoor and outdoor play space. Especially connecting in door spaces & out door spaces and broad space where children can run in are important. In the case of no play ground in nursery school, rooftop and artificial ground should be utilized, hi the City Planning wooded areas, parks and children's facilities should have priority to be set near nursery school.
This paper is a report about an experiment in the furniture layouts at children's wards. It aims planning on behalf of the view point of territory of children's wards. It have been also analyzed the privacy and communication of children in wards. The experiment was put in practice with 18 cases by 5 types in layouts. The main results are as follows : Children enlarge and/or make narrow of their territory by furniture and their goods for privacy and communication, which frequently have joint territory. Children design the border of territory in many variation for privacy and communication.
This paper traces some links between typology and location of NOH-stages (NOHBUTAI) in Wakasa. Typology depends upon four ; (1)plan, (2) space division of the main stage (HON-BUTAI) and the back stage (ATOZA), (3) orientation of NOH-stage and the shrine (SYADEN), (4) site plan of NOH-stage and the shrine. NOH-stages located near Obama, the historical center of Wakasa, had some similarities to that of urban NOH-stages. The similarities between the tow decreased in proportion to the distance from the center. It means that NOH-stages in Wakasa were not independent from urban ones but were deprived from urban ones.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of care environment for the elderly people with dementia. For this objective, different three group-livings were surveyed by means of observations of behavior and interviews with staff. Behavior maps were drawn every 5 minutes from morning to night. Some results show as follows : (1) Spatial composition such as the go-round style with circularity and selectivity doesn't always have an effect on staffs' care in quality. Arrangements of the spaces with due regard to the substances of staffs' care would be critical to gain such kind of effect. (2) To deal with the residents, staffs are conscious of successively watching not for the sake of "a posterior care", but for "a prior care". (3) Some of the care is not swayed by physical environment, which is the consequences of the essential qualities of the care.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the travel behaviors and the use of sitting spaces of the aged in the out-of-home. We conduct the questionnaire survey in Shinagawa ward promoting the project of OYASUMIISHI for the aged. The results are as follows : The aged highly esteem the importance of providing the sitting spaces in the going-out places : The travel frequency of the aged who have actually sat on the seats of OYASUMIISHI may become higher than the other : It can be said that the sitting spaces have an effect on urging the aged to go out.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the property of the irregular street networks in English historic towns. It does so by comparing the random street networks with the rational networks that are reconstructed by the models ; Minimum spanning tree, Exocentric tree, and Delaunay diagram. The main results of the study are as follows. Minimum spanning tree is embedded at a ratio of around 90% in the street networks. The street networks are included at a ratio of about 95% in the Delaunay diagram.
The previous paper discussed the quantitative characteristics of commercial space independent of discretization in time. However, commercial space changes continually over time so it is important to understand the influence that time has on present space conditions. This paper discusses the influence of discretization in time on commercial space. Specifically, the relationship between sales of merchandise and the quantity of commercial space in a given shop. The quantitative characteristics of commercial space will be determined by using Self-Organized Criticality.
Experiments were conducted in two areas with a grid-shaped street pattern, one containing many open spaces (area 1) and another with few open spaces (area 2). Subjects were asked to memorize routes by walking with experiment leader. After learning the route, subjects walked it alone. The experiment comprised 65 subjects (32 males and 33 females), 34 walked in area (1), while 31 walked in area (2). As a result of analyzing the distance and angle errors on the cognitive maps, it was recognized that the written lengths, concerning both street patterns, were smaller than the actual distances. The errors in the angles between the standard lines and the lines, connecting each corner with the starting point, were smaller in the area (1) walks conpared to the walks in area (2). Our analysis distinguished 4 cases of cognitive mapping and sight behavia. 1) the subject showed recognition and a active sight behavia. 2) the subject showed recognition, but a weak sight behavia. 3) the subject didn't show recognition, but there was an active sight behavia. 4) the subject didn't show recognition and the sight behavia was weak.
This paper deals with the administration on outdoor advertisements in Ibaraki prefecture. They partly entrusted the municipalities of which prefectures fundamentally have authority. This study is intended to be an investigation of the actual state of municipal administration on outdoor advertisements, and aims to clarify how to observe problems involved in decentralization. As a result, followings became clear. There is a limit in controlling outdoor advertisements with the ordinance of Ibaraki prefecture. Some municipalities positively expect the delegation of authority. As for Ibaraki prefecture, each municipality has the potential to play an independent role in administering outdoor advertisements.
No American city has changed its building height limitations as often as Chicago. The City Council of Chicago changed height limitations three times in 10 years from 1893.There also were a number of attempts to raise or reduce the limitations during the same period. This paper is to review the transition of building height limitations in Chicago from 1893 to 1902, and to clarify Chicago's own social context that caused such changes. Specifically, this paper is to focus on : 1) what were these changes and attempts like and what urban problems were behind these, 2) who took part in a series of discussion in conjunction with building height controls, and for what intentions they tried to change the limitations, and 3) what influence such instable limitations caused to the city and what problems were left after a series of changes.
The purpose of this paper is to acquire the information for selecting the development permission villages in the urbanization control area of Toyohashi city. First, we clarify the characteristics of the villages by classifying them into 8 types using principal component analysis. Second, we attempt to evaluate the villages for allowing the development using analytic hierarchy process. Finally, based on the development permission aptitude derived from the evaluation and the supply and demand of housing by community defined by urban master plan in Toyohashi city, we try to select villages for allowing the development.
This paper clarifies the present conditions of Colonel Light Gardens (Adelaide, Australia), which was designed by Charles Compton Reade following the Ebenezer Howard's idea of Garden City, and discusses the significance of the planning idea and method concerning the evaluation of international Garden City Movement. Adelaide is known as the only existing city Ebenezer Howard cited in his book "Garden City of Tomorrow", and C. C. Reade is well known as one of the missionary and organizer of the movement. The major objective of this article is to review the idea and method of the planning of Colonel Light Gardens for the future development of Japanese town planning. This paper reveals the present layout of Colonel Light Gardens based on the field survey, forcusing house plan and its transformation. Comparing the original layout with the present one, we can evaluate the validity and possibility of the planning idea and method of Garden City planning. We can easily identify 4 house styles, i.e. Californian Bungalow, Thousand Homes, Tudor Revivr, and Austerity. Almost all these houses were transformed by inhabitants but still maintain the orignal appearances. We would like to appreciate the rules that inhabitants had followed and shares.
This study aims to clarify the process and the reason of tie historical change of public retail markets in Hong Kong. Through analysis of the policy of market control by the government using Hong Kong Annual Reports from 1841 to 1997 and the survey of all public retail maricets, three conclusions have been formulated (1) Public health has been one of the important town planning issues from the beginning of Hong Kong as the British colony, and the government had used public retail markets to maintain public health till now. As a result, the number of public retail markets has increased to 108. (2) Public retail markets are classified into nine types and have changed to public facilities complex or market-housing complex through 6 stages historically. (3) Public retail markets have played the primary role to make a community in each district combining with public services or housing and changing their forms from temporary and low-rise to permanent and high-rise architecture.
This paper aims to analyze the longitudinal changes in the elderly living arrangements in Japan, Korea, and U. S. by using census data. Through examining the longitudinal changes for 3 countries, it was confirmed that even though the speed of change varies by country, the changes in the elderly living arrangements have progressed in the same direction-decrease of 'co-residence', increase of 'living alone' and 'living with spouse only'-in spite of the difference in each country's traditional culture. And it was confirmed that the speed of change in Korean rural area was significantly fast. The examined results will provide insights into the creation of a plan improve residential problems of the elderly.
Government officials were sent to inspect and purchase horses in Edo-era. Morioka-Han and Sendai-Han were famous for breeding horses. Through the examination of historical materials, following results are ascertained ; (1) Officials sent by central government to Morioka-Han used Okari-ya of Morioka-Han as a lodging. (2) Officials sent by Morioka-Han to Tono used Okari-ya of Tono as a lodging. (3) We suppose that officials sent by central government to Sendai-Han used Gaijin-ya and Baken-sho of Sendai-Han. (4) Baken-sho of Sendai-Han was siutable for inspecting horses on front road.
Preserving the medieval townscape, it is still difficult to identify the dimension of city wall built in the 11th and 12th century Siena for the reason of the lack of sufficient remainings and documents. P. Nardi specified the city limits by studying toponymy, but it shows only the concept of city area. The tower-house called casatorre is the typical structure spread over Tuscany at that time. The study on the distribution of casatorre indicates that both Camollia area and San Martino area were built as fortified borgo and were absorbed into the city after the establishment of the comune.
This study aims to clarify the correspondence between the process of ornamental removal by Adolf Loos and discarding of tonality by Arnold Schonberg. Descriptions on "Ornament" in "Theory of Harmony" show how Schonberg's musical forms were considerably influenced by Loos's architectural theories and his idea of "Modern Spirit" at the time. Various other writings by both artists also reveal that they influenced each other. As a result, it became clear that Loos and Schonberg made a great progress on modern architecture and modem music in the twentieth century.
This paper examines the promotion of modernism by a museum in Britain in the late 1960s through the analysis of collecting and exhibiting policy of the Circulation Department of the Victoria and Albert Museum. As a case study. "Modern Chairs" exhibition, which was organized by the Circulation Department and held at the Whitechapel Art Gallery in 1970, will be dealt with. It has been widely accepted that modernism in Britain had already declined, and was replaced by Pop culture that first appeared in the 1950s. This study, however, tries to revaluate the impact of modernism during the above period.
This study aims to analyze the development of the "agglomerate museum" which appeared in Germany at the beginning of the 1890's. At first, this new type of museum architecture mainly depended on the interior planning (: to consist of various exhibition rooms which correspond to each collection), without presenting distinct exterior design. Although the prosperity of this type around 1900, its interior exhibition planning slowly gained the critics and doubts because of its practicability. And as the last example, the Markisches Museum was presented in 1908, emphasized the exterior design which consisted of various local architectural styles, independent of the interior system.
This study clarifies the space order of the religious rites in the west district of Amami-ohsiraa through the analyses of the site structure of "Myah-the precincts" and the function and the shape of "Ashyage and Toneya-the shrines". The summary of the result is as follows : 1. The conception of counterpart between "the front and the back", "the formal and the casual" and the conception of directional aspect to "Neriya-the other world beyond the horizon" arid "Kamiyama-the holy hill" form the space structures and the shape of those facilities. 2. These conceptions apply to the space order of the whole settlement.
The task of this paper is to make analysis of Frank Lloyd Wright's architectural-theory through his concepts of "growth" and "structure." He asserted architecture should be built like a tree growing. The concept of growth signifies eternal becoming from "Idea," that produces unity in variety in Nature, to particular something. The concept of structure means the system which supports growth, and is the essential framework of being. Through this analysis, it is indicated that the concept of Earth is the fundamental structure from which all beings grow, including Nature, architecture as Native, and human-nature.
Through the consideration of the transition from the selections and the settlement of the site for the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris 1925, the followings are made clear : 1) The site settled at the Esplanade des Invalides, Grand Palais, and etc was admired as ideal, through the considerations of the 12 sites nominated by Louis Bonnier. 2) The total site was composed by some parts of the sites which were possessed by some cadres, the committee of the Colonial Exposition in Paris, Ministry of Public Instruction and Beaux-Arts, the municipal authorities of Paris, and etc, because the parts of the site was conceded by them.
This paper investigates the influence of the ultrasonic waves that are included in the sounds of costal waves on human brain waves, by experimenting using CD recorded wave sounds. The experiment was conducted using a full range pass sound, and low range pass sound which is not including high frequency band width to 26 subjects and was measured amounts of brain wave activity in 4 different type of brain wave frequency, delta, theta, alpha and beta waves respectively. State of activity of brain wave was also expressed on brain wave map. At the same time, using the YG test and Profile of Mood States (POMS), brain reaction by personality and psychological evaluation were also examined. As the result, author obtained that ultrasonic wave affects to human brain with statistically significant.