日本建築学会計画系論文集
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
68 巻 , 563 号
選択された号の論文の53件中1~50を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. App3-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. App4-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. App5-
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 水野 雅之, 島村 誠, 徳永 英, 西田 朋子, 南部 晶子, 原田 和典, 若松 孝旺
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 1-8
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Ministry of Construction's Notification 1441 (2000) on "Verification Method for Egress Safety from a Fire Floor" is composed of a set of prescribed characteristic input values for fire load density, occupant density and so on, coupled with simplified formula to calculate fire and egress behavior. By combining them with building design variables such as room area and ceiling height, nominal escape time margin is calculated. To clarify the degree of safety implemented in the verification method, the stochastic variability in input values and uncertainties in calculation formula have been examined. Based on existing research and survey results, variability and uncertainty are expressed in terms of probability density functions. This work has clarified that : (1) Two variables (fuel load density and occupant density) are recognized as type A variables which contains inevitable stochastic variation. Six variables (walking velocity, specific flow rate, time to start escape, fire growth rate over combustible contents, fire growth rate over lining materials and time to smoke filling) are recognized as type B variables, which contain knowledge uncertainties due to incompleteness of prediction method. (2) The coefficients of variation are large in both type A and type B variables ranging 13 to 235 %. There is a need to reduce uncertainties associated with type B variables. (3) The partial safety factors vary in the range of-0.45 to 4.97. There is a possibility to rearrange the partial safety factors to obtain better balance between variables.
  • 森 郁恵, 鉾井 修一, 高田 暁, 田中 宏明
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 9-15
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was carried out in order to construct a model to predict thermal sensation in thermal transients, by examining the relation between thermal sensation vote and physiological data related to thermoreception obtained by subject experiments. A regression model consisting of five variables, mean skin temperature and its time derivative, temperature of tympanum and its time derivative, and heat flux at'skin surface, was used to describe thermal sensation vote in thermal transients. When four different sets of regression coefficients were given in accordance with the heat flux at skin surface, which was considered to represent degree of thermal transients, the time series of calculated thermal sensation agreed with the thermal sensation vote. It was thus shown that thermal sensation in thermal transients could be predicted by the model proposed in this paper.
  • 中村 美紀子, 渡辺 俊行, 林 徹夫, 赤司 泰義, 高瀬 秀芳, 永田 麻由子, 大里 雅子, 永田 修三
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 17-24
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper reports on test house measurements and simulated prediction for the proposed a low energy house with air-circulation in brick walls. Distribution of thermal mass, arrangement of heat gain/exhaust elements, combination of other devices and operation scheme control the indoor thermal environment and reduces of air-conditioning load. The first stage, the thermal performance of a brick house was simulated to compare with other types of wall structures, and it was possible to improve the thermal performance of a brick house with utilization of heat gain/exhaust elements. The next stage, a test house was constructed to validate experimentally the effect of proposed devices. Direct solar gain and Trombe wall effect are the object in winter in terms of heat gain. Earth cool tubes and solar chimney effect by Trombe wall are measured to estimate the cooling amount. We proposed a real size model house with air-circulation in brick walls combined with a solar air-heater, Trombe wall and cool tubes, and the thermal performance of it was simulated as the third part of this paper. Experimental results on the test house were used to validate the accuracy of the simulation programs. As for the seasonal heating/cooling load, the brick house with air-circulation was estimated about 20% less than a normal wooden structure house.
  • 淺田 秀男, 武田 仁
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 25-31
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to utilize the concept of exergy to discuss the meaning of well water 'coolness' applied to a ceiling radiant cooling system. A house in Chiba was equipped with a ceiling radiant cooling system using well water, and with outdoor sun-shading on the South-facing window. We conducted measurements of indoor thermal environment and electric power consumption in the summer of 2001. The results showed the following : 1. The ceiling radiant cooling system consumed cool thermal exergy from well water and emitted a small part of it as cool radiant exergy from the ceiling radiant panel surface. 2. When cooling system was used, not only the ceiling radiant panel but also the surrounding walls and floor contributed to the radiant cooling effect by emitting cool radiation exergy. 3. The well water pump consumed about 56 times more exergy than the ceiling radiant panel and the circulation pump consumed about ten times more exergy.
  • 加藤 信介, 伊藤 一秀, 村上 周三, 朱 清宇
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 33-38
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents physical models that are used for analyzing numerically the transportation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials in a room. The models are based on fundamental physicochemical principles of their diffusion and adsorption / desorption (hereafter simply sorption) both in building materials and in room air. The performance of the proposed physical models is examined numerically in a test room with a technique supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two building materials are used in this study. One is a VOC emission material for which the emission rate is mainly controlled by the internal diffusion of the material. The other is an adsorptive material that has no VOC source. It affects the room air concentration of VOCs with its sorption process. The floor is covered with an emission material made of SBR (polypropylene styrene-butadiene rubber). An adsorbent material made of coal-based activated carbon is spread over the sidewalls. The results of numerical prediction show that the physical models and their numerical simulations explain well the mechanism of the transportation of VOCs in a room.
  • 橋本 幸博, 間 純一, 坪田 祐二, 中野 幸大, 占部 亘, 柳原 茂, 岡 建雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 39-44
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses ductless air conditioning systems using large temperature difference air. Low temperature air is available from low temperature chilled water made by ice storage systems. Supply air is once introduced to ceiling plenum chamber and supplied through ceiling-mounted diffusers to the room served in this system. Thermal comfort in the room is satisfied by the ductless air supply system using large temperature difference air.
  • 相賀 洋, 石野 久彌, 久本 浩子, 郡 公子
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 45-52
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes the field measurements and the simulation study on air-conditioning system with thermal buffer zone. Passage located on the perimeter of a building can serve as a thermal buffer zone, which diminishes the effect of exterior thermal loads. Measurements were made in underfloor air distribution system with buffer zone using air curtain and the result of the measurements was compared with that of CFD. In addition, two types of air-conditioning system with thermal buffer zone and conventional FCU system are discussed in terms of their characteristics.
  • 白井 裕子, 尾島 俊雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 53-60
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The result of this study is shown below. 1) Under the current system, in the small autonomous bodies, the atmospheric-pollutants (such as dioxin) may generate from the incineration, and the utilization of the waste heat from the incineration is not in progress. 2) In the less-populated areas, the decrease of the amount of waste by the interval treatment is small, and the rate of the waste to be finally disposed is high. Moreover, the burden of the management budget is large. 3) However, in these areas, waste separation and recycling with participation from the local citizen are seemed to be effective.
  • 近藤 武士, 花尾 美智子, 高須 直子, 大塚 雅之, 鎌田 元康
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 61-67
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
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    For the purpose of finding out methods of designing shower heads, the effects on optimum flow rate and comfort condition were examined by using shower heads whose size and angle of holes were systematically changed. To grasp physical characteristics of each shower head, the experiments concerning the distribution of the force and the volume of water were conducted. Optimum flow rate and comfort condition data were gained by the subjective experiment, and the relations between those and the force were explained. And also, optimum flow rate and flow rate when actually taking a bath were experimented by using commercially available shower heads. As a result, optimum flow rate was strongly effected by total force when the subject was hit by shower. Optimum flow rate can be predicted by total holes area, which is determined by hole size, and hardly effected by hole angle. The result of experiment using commercially available shower heads showed that optimum flow rate is related to total holes area, and the volume of hot water by each action is in proportion to optimum flow rate.
  • 宗方 淳, 大井 尚行, 平手 小太郎, 安岡 正人
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 69-75
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study explored how subjective evaluation of townscape are influenced by presentation settings such as the size of the picture on screen, the distance between screen and observer and the angle of view of the picture. Experiments of townscape evaluation with several presentation settings were held, and following results are obtained : 1) The size of picture have little influence on almost all rating scales. 2) The distance between screen and observer have strong influence on the rating score of spaciousness and activity, however it have small influence on scales such as preference, beauty and harmonious. 3) Smaller viewing angle than real situation make the area of point of attention wider in the frame of picture.
  • 浅輪 貴史, 梅干野 晁, 武澤 秀幸, 清水 敬示
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 77-84
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, outdoor microclimates were investigated at a detached housing area with in leafy canopy in summer. And characteristics of microclimate created in the site were clarified from a viewpoint of spatial shape and constituent material of outdoor space. Relationship between thermal radiant field and spatial shape was shown within the site, including gathered trees remained in the south of the site. Wind environments on the central passage and south space of each house were grasped considering inflow from the surrounding area. And air temperature distribution in the site was grasped and effects of surface temperature and wind environment on the distribution were shown.
  • 青木 宏文, 大野 隆造, 山口 孝夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 85-92
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Part 1, a simulation system was developed to examine human spatial orientation in a virtual weightless state. By conducting experiments in several routes of connected modules, we found some relevant variables for spatial cognition errors. Part 2 clarifies the causes of spatial cognition errors by the similar experiments using more complicated routes. The results showed the errors were able to be explained by two causes. One cause was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially more often when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. The other cause was that subjects were incorrect in the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns.
  • 漆崎 昇, 水野 稔, 下田 吉之, 酒井 寛二, 森 正義
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 93-100
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, calculation program for life-cycle waste, landfill and CO_2 emissions (LCW, LCL, and LCCO_2) from commercial buildings are developed. The influences of various design options on LCW, LCL and LCCO2 of model buildings are analyzed. The results are as follows. 1) In LCW, steel structure has smaller impact than reinforced concrete structure. In LCL, however, reinforced concrete structure has smaller impact than steel structure since the recycled-efficiency of concrete is high. 2) Extending the life of building and improving recycled-efficiency of construction waste have same order effects on decreasing LCL. 3) Using recycled aggregate for structural material increases LCCO_2.However, using blast-furnace slag cements for structure concrete can reduce it.
  • 廣川 美子, 石田 志朗, 寺田 博一, 阪口 明弘, 宇高 忠
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 101-110
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The color of the red clay walls of a 'machiya' (former Takato Houses) in Kamogata, Okayama Prefecture was measured and described with L^*a^*b^* color description method. The clay used for the walls of the house is from the soil of Mt. Youshou nearby. The earth of Mt. Youshou was geologically investigated at the outcrop and through literature on geology. Mt. Youshou is composed of the late Cretaceous rhyolite, tuff, and breccia. The summit area of Mt. Youshou has not been eroded since the early Pleistocene and its earth is deeply weathered and is a red color. Its grain size and chemical elements were also analysed. It turned out that the red color of the earth is from Fe-ion. Secondly, in order to identify the coloring elements of the clay walls, the authors used the newest handy type X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and the results of the measurements at the place showed that this red color comes from Fe (Fe_2O_3). Thirdly, the comparison was made between the color averages and color distribution of the red clay walls of former Takato Houses and those of the red clay walls of other important cultural properties of which color the authors have been measuring. Lastly, using the average value of the measured colors at many points as an object color, the colors were reproduced in a computer color matching system, and a highly precise result was obtained.
  • 安武 敦子, 菊地 成朋
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 111-116
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to explore the formation and building process of coal-mining settlements, through case studies of 3 middle-class mining industries. They were similar in production level, although their capital scales and management policies varied. Normally, mining settlements locate in remote areas, whereas it located near existing residential areas and farmlands for a locally owned mine. In terms of growing rates, mines and their settlements with large capital drastically expanded during the war and post-war period, and did not experience constant growth. In contrast, small mining communities grew constantly over the periods. This indicates that national policies affected larger mines much stronger. Residential structures in mining communities had been rather temporal, and become more permanent after early Showa period. At this point, settlements distribution patterns were formed. In all 3 case studies, there were upscale facilities and housing supplies for most employees. The distribution patterns were deeply related with personnel management policies.
  • イバーラ ホセ ミゲル, 谷村 秀彦, アシシア モンデェ オヒ, 歳森 敦, 金 鎮範
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 117-124
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では,フイリピンのダバオ市における不法占拠居住者(行政による再定住プログラムによって移住した移転居住者を含む)に対して,居住環境に関する選好意識を分析した。居住環境を構成する属性としては,1)住宅の所有権,2)都心部への接近性,3)上・下水道などの社会基盤施設の整備水準,4)安価な公共交通サービスの利用可能性,5)住宅の形態,6)教育・医療施設などの供給水準の六つの要因を取り上げ,コンジョイント分析を利用することにより,不法占拠居住者の居住環境に関する選好意識を計量的にとらえる方法を試みた。分析の結果,不法占拠居住者と移転居住者は所有権を得ることを好むほか,郊外であること,上・下水道など良好な社会基盤を備えていること,安価な公共交通サービスが利用できること,一戸建てであること,高水準の教育・医療施設があることを選好していることが明らかになった。また,どの要因が選好を決定するにあたり重要であったかについて,高い順にみると,1)住宅の所有権(26.30%),2)都心部までの接近性(22.24%),3)上・下水道などの社会基盤施設の整備水準(21.41%),4)安価な公共交通サービスの利用可能性(13.17%),5)住宅の形態(9.17%),6)教育・医療施設などの供給水準(7.70%)という結果が得られた。本研究で用いたコンジョイント分析は,居住環境のような複数の属性をもつ仮想の評価対象について,住民の選好構造を計量的に分析するための有効な手法となりうる。すなわち,住民は所有権を重視する政策を支持しているが,その要件については改善を求めていることがわかった。
  • 野口 祐子, 高橋 儀平
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 125-130
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was conducted in order to analyze the present conditions of the rheumatics and to make it clear what they really need from the viewpoint of house repair. We carried out questionnaires and personal interview surveys to the rheumatics in 2001. The results were as follows. The rheumatics expect that house repair will enable them to lead comfortable life. But the present conditions are far from their satisfactory. The first, a shortage of the specialized knowledge of the builders is quite serious. The second, the support systems of house repair for them have not been fully organized yet. Besides, house repair costs too much for them.
  • 尾崎 尚也, 大澤 義明
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 131-138
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, we discuss public facility location from equity and efficiency point of view on forcusing on distance between the users' location and their nearest facility. First, we define two measures : (a) average difference of distance as the measure of equity ; (b) average distance as the measure of efficiency. Second, we show the analytical expressions of their average differences under regular and random facility distributions. Third, we formulate biobjective programming problem to find Pareto optimum solutions and to solve the equity and efficiency maxmization problem. Finally, we apply the model to evaluate optimal location of public facilities in Tsukuba City.
  • 北浦 かほる, 萩原 美智子
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 139-146
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The users of night nursery school are more varied to those of day nursery school. The need of night nursery school will rise. The closing time of night nursery school can be divided in four types. Night nursery schools and night & day nursery schools are deferent in nursing style, attitude also in size, form of the facilities. Active playing requires better facilities and better nursing. We got seven nursing functions for indoor and outdoor play space. Especially connecting in door spaces & out door spaces and broad space where children can run in are important. In the case of no play ground in nursery school, rooftop and artificial ground should be utilized, hi the City Planning wooded areas, parks and children's facilities should have priority to be set near nursery school.
  • 今井 正次, 永田 麻由子, 松野 朱央子
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 147-154
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper is a report about an experiment in the furniture layouts at children's wards. It aims planning on behalf of the view point of territory of children's wards. It have been also analyzed the privacy and communication of children in wards. The experiment was put in practice with 18 cases by 5 types in layouts. The main results are as follows : Children enlarge and/or make narrow of their territory by furniture and their goods for privacy and communication, which frequently have joint territory. Children design the border of territory in many variation for privacy and communication.
  • 宇野 浩生, 土本 俊和, 笹川 明
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 155-162
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper traces some links between typology and location of NOH-stages (NOHBUTAI) in Wakasa. Typology depends upon four ; (1)plan, (2) space division of the main stage (HON-BUTAI) and the back stage (ATOZA), (3) orientation of NOH-stage and the shrine (SYADEN), (4) site plan of NOH-stage and the shrine. NOH-stages located near Obama, the historical center of Wakasa, had some similarities to that of urban NOH-stages. The similarities between the tow decreased in proportion to the distance from the center. It means that NOH-stages in Wakasa were not independent from urban ones but were deprived from urban ones.
  • 鈴木 健二, 外山 義, 三浦 研
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 163-170
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of care environment for the elderly people with dementia. For this objective, different three group-livings were surveyed by means of observations of behavior and interviews with staff. Behavior maps were drawn every 5 minutes from morning to night. Some results show as follows : (1) Spatial composition such as the go-round style with circularity and selectivity doesn't always have an effect on staffs' care in quality. Arrangements of the spaces with due regard to the substances of staffs' care would be critical to gain such kind of effect. (2) To deal with the residents, staffs are conscious of successively watching not for the sake of "a posterior care", but for "a prior care". (3) Some of the care is not swayed by physical environment, which is the consequences of the essential qualities of the care.
  • 大島 秀明, 天野 克也, 浅沼 由紀, 谷口 汎邦
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 171-177
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the travel behaviors and the use of sitting spaces of the aged in the out-of-home. We conduct the questionnaire survey in Shinagawa ward promoting the project of OYASUMIISHI for the aged. The results are as follows : The aged highly esteem the importance of providing the sitting spaces in the going-out places : The travel frequency of the aged who have actually sat on the seats of OYASUMIISHI may become higher than the other : It can be said that the sitting spaces have an effect on urging the aged to go out.
  • 谷村 仰仕, 古山 正雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 179-186
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this paper is to clarify the property of the irregular street networks in English historic towns. It does so by comparing the random street networks with the rational networks that are reconstructed by the models ; Minimum spanning tree, Exocentric tree, and Delaunay diagram. The main results of the study are as follows. Minimum spanning tree is embedded at a ratio of around 90% in the street networks. The street networks are included at a ratio of about 95% in the Delaunay diagram.
  • 和田 尚之, 奥谷 巖
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 187-193
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The previous paper discussed the quantitative characteristics of commercial space independent of discretization in time. However, commercial space changes continually over time so it is important to understand the influence that time has on present space conditions. This paper discusses the influence of discretization in time on commercial space. Specifically, the relationship between sales of merchandise and the quantity of commercial space in a given shop. The quantitative characteristics of commercial space will be determined by using Self-Organized Criticality.
  • ジヴ クフィル イスラエル, 宗本 順三
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 195-203
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.背景・目的 これまでの研究で、海の眺望は居住者の肯定的な評価となり、また住棟の景観は否定的な評価となること、さらにこれらの評価は眺望の景観要素の広がりと距離に関連してることを明らかにしてきた。本論では、居住者にとって好まれる眺望として居住者が住戸から撮影した眺望写真の画像を分析して1,居間からの眺望(写真)の分析と好まれる眺望の景観要素を比較して相違を検討する。2,居間からの眺望で否定的な評価がなされている住棟の眺望景観が、好まれる景観ではどのような状態になっているか。3,好まれる眺望に見られる景観要素のクラスターと眺望の満足度の関連性を調べる。以上のことを研究の目的とした。調査は2000年2月と4月に行われ、南港ポートタウン(NPT)、西宮マリーナパークシティ(NMPC)、六甲アイランドシティ(RIC)の255サンプルについて、眺望の満足度(アンケート調査)、居間からの眺望写真、居住者に好まれる眺望として撮影したポラロイド写真を得た。2.好まれる眺望と居間からの眺望 好まれる眺望と居間からの眺望の両者の景観写真に含まれる景観要素を比較したところ、居間からの眺望の約74%に住棟が含まれるが、好まれる眺望では住棟は57%になる。一方、好まれる眺望では地面や中庭が最も多く含まれ(69%)、これらは居間からの眺望では約1/2(33%)になる。他の景観要素では両者の差は大きくない。次に、これらの景観要素をクラスターアナリシス(結合法)を行って、4クラスターを得た。クラスター1は山・市街地・文化・業務施設、クラスター2は海・港湾施設、クラスター3は地面・中庭・植栽、クラスター4は住棟となった。3.住戸からの好まれる眺望と眺望の満足度 帰納二分割法(Binary Recursive Partitioning)を用いて上記4クラスターとシンメトリー(好まれる眺望写真と居間からの眺望写真が符合する場合)、距離(眺望が近景であるか遠景であるか)と眺望の満足度の関係を分析した。その結果、シンメトリーの場合、および遠景である場合の方が、そうでない場合よりも満足度の高い分布を示した。次に眺望の満足度には、クラスター2(海・港湾施設)が最も高い説明力を持ち、それに次いでクラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)が説明力を持つっている。クラスター1(山・市街地・文化・業務施設)とクラスター4(住棟)はほとんど差がないことが明らかになった。眺望の満足度が高い場合は、眺望にクラスター2(海・港湾施設)を含み、さらにクラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)もしくはクラスター1(山・市街地・文化・業務施設)とクラスター4(住棟)のいずれかの組み合わせである。これらの組合せのうち大半は、クラスター2(海・港湾施設)とクラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)との組合せであった。次の満足度のレベルでは、クラスター1(山・市街地・文化・業務施設)もしくはクラスター2(海・港湾施設)だけの場合もあるが、クラスター2(海・港湾施設)とクラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)、クラスター4(住棟)が同時に含まれる場合がほとんどである。満足・不満足どちらでもない場合の眺望では、クラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)、クラスター4(住棟)のみであること、不満の場合はラスター1(山・市街地・文化・業務施設)とクラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)のみである。不満の高い場合は、クラスター3(地面・中庭・植栽)のみであることが分かった。4.まとめと考察 居間からの眺望と好まれる眺望を比較すると、景観要素のうちネガティブな評価である住棟は、好まれる眺望では大幅に減少するが、ポジティブな評価である海はほとんど増加しない。つまり海の景観要素は居住者の意志で取り込むことが出来ない。地面や中庭が増加するのは、住棟を眺望から避けてアングルを急な角度に変えたためである。これらのことから、眺望の景観要素と住棟の関係が明らかになった。次に、眺望・景観の構成要素のクラスターと眺望の満足度には法則性が在ることが分かった。つまり、住戸からの眺望・景観が近くの地面・中庭・植栽のみの場合に高い不満足が在り、また、海・港湾施設と地面や植栽の組合せの場合に、眺望の満足度は最も高くなることを明らかにした。また、帰納二分割法の最初の分割では、クラスター2(海・港湾施設)を分割ルールとなっていることから、好まれる眺望に、海・港湾施設の景観要素を含む眺望が満足度に最も影響力のあることが分かり、先行研究と良く符合することが分かった。
  • 宮岸 幸正, 西應 浩司
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 205-212
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Experiments were conducted in two areas with a grid-shaped street pattern, one containing many open spaces (area 1) and another with few open spaces (area 2). Subjects were asked to memorize routes by walking with experiment leader. After learning the route, subjects walked it alone. The experiment comprised 65 subjects (32 males and 33 females), 34 walked in area (1), while 31 walked in area (2). As a result of analyzing the distance and angle errors on the cognitive maps, it was recognized that the written lengths, concerning both street patterns, were smaller than the actual distances. The errors in the angles between the standard lines and the lines, connecting each corner with the starting point, were smaller in the area (1) walks conpared to the walks in area (2). Our analysis distinguished 4 cases of cognitive mapping and sight behavia. 1) the subject showed recognition and a active sight behavia. 2) the subject showed recognition, but a weak sight behavia. 3) the subject didn't show recognition, but there was an active sight behavia. 4) the subject didn't show recognition and the sight behavia was weak.
  • 野中 勝利
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 213-220
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper deals with the administration on outdoor advertisements in Ibaraki prefecture. They partly entrusted the municipalities of which prefectures fundamentally have authority. This study is intended to be an investigation of the actual state of municipal administration on outdoor advertisements, and aims to clarify how to observe problems involved in decentralization. As a result, followings became clear. There is a limit in controlling outdoor advertisements with the ordinance of Ibaraki prefecture. Some municipalities positively expect the delegation of authority. As for Ibaraki prefecture, each municipality has the potential to play an independent role in administering outdoor advertisements.
  • 坂本 圭司, 西村 幸夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 221-228
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    No American city has changed its building height limitations as often as Chicago. The City Council of Chicago changed height limitations three times in 10 years from 1893.There also were a number of attempts to raise or reduce the limitations during the same period. This paper is to review the transition of building height limitations in Chicago from 1893 to 1902, and to clarify Chicago's own social context that caused such changes. Specifically, this paper is to focus on : 1) what were these changes and attempts like and what urban problems were behind these, 2) who took part in a series of discussion in conjunction with building height controls, and for what intentions they tried to change the limitations, and 3) what influence such instable limitations caused to the city and what problems were left after a series of changes.
  • 馬 相烈, 大貝 彰
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 229-236
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to acquire the information for selecting the development permission villages in the urbanization control area of Toyohashi city. First, we clarify the characteristics of the villages by classifying them into 8 types using principal component analysis. Second, we attempt to evaluate the villages for allowing the development using analytic hierarchy process. Finally, based on the development permission aptitude derived from the evaluation and the supply and demand of housing by community defined by urban master plan in Toyohashi city, we try to select villages for allowing the development.
  • 角橋 彩子, 布野 修司, 安藤 正雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 237-244
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper clarifies the present conditions of Colonel Light Gardens (Adelaide, Australia), which was designed by Charles Compton Reade following the Ebenezer Howard's idea of Garden City, and discusses the significance of the planning idea and method concerning the evaluation of international Garden City Movement. Adelaide is known as the only existing city Ebenezer Howard cited in his book "Garden City of Tomorrow", and C. C. Reade is well known as one of the missionary and organizer of the movement. The major objective of this article is to review the idea and method of the planning of Colonel Light Gardens for the future development of Japanese town planning. This paper reveals the present layout of Colonel Light Gardens based on the field survey, forcusing house plan and its transformation. Comparing the original layout with the present one, we can evaluate the validity and possibility of the planning idea and method of Garden City planning. We can easily identify 4 house styles, i.e. Californian Bungalow, Thousand Homes, Tudor Revivr, and Austerity. Almost all these houses were transformed by inhabitants but still maintain the orignal appearances. We would like to appreciate the rules that inhabitants had followed and shares.
  • 木下 光
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 245-251
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to clarify the process and the reason of tie historical change of public retail markets in Hong Kong. Through analysis of the policy of market control by the government using Hong Kong Annual Reports from 1841 to 1997 and the survey of all public retail maricets, three conclusions have been formulated (1) Public health has been one of the important town planning issues from the beginning of Hong Kong as the British colony, and the government had used public retail markets to maintain public health till now. As a result, the number of public retail markets has increased to 108. (2) Public retail markets are classified into nine types and have changed to public facilities complex or market-housing complex through 6 stages historically. (3) Public retail markets have played the primary role to make a community in each district combining with public services or housing and changing their forms from temporary and low-rise to permanent and high-rise architecture.
  • 小林 正美
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 253-261
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.はじめに 18世紀末期から20世紀初頭にかけて米国の東部の大都市で大量に建設された連棟式都市型住居(ロウハウス)は、ヨーロッパの先例を参照しつつ、各都市の状況に応じ、独自な発展および変形した。本研究では、米国東部の三大港湾都市、フィラデルフィア、ボストン、ニューヨークにおけるロウハウスを採り上げ、それぞれの都市の成立過程と住居の平面形式の発展過程およびその背景を調査することにより、近代都市史における都市型住居の位置づけを行い、現代の都市住居への応用可能性を探る。本論の目的は、(1)18〜20世紀にかけて、各都市におけるロウハウスの平面形式の変形過程を追跡し概観する。(2)各地における特殊な環境条件を把握し平面形式を変化させた諸要因について考察する。(3)三都市における変形過程を比較研究し、ロウハウスという建物形式が有する建築的自律性と単軌な対応性を抽出することである。2.歴史的背景 (1)都市化の過程と街区構造 米国の都市化の過程は、第一期(〜1820年)、第二期(1820〜1870年)、第三期(1870年〜)の三期に分けられるが、これらの各時期に当時の主要な都市である三都市は異なった発展と人口集中を行った。フィラデルフィアは、ウィリアム・ペンにより「聖なる実験」として計画され、基本的にクェーカー教徒による宗教都市として成長した。18世紀後半の産業は基本的には農業を主体としたが、その後、米国で最も繁栄した都市として着実に成長を続けた。1687年にペンは大区画に農家を一軒づつ建てる構想を特っていたが、小街路による術区の分割政策が取られ、上流階層と下流階層の住民が同一の街区内に居住するという特徴的な構造を示した。ボストンはジョン・ウィンスロップの指導のもとに清教徒のコミュニティーとして計画された。18世紀初期に商業および工業都市として全盛を極め、米国中有数の都市として成長する。全体的には宗教的な制約が強く、社会的には比較的安定した成長をした。ショウマット半島とそれに付随した埋立地の確保という形で都市成長は進行し、有名な住宅地ビーコンビルはロンドンをモデルとして計画された。その後半島の南側、北側の埋立てという形で新住宅地が開発された。ニューヨークは、オランダ人達によりもともと要塞都市として計画され、その後は商業都市として成長する。地理的利点もあり、前例のない程の新興中産階層を産み出し、その後一大金融都市として発展した。宗教的抑制が弱く大量の移民を受け入れたことが都市成長を助長した。特にマンハッタン島の街路パターンの変化によって都市成長は特徴づけられ、南端地域の中世的街路、その北部の大雑把なグリッド、1811年に施行された全島の均一グリッドなどにより、開発は南部から北部へ進行した。3.ロウハウスの平面形式の変化 フィラデルフィアの街区には裏路地が存在したため、サービスは裏面から行われ、平面は基本的に水平的に発展した。特に三期を通じ、敷地奥のL状部分にキッチン、中間にダイニングルームを配し、道路に面したパーラーは徐々に公共的性格を強めていった。これらは全てPD-Kの変形と見られる。公私空間のヒエラルキーは時代の変化に応じて多順化されたが、全体に控えめでダイナミックな変形を見せていない。ボストンの街区にも必ず裏路地が備わっていたために、前面に階段を設ける必要はなかった。全ての平面構成が垂直的に組織されている点が特徴で、特にキッチンは三期を通じて地下に、メインパーラーはイタリアのピアノノービレの様に二層目に配置された。第二期以降の住宅は全てL/P/-D/Kの変形と見ることが出来る。第三期には一二層を繋ぐ階段とは別のサービス階段が配される住宅も登場し、公私空間のヒエラルキーが明確に意識された。また、部屋名の多様さは他都市にない特徴で住宅内で様々な社会行為が行われていたことが分かる。一般に派手さはないが気品を漂わせていた。ニューヨークの街区では、裏路地が最初から計画に盛り込まれなかった為、必ず前面に「ダッチ・ストウープ」と呼ばれる階段を配置し、サービス入口を半地下部に設けた。これがニューヨークの町並みの特徴を形成した。平面構成の特徴は、二階に二室連続のパーラーを設けた点で、当時、社交が主として住宅を舞台に行われていたことを示している。第一二期はPP/DKタイプを原型として発展したが、第三期にはシングルパーラータイプも登場し、変形が拡大した。4.まとめ 本研究では、都市化が進行する過程において、ロウハウスの内部空間には共通に、空間用途の多様化、公私のヒエラルキーの増大が見られ、敷地の制限、自然光と通風、設備機能の向上、住宅内の社会的活動などがロウハウスの平面形式の変形に重層的に作用することが認められた。ロウハウスが有する自律性としては、入口の形式、サービス方法、階段位置、一階の公共性が挙げられ、柔軟な対応性の条件としては、敷地の幅、独立性のある階段室、高度な設備機能などが挙げられる。ロウハウスが21世紀の現代社会においても、アパートやコンドミニアムとして保存・再生されながら使われている要因の一部はこれらの特徴にあると考えられる。今後の持続可能な都市環境の計画に与える示唆は大きい。
  • 裴 正仁
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 263-268
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper aims to analyze the longitudinal changes in the elderly living arrangements in Japan, Korea, and U. S. by using census data. Through examining the longitudinal changes for 3 countries, it was confirmed that even though the speed of change varies by country, the changes in the elderly living arrangements have progressed in the same direction-decrease of 'co-residence', increase of 'living alone' and 'living with spouse only'-in spite of the difference in each country's traditional culture. And it was confirmed that the speed of change in Korean rural area was significantly fast. The examined results will provide insights into the creation of a plan improve residential problems of the elderly.
  • 岡田 悟, 飯淵 康一, 永井 康雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 269-276
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Government officials were sent to inspect and purchase horses in Edo-era. Morioka-Han and Sendai-Han were famous for breeding horses. Through the examination of historical materials, following results are ascertained ; (1) Officials sent by central government to Morioka-Han used Okari-ya of Morioka-Han as a lodging. (2) Officials sent by Morioka-Han to Tono used Okari-ya of Tono as a lodging. (3) We suppose that officials sent by central government to Sendai-Han used Gaijin-ya and Baken-sho of Sendai-Han. (4) Baken-sho of Sendai-Han was siutable for inspecting horses on front road.
  • 片山 伸也
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 277-281
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Preserving the medieval townscape, it is still difficult to identify the dimension of city wall built in the 11th and 12th century Siena for the reason of the lack of sufficient remainings and documents. P. Nardi specified the city limits by studying toponymy, but it shows only the concept of city area. The tower-house called casatorre is the typical structure spread over Tuscany at that time. The study on the distribution of casatorre indicates that both Camollia area and San Martino area were built as fortified borgo and were absorbed into the city after the establishment of the comune.
  • 木阪 尚志, 上松 佑二
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 283-288
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to clarify the correspondence between the process of ornamental removal by Adolf Loos and discarding of tonality by Arnold Schonberg. Descriptions on "Ornament" in "Theory of Harmony" show how Schonberg's musical forms were considerably influenced by Loos's architectural theories and his idea of "Modern Spirit" at the time. Various other writings by both artists also reveal that they influenced each other. As a result, it became clear that Loos and Schonberg made a great progress on modern architecture and modem music in the twentieth century.
  • 豊口 真衣子
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 289-295
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper examines the promotion of modernism by a museum in Britain in the late 1960s through the analysis of collecting and exhibiting policy of the Circulation Department of the Victoria and Albert Museum. As a case study. "Modern Chairs" exhibition, which was organized by the Circulation Department and held at the Whitechapel Art Gallery in 1970, will be dealt with. It has been widely accepted that modernism in Britain had already declined, and was replaced by Pop culture that first appeared in the 1950s. This study, however, tries to revaluate the impact of modernism during the above period.
  • 海老澤 模奈人
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 297-303
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to analyze the development of the "agglomerate museum" which appeared in Germany at the beginning of the 1890's. At first, this new type of museum architecture mainly depended on the interior planning (: to consist of various exhibition rooms which correspond to each collection), without presenting distinct exterior design. Although the prosperity of this type around 1900, its interior exhibition planning slowly gained the critics and doubts because of its practicability. And as the last example, the Markisches Museum was presented in 1908, emphasized the exterior design which consisted of various local architectural styles, independent of the interior system.
  • 永田 隆昌, 高見 敞志, 松永 達, 九十九 誠
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 305-312
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study clarifies the space order of the religious rites in the west district of Amami-ohsiraa through the analyses of the site structure of "Myah-the precincts" and the function and the shape of "Ashyage and Toneya-the shrines". The summary of the result is as follows : 1. The conception of counterpart between "the front and the back", "the formal and the casual" and the conception of directional aspect to "Neriya-the other world beyond the horizon" arid "Kamiyama-the holy hill" form the space structures and the shape of those facilities. 2. These conceptions apply to the space order of the whole settlement.
  • 水上 優
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 313-320
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The task of this paper is to make analysis of Frank Lloyd Wright's architectural-theory through his concepts of "growth" and "structure." He asserted architecture should be built like a tree growing. The concept of growth signifies eternal becoming from "Idea," that produces unity in variety in Nature, to particular something. The concept of structure means the system which supports growth, and is the essential framework of being. Through this analysis, it is indicated that the concept of Earth is the fundamental structure from which all beings grow, including Nature, architecture as Native, and human-nature.
  • 三田村 哲哉, 小林 克弘
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 321-326
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Through the consideration of the transition from the selections and the settlement of the site for the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris 1925, the followings are made clear : 1) The site settled at the Esplanade des Invalides, Grand Palais, and etc was admired as ideal, through the considerations of the 12 sites nominated by Louis Bonnier. 2) The total site was composed by some parts of the sites which were possessed by some cadres, the committee of the Colonial Exposition in Paris, Ministry of Public Instruction and Beaux-Arts, the municipal authorities of Paris, and etc, because the parts of the site was conceded by them.
  • 崔 鍾仁, 堀田 健治, 山崎 憲
    原稿種別: 本文
    2003 年 68 巻 563 号 p. 327-333
    発行日: 2003/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper investigates the influence of the ultrasonic waves that are included in the sounds of costal waves on human brain waves, by experimenting using CD recorded wave sounds. The experiment was conducted using a full range pass sound, and low range pass sound which is not including high frequency band width to 26 subjects and was measured amounts of brain wave activity in 4 different type of brain wave frequency, delta, theta, alpha and beta waves respectively. State of activity of brain wave was also expressed on brain wave map. At the same time, using the YG test and Profile of Mood States (POMS), brain reaction by personality and psychological evaluation were also examined. As the result, author obtained that ultrasonic wave affects to human brain with statistically significant.
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