The purpose of this paper is to make the quality of MACHIYA-shops clear which recently have appeared in central area of Kyoto City, and to offer the material to estimate the sustainability of them. Following facts are brought out. (1) Many decrepit vacant houses are reused for MACHIYA-shops. (2) Many of them are for rental, but are renovated widely. (3) Most of MACHIYA-shops are small and personally managed, and the owners of them are close in the community. (4) In the other hands, shops managed by middle or big company have tendency not to involve in the community, and sometimes weaken the structure of MACHIYA by the wide renovation.
The purpose of this study is to analyse spatial order of the dwelling of the Newar people based on the spatial concepts as defined by their way of spatial recognition and behavior in the rituals and the festival events. It clearly appears to people's behavior and spatial recognition in non-daily life. According to a case fieldwork, a part of the hypothesis that authors were able to prove is as follows: (1) The conception of pure and impure which is opposed appear in people's behavior and spatial recognition in the rituals. In delivery ritual and funereal ritual, respective part of the dwelling is equivalent to the conception of pure and impure. (2) The conception to keep away a impure from the inside to the outside creates the dwelling and the village of Newar people. As fot the conception, it can explain from behavior of people in the rituals. (3) The dwelling of the Newar people is prepared in order to change to the place of non-daily scene. The upper floor of the dwelling becomes to the place of the ceremony by the event in public holidays, festival days and rituals. The dwelling is recognized by a lot of rituals, dividing into the place defined by the ceremony and other places.
University campuses provide both formal and informal learning opportunities to students. Dining facilities from the view point of common place are considered to be one of the places where most informal interactions would occur in a campus. The previous role highly depends on the place making qualities of the dining facility including the physical and social components. This study focuses on studying the actual patterns of use giving meaning to common place within the dining facilities. Data from five dining facilities of three universities campuses was collected and analyzed to understand the needs of users and the patterns of behaviors in relation to the physical features of the setting in general. The study concludes with providing recommendations to the planning and design of successful dining facilities as common place.
This paper is the fourth in a series of studies on architectural planning of “free schools”. In this part, action observation and interviews were conducted. 1) Children could stably engage activities by recognizing where staffs are. 2) Staffs choose locations according to four factors: children's activities, staff's activities, the situation at the time, and physical space. 3) Spaces without staff's control are essential for children for creating their own world. 4) Position of the staffroom is very important in relation with children's activities. 5) Staffs make a situation easy for children to approach and join them when staffs are not directly interacting with children.
The paper aims at clarifying current problems and improving proposal system introduced into the selecting process of architects for hospital buildings. Three types of surveys have been carried out on the current situation of the system. The first is questionnaire survey on the method of getting design works, the second is on the operation of proposal system and the third is on the content of requirements and the way of expressing ideas. The surveys revealed several problems of the system, inter alia, there are still considerable gaps to be filled in client side to attain appropriate benefits of the system.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the construction of the stone roofs in TSUSHIMA. The stone roof is found in areas in Japan, but that of TSUSHIMA is very characteristic on the point that they make that by the mutual aid and the size of the stones. We made complete enumeration about stone roofs in TSUSHIMA, and analyzed its construction from the viewpoint of the kinds of stone and productive organization. As the result, we could get the three typology of the construction and clarify that the construction and productive organization have been influenced from the size and characteristics of the stones. And the big stones has been had rationality in terms of the ability of the roof and the maintenance.
It is the most important that the disaster mitigation activities by the local populace themselves be executed in premeditation to drastically decrease the damage of the coming huge earthquake disaster. The concept of a management system is newly introduced using the plan-do-check-action (PDCA) cycle for the disaster mitigation activities in the local community, and the system have been practically tested and verified to be effective in two different types of areas in Aich prefecture, Japan. Based on the test results, some important aspects are discussed on the future development of the system for application in various areas and communities.
This paper is to find out the actual condition of the neighborhood community which make elderly continue to live on in that community. The field is in the central area of Kyoto city where many elderlies live. We discuss outdoor activities of elderly to see the independence of their daily life and how he or she is sharing in the benefit of environment. We also discuss their reliance on networks of kinship and community relations. Especially single resident which could be the final stage on his/her neighborhood relies on community relation and support of friends.
The purpose of this research was to explore the changing appearance in day and night scenes in Sapporo and Otaru area. The aspect of visual phenomena like color and light can be understood by analying the appearance of cityscape. By grasping the changing appearance of color in snowing regions, it was cleared that winter season creates different appearance particularly due to the role of the white covered. Sapporo area shows mainly straight extent scenes in day and night, but residential area from Susukino westward was turned as a dark scene without distinctive hierarchies in night. Otaru area was divided into two scenes, straight and flat extent scenes in day and night. It was showed mainly white scenes in day and black scenes in night.
The designated management system began in 2003. The purpose of this study is to examine the selection standard and the evaluation structure of designated manager of the urban park in local government. The main conclusions are as follows; 1 The administration of operation in the urban park by the designated manager system was evaluated. 2 The factor analysis is applied to this evaluation result, and five factors of "Safety", "Public interest", "Proposal business", "Maintenance of green space", and "Employment plan" have been extracted. 3 The evaluation characteristic of the area, the type of the urban park, and specified manager's management form was understood. 4 The evaluation structure of the urban park was clarified. Result, "Safety", and "Proposal business" were factors that especially influenced the specified manager's evaluation. 5 The cost reduction after the designated manager was introduced and the change in the number of users were understood.
This study indicates a state of recipient of the emergency medical care and intend to optimal location planning of facilities by constructing areal guidelines in emergency medical system. This paper aims at construction of areal planning method using GIS/GPS that is focused on regional spatial information for areal analysis. It present capacity for recipient of the emergency medical care as the number of people inside sphere based on distribution of population for criterion of the maintenance guideline by roads and facilities arrangement plan in emergency medical system.
The aim of this study is to clarify the exterior space utilization on the urban blocks in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conclude the results as blow from the data mostly based on the field survey. The contents of the first floor on the urban blocks consist of 1.restaurants, 2.retailer, 3.service industry, 4.factory, 5.house. Concerning on the relation between the interior and exterior space, we can grasp four types; extension type, closed type, stand-alone type and moving type. The interior space and the exterior space connect tight around a restaurant, and the exterior space is utilized actively for sitting and eating. In case the width of an alley is more than three meters and the position contacts the sidewalk, many things on shops and industries are set on the alley.
This article examines the optimization technique of the drop shipment-type wooden housing projects utilizing locally-produced lumbers by comparing knowledge provided from an experiment project in Kyoto with a project practiced in other regions. And, this article tries to find the start line about the effective development of the drop shipment-type wooden housing projects utilizing locally-produced lumbers that consists of small forest owners, small lumber mills and small housing developers near the big market in Kyoto.
Authors got an opportunity to take part in the regenerated project to the welfare facility of traditional wooden house, and took charge of the decision of master plan and basic design. For this case, the verification of the validity of the improvement process is given. The same contract as the long-term contract method that authors proposed was concluded. Earthquake-resistant capacity is lower than safety standard as the result of performance diagnosis and low heat insulation performance of traditional wooden house was confirmed again. Design was held based on the result of the performance diagnosis and the utilization plan. Though improvement construction expensed the cost about 13,000,000 yen, the housing expenses expenditure of every month settled down within the range of the market house rent, and the validity of the improvement system by the periodic rented house form was shown.
Focusing on the writings by Matsuoka Yukiyoshi, author of Gosho-Nikki(Matsuoka's memo) and Buke-Teitaku-ko(On the residence of samurais), in which the medieval residences of the court nobles and of the samurais were described respectively, this paper examines the sources and the influences of knowledge on the ancient and medieval residences obtained by the early modern scholars on ancient Japanese customs(Yu-soku-ko-jitsu). Through the analysis of the texts above and other documents, it became clear that Matsuoka's knowledge on these subjects had been obtained not only from ancient documents or visual materials, but also by visits to the existing buildings, to the Palace and the houses of nobles for example, or through communications with court nobles and officials in Kyoto as well. The contributions of Matsuoka's knowledge is also discussed in various contexts, such as the annotation projects of ancient literatures as Genji-Monogatari, or compiling projects directed by Edo-Bakufu, both involved Matsuoka himself.
This paper is an analysis of constructing cost about town-house (machiya) of Kyoto in the Edo period. Previous studies with this theme pointed out the constructing cost at the ratio of six carpenters per 3.3m2 (tsubo) with rented house. However, this paper points out the existence of rented town-house at the ratio of 10 carpenters per 3.3m2 in the beginning of 19th century. The analysis of this rented town-house about estimation stages and completion settlements make clear equal quality with typical town-house for three rooms in a line along the earth passage.
This paper analizes the actual design process of Castillo de Felipe III in La Mamora, Morocco, constructed as an enclave by Spain of Felipe III in 1614. The military engineer who designed the Castle was Cristóbal de Rojas, the most important Spanish military engineer in that period. And this paper demonstrates that its design was to establish an appropriated inner space or area of the Castle in order to accomodate a certain number of solders who would be stationed in it. In the final process, the inner space or area was set by an inner circumference as a value that defines the proportion of the Castle. This paper also shows that this actual design process is not explained in the treatises of Rojas.
Current studies on the polychrome architecture in nineteenth century France tend to overlook the activities of the manufacturers who had made large contributions to the progress of enamel ornaments. This study tries to reveal the caracteristic of enamel lava invented and developed by the manufacuturers Mortelèque and Hachette who collaborated with the architect Jacques Ignace Hittorff, ardent agitator of the theory of architectural polychromy. Analysis of this technic shows that the enamel lava had a high durability due to the porousness of the lava which prompted Hittorff to apply it to the exterior ornaments.
This paper studies the activities of famous manufacturers of enamel ceramics in nineteenth century France such as Parvillée, Muller and Loebnitz. The study shows that these manufacurers collaborated with famous architects who supported the theory of architectural polychromy and they made many innovations with regard to the technics of enamel ceramics. Analysis of the discourses of Loebnitz reveals that these innovations were closely related to the revival of the medieval and early Renaissance architecture in nineteenth century. The result of these innovations was one of the factors which influenced the shift in aesthetical ideas around 1870s-1880s.
Through a study on the architectural design of the “Théâtre”, the followings were made clear : the “Théâtre” were composed with an entrance, a stage and an auditorium, and a dressing room and a storage, and their composition and arrangement were based on architectural conditions and regulations which had been decided by the committee of the Exposition during a consideration of the site planning. Especially, just as the pavilion constructed at the Esplanade des Invalides were regulated, so a form of the plan and the height of the “Théâtre” were fixed by the committee. Auguste Perret studied the various arrangement of a stage and an auditorium, because the composition of an entrance, a stage and an auditorium, and a dressing room and a storage were fixed by the committee. The architectural condition for the “Théâtre” and the “Bibliothèque” make the harmony of the site for the “Palais des Métiers” at the Exposition.
This article aims to clarify the development of the “Eupchi” which appeared as a local political typology during the Joseon Dynasty, to a modern state through its commercialization by the proliferation of the periodic market. This development is the process of urbanization of Eupchi. There were two types of Eupchis. Where transportation was not so much developed, the periodic markets were held within the Eupchi, whereas in places such as transportation hubs, periodic markets were held outside the Eupchi. This led to the decentralization of the Eupchi which before then used to have a concentric structure.
This paper aims to elucidate two following points, by focusing on the grade table of historic buildings from the Tsumaki collection of AIJ. The first point is to verify that it has been made by Chuta Ito for the Commission for the Preservation of Ancient Shrines and Temples, and is the first grade table by an architect. The second is to clarify the formation process of the building designation system and a role of Ito in it, especially by referring to his architectural investigation during the mid 1980s. As a result, the paper reaffirmed his leading position in the architectural preservation administration which was confirmed by his original evaluation method that set "form" as its key criteria.