In this paper, we prepared tri-syllable articulation testing sound sources which have been changed into four types of speech rates, and conducted hearing tests in real sound fields. Thereby, we compared and examined these relations with the response properties of echo diagrams in the sound fields. Further, we analyzed the frequency of each speech rate in conversation, and weighted the tri-syllable articulation test results for each of four types of speech rates in consideration of frequency. Finally, through the corresponding relations between the results of weighted tri-syllable articulation tests and those of speech intelligibility tests in conversation, we proved the effectiveness of the evaluation method of tri-syllable articulation in consideration of speech rate in conversation.
Wind tunnel tests are conducted with a 1/50 scale model of a low-rise detached house. Models of detached house are arranged uniformly with various density(building coverage). The model concerned is located at the midst of the arrangement. Coefficients of surface wind pressure on the roof and the walls of the model house concerned are measured under this condition. The inside pressure and the air change rate of the house are evaluated by numerical method on the basic of measured wind pressure coefficients, assuming a uniform distribution of leakage areas. Findings are given as follows. 1. When the model house is surrounded by similar buildings, both of infiltration and exfiltration are observed on the walls and the roof. 2. The air change rate of the model house with the arrangement of 40% building coverage is about a half of that of the single model with no surroundings. 3. Air change rate is 0.8 times per hour under the following conditions: (1) the house is one story with gable roof, (2) grade of air tightness is 5(αA = 12.5cm^3/m^3), (3) standard wind velocity is 4m/s, (4) building coverage is 20%. 4. When wind velocity exceeds 3m/s, air change rate is greatly affected by the characteristics of leakage.
Two types of numerical simulation on partially fine grid system were applied to the air flow of cross-ventilation in this paper. One is the Local Fine Area(LFA) method which is a simplified Adaptive Grid method proposed here. It is a main part of the aim of this paper to examine the reliability of this method. The other is the Multi-Mesh method which is an active process to make finer grid partially. These calculation methods were carried out on three building models and the results were compared with the wind tunnel tests. The distributions of air flow vector and speed by both the methods correspond to the visualized streak lines and air flow speed by the model tests. However, the ventilation rate by the LFA shows a different tendency from the Multi-Mesh method.
The key technology of particulate contamination control in cleanrooms (CR)s is to detect airborne particles and to trace their sources. In this study, PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method was applied to elemental analysis of particles in the actual CR for manufacturing gate valves (JIS class 8). Furthermore, principal component analysis, which was one of receptor models, have extracted three main components on their sources (soil, oil combution and gate-valve fabrication) from the hourly data gained by the PIXE method. We have confirmed that the technique combining the receptor model with the PIXE method was valid for the evaluation of particulate contamination in the CR environments.
The mechanisms of particle formation from corona-discharge ionizers used in cleanroom(CR)s are composed of the erosion of their electrodes and the gas-to-particle conversion. However, the sources of silicon(Si) which is one of the main components in the corona-generated particles are still unknown. We hypothesized that Si was supplied from low-molecular-weight cyclo-siloxane(LMCS) which outgassed from silicone sealants via the gas-to-particle conversion process. First, organic gas components trapped in the CR air were analyzed with GC and GC-MS instrument. It was confirmed that LMCS existed in the ppb-order in the CR air. Next, LMCS-exposure tests were performed in the chamber where the ionizers and the samplers for elemental analysis were installed. The tests showed that LMCS was converted into Si-compound particles during the ionizer operation. These facts concluded that LMCS is one of the sources of the Si-contained particles generated from the ionizers in the CR environments.
So as to clarify the influence perceived from a river on the living environment in multi-story flats fronting a river, the authors carried out the questionnaires of inhabitant's evaluation on the environment of dwelling houses and around areas of a river and the investigations of inhabitant's preference for the views through a window at the central areas of Hiroshima City. The physiological and psychological effects perceived from the river were analyzed. Therefore, the authors clarified that the feeling of satisfaction for the view through a window is influenced by the existence of a river, and showed that a river is a noticeable point of preference views.
This paper is one of the evaluation on D.H.C. (district heating and cooling) systems combined with cogeneration system with gas turbine, in which the system operation is made mainly based on heating requirements, rather than electric demands, and therefore, the surplus electric power from the D.H.C. plant is supplied back, in due course, to the power supply system of electric power company. The evaluation of the D.H.C. systems has been made quantitatively, through the case study making the effective use of "Design of Experiments" methods, concerning "energy conservation efficiency", "economical efficiency" and "environmental efficiency". Firstly, "energy conservation efficiency" has been evaluated on "system primary thermal annual efficiency", "system primary exergy annual efficiency" and "system annual availability ratio loss". Secondly, the evaluation of "economical efficiency" has been made on "annual system running cost". Thirdly, "environmental efficiency" has been also evaluated on "annual emmissions of CO_2, NO_x and SO_x. The case study has clarified as the results, that, in the reverse power supply system, both "energy conservation efficiency" and "environmental efficiency" become to be more highly evaluated in accordance with the increase of power generation capacity, while the optimum capacity suitable to the scale of D.H.C. acutually exists from the viewpoint of "economical efficiency".
About the space that a designer planned, we developed the system for simplified forecast of comfort on post occupancy environment. This is the system which designer and building-owner are able to get support in case of planning to improve comfort in the office space. In this system, user describes the space which they want to evaluate comfort in terms of component's grade. After user select early frequency distribution equivalent for component's grade, this system does output frequency distribution forecast of comfort on post occupancy environment with method of exchange by varoius weighting coefficients. As a result, the distribution actually measured by test closely matched the distribution forecasted by above procedure. We could verify that this system is potentially capable of doing "Ante Occupancy Evaluation" on office environment, and that the assumption which was introduced in the middle of forecasting distribution is not greatly beside from the process of comfort-judgement by human subjects.
In this study, a survey of the thermal environment has been carried out to determine the thermal effects of the park and inner river on the urban environment in Koto-ku, Tokyo. The main results can be concluded as follows, 1) the air temperature near the inner river and park has shown a lower value than that in the street by 1-2℃. 2) It has been found that the farther the survey point is from the river, the higher air temperature becomes. 3) Under the same radiation, the surface temperature in the urban surfaces mainly affected by the type of the surface materials. In spite of the characteristics of the urban space, the concrete surface temperatures have the same change during the day. 4) By the regression analysis, it has been validated again that air temperature has close elation with the surface temperature in the urban space. 5) There are tendency that the air temperature becomes much higher with the increase of the plot ratio of the building block. 6) The valuation of the cooling effect of the urban structure on the thermal environment has found that the park and inner river has a lower radiate heat release into air than the concrete space
The purpose of this paper is to rate what gives Western-style living rooms and Japanese-style rooms with an alcove their value on the scale by which such value is measured in four dimensions: sociabi1ity/function; sociability/symbol; individuality/function; and individuality/symbol. The dimensions consist of two basic factors: one is something which determines sociability and individuality; and the other - functions and symbols. All of these dimensions and factors are used in assessing an exact demand for respective rooms in houses. The 1652 sampled data obtained in a survey is analyzed using "Dual Sealing" which shizuhiko NIS-HISATO has developed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the space organization and dwelling usage in the basement of detached houses in Canada. In 1992, I investigated 23 houses in Edmonton and Saskatoon. According to my reserch: 1.More than half of the basement space is used as a family living space. 2.The family space is used as a playroom for children during the early stages of family life cycle. 3.The family room. study room, and laundry room-all have special characteristics that provide a relaxing environment for severe Canadian winter.
We look at the word "activation" as the situation that the facilities are used actively. It should be expressed quantitatively by suitable indexes. We believe, in highly utilized hospitals, the activation means not only the high rate of bed usage, but also high bed turning rate and more clinical examinations per bed. In this paper, we surveyed hospitals in Japan in comparison with ones in Taiwan and Korea which have shorter average length of stay for patients (ALS). We analyzed the correlations of ALS, composition of patients, management and size of them from multiple point of view. The clear correlation between ALS and the number of operations was found and the number of X-ray studies and clinical pathology exams had correlations to ALS to some degree. We also found that some hospitals in Japan which are shortening ALS for years had increasing clinical examinations and impatient revenue.
This paper is aimed to get architectual planning knowledges about stages and backstages of Concert halls. The results of this study are summarized as follow; 1.The rate of the backstage area of public concert halls are about 30%. The backstage area of private halls tend to be stinted in order to increase the number of their seets. 2.The planning pattern of their stages and backstages are classified 6 types. 3.Players needs relax-able dressing rooms, wide coulisses and a buffet at an orchestra foyer. 4.An orchestra foyer which connected coulisses is useful for players to stand by, take a rest and others.
In this report we intend to illustlate how contemporary architects have conceptualized spaces with words. Language practice is so much important work for the contemporary architects as designing realistic building (material practice). As this point of view, we already reported several theses of architects. This time we especially aim to clarify spatial conceptions of contemporary Japanese architects through the study on articles written along with realized houses. As data, we compiled articles written as interpretation for the houses in "SHIN-KENCHIKU" which is one of the most popular architectural journals in Japan. And we extracted sentences distinctly related to the architect's spatial conceptions. The process of study consists of two parts; at first, we forcused on concrete elements and images expressed with spatial conceptions. Secondary, the contents of each spatial conception were investigated. The meaning of those spatial conceptions was analyzed through the KJ method, originated by kawakita Jiro. As a result, they were categorized into three, "Relation between Interior and Exterior", "Relation between the Part and the Whole" and "Character of space" as a whole. Moreover, we defined them from the two sides of view, "Schematic" and "Phenomenal" spatial conceptions.
This paper deals with the process of transformation in framing of timber houses at Rokuseicho, Ishikawa prefecture. Difining the extent of openness in sections of frame, this paper analized quantitative relation between main frame and spatial organization. It revealed the process of transformation in the increase of openness in vertical section and in the variation of openness in horizontal section. It also revealed the process of loosing the specific character of each room both in horizontal and vertical openness. As the whole frame, the extent of horizontal and vertical openness became similar and the vertical division of space became varied.
Pedestrians are liable to have accidents while descending stairs, because of unsuitable dimensions in the tread and rise. The dimensions of tread and rise are considered to be evaluated by pedestrians themselves. In this paper, the sensory tests for difficulty in descending stairs were applied to evaluate many combinations of tread and rise. The results of sensory tests were quantified by one of the psychometric methods, specifically the method of successive categories. Ten young males (average ages 21.0), ten young females (19.7) and ten male elderly subjects (71.2) assessed 42 combinations of tread and rise in descending stairs. The female group wore 4 types of footwear, differing in the heel height. Dimensions of tread and rise with less difficulty in descending stairs existed in definite combinations, around 29〜30 cm tread and 18 cm rise for lower heels, and around 30 cm tread and 15.5 cm rise for higher heels. Psychological pressures increased as measurements deviated from these combinations of tread and rise. A practical value index is suggested in this paper.
The purpose of this study is to clear the visual effect by predicting the evaluation of space where two or three buildings are set. We made the evaluation experiments, using the simulator which enable us to look around the small scale models. Next, we selected physical variables, predicted the evaluation around the buildings, and got the predicting equations. Then we made the contours around the buildings from the equations. As a result, the contour form represents characteristic shape around the buildings. We recognized that the number of buildings, the evaluation scales, and the variations of setting of the buildings influenced the evaluation of the building circumstances.
How people can enjoy views of some specific landmark in a daily lives that is describing history of the area, has non small impacts to enhance attractiveness of urban space. This study aims to develope a 3-D model to evaluate negative influence of large building development to landmark-visibility. This paper discusses following topics: i) conceptual framework of the simulation model to evaluate impact of large scale building development. ii) method of quantitative analysis and visual representation using 3-D computer graphics. iii) result of the case study in KUMAMOTO CITY and evaluation of the proposed simulation model.
The analyses on the transfiguration of urban land-use pattern have been carried out by using the land-use transition matrix. However, the effect of the error in the transition matrix is still not well understood. This is the problem discussed here. We attempt to construct a method for evaluating the estimation error caused by the variance in the transition matrix. As a numerical example, the proposed method is applied to the actual land-use data, and we evaluate the confidence intervals of the estimated values.
This paper aims to clalify transformation of population distribution and factors of its transformation in local town areas. And considering some problems on method of population arrangement planning. Contents of this paper as follows. 1 Preface 2 Method of this study 3 Characteristics of regional population distribution 4 Transformation of regional population distribution 5 Relationship between size of central towns, network of towns and transformation of regional population distribution 6 Relationship between regional population and municipalities' 7 Conclusion
In Kyoto's central area there still exist many traditional style houses with working space. This case study shows that three typical house types in the research area are 1, 1*2 or 1*3 rooms plan type with 1 or 2 rooms workshop, 2, 1*3+1 rooms plan type with office or store, 3, 1*3+1 rooms plan type with detatched working place. Plan types with "toori-niwa" are improved by residents, succeeding the characteristics of original plans. Limitation of improvements depend on plan type, width of sites and combination type of living space and working space.
The Purpose of this study is, for common use space at urban redevelopment area, to investigate the amenity evaluation by scale, plan from view points of planners. The magnification of scale is an importment factor of attractive regulations in triple-side and 30% open space ratio and the others are square space and devices; besides, the whole of spatial elements tends toward attractive with open space ratio increasing and complication of type in building area. Further, For the mutually attractive formation of common use space at site and building area. The type of common use space at site is firmly contributing to many-sided. Therfore, It is obvious that the mutual joint of outdoor's open space and indoor's space is important.
The phenomenon of dispersion of a modern family creates new residential system in order to fulfill an original function of family and dwelling. Here we have an idea of the residential network's method to be used in actual conditions. Results are summarized as follows. 1) The dispersion of family spread widely. 2) The idea of the " family" goes beyond one's own closest family members living under one roof, spreading to all the family branches living in many different places. 3) These dispersed family units are related to each other, have their own communication system and in conclusion maintained "the one family consciousness".
The purpose of this paper is to consider the Viennese housing policy between the Wars. I analyzed the arguments and the movements on tenant protection from a political point of view. Most of the material treated herein are derived from the Austrian newspapers of those days. I examined that the citizens on their own initiative had joined forces to press for a series of housing acts and such situation concerned seriously all the political parties. The point I want to make is that the tenants' movements could play an important role as a decision maker for the housing policy.
Otabisyo moved into the periphery of Kyoto in 1591. At the beginning of the removal there were no property boudary lines on the new land where town houses stood. Forming of boudary lines of adjacent land depended on 3 listed below. 1. Vanishing of feudal landholding. 2. Changing of town houses from the old type into the new type. 3. Land and buildings at the disposal of town houses' dewellers. The occupation of land by town houses is prior to making plot division especially on the site where no property boudary lines of adjacent land can be seen at the beginning of urban dynamics.
The following results are obtained after studying on the residences for the Katatagae-Gyoko. 1. Ex-emperor's palace had not been used for the Katatagae-Gyoko before the post imperial period, but was often used after that time. 2. The residences for Katatagae-Gyoko in the post imperial period differ with each emperor. 3. Such characteristics are affected by different relations between the emperor and ex-emperor. 4. Residences used for the Katatagae-Gyoko should (were expcted to) be suitablely furnished for use by emperors, but sometimes the unfurnished ones were also used.
The upper floor of town houses had a number of important functions, such as bedrooms, storerooms and dining rooms. This variety of functions is a characteristic shared by houses in both societies. An interesting distinction appears when method of construction is considered. Town houses in Greece were strongly affected by city planning that regulated that all rooms had to face south. On the other hand, town houses in lower and middle class housing in Pompeii show much less evidence of planning and an upper floor was often added at a later date.
The main object of this study is to clarify one of the morphological character of Mckim, Mead & White's works through the analysis on the plan of the Villard Houses in comparison with Low Library we have already analyzed. The following results are made clear. The configuration of the plan is designed by overlapping a double square and a Greek cross. 6 kinds of squares which are composed on a simple proportion can be found as datum line in deciding the shape of the central court and boudary walls between residential units. The walls in each house are designed based on combination of grid and square. This compositional principle is also reflected on facede.
The purpose of this study is to estimate habitability to the motion in floating ocean structures. The human response tests on difficulties in a few daily activities to typical motion of floating structures were carried out. In this paper, tests on difficulties in walking, one of the daily activities, are mentiond. Typical motions are uniaxial and biaxial motions which consist of pitching, rolling and heaving. Relationships of difficulties in walking and motions of the structure were clarified. Permitted area of the motion for walking of usual time and slightly difficult area of that are proposed.