This paper is to find out the actual condition of the neighborhoodi) environment which make the elderly continue to live on in that communityii). The field is in the rebuilding multi-family houses area in Daegu City, Korea where many elderly person live. We discuss outdoor activities of elderly person to see the independence of their daily life and how he or she is sharing in the benefit of environment. We also discuss their reliance on networks of kinship and community relations. Especially elderly person which could be the final stage on their neighborhood relies on community relation and support of friends.
New learning environment for students to have an active discussion are being planned recently in academic libraries. We took questionnaire survey and observed the behavior from 4 different academic libraries to know the users behavior and users awareness from users actions. The main results are as follows. 1) In academic libraries, the percentage of users taking a seat was from 85 to 90% in each library. The computers were making the users sit. 2）The single users chose a quiet seat, such as computer seats and carrel seats, and the group users used rooms and spaces away from the single users for work. 3）The demand of the receiving library services are increasing, and others are decreasing. Academic libraries are needed to respond to many services equally.
The purpose of this study is to examine the significance and the consideration points of interior design for children's medical treatment through to make clear common and difference features of environmental evaluation by child inpatients, their families and nurses in the pediatric wards by caption evaluation method. Results of this study are as follows: This study got children's evaluation from 4-18 years old. Child inpatients appreciate each space in the wards affirmative than their families and nurses. Their families catch the design to make bright, joyful, warm atmosphere for their life. Nurses use animal design for children's kindly medical treatment in treatment room. Nurses can explain to children by pictograms for children easy to understand where the door of their bedroom in corridor, also the pictograms help children can understand there by themselves. In conclusion, the design's significance is to make atmosphere for child inpatients and their family's life in pediatric ward and to have some functions supporting child inpatients in situations of medical treatment. The consideration points for designing of each space in pediatric ward are arranged.
In modern times, economic and social systems have shifted from industrial- to knowledge-based, and economic competition is driven by the productivity of knowledge workers. knowledge workers are expected to make innovative contributions and create new value. Therefore, improving the productivity of knowledge workers is an important aspect of future spatial planning. Recent architectural studies have embraced the concept of productivity. These studies have primarily focused on “information processing” and “knowledge processing” such as work and learning efficiencies. However, the hierarchy of “knowledge creation” is very difficult to evaluate, and has been largely neglected. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the spatial/environmental elements required for a knowledge creation space, focusing on university researchers. As a result of questioners survey for 198 university students, “Thinking and Creating,” while relaxation elements were important, physical environments were rated less highly.
The aims of this study are to clarify the actual condition of a complex of different businesses such as a spa facility, restaurants and shops as well as welfare service and to investigate the effect of the complex on social interactions. We tracked the behavor of users and staffs and, interviewed the service manager of the complex. It is shown that the S-facility is used by not only customers of welfare service but also various other users. Both direct and indirect social interactions are seen. The S-facility satisfies the requirements for an attractive place where many people gather.
This paper analyzes family day care facilities around Japan from two points of view, (1)factors on every day operation and (2)classification of patterns of use and models of floor planning. Definition of procedures against unexpected events and the development of a network between health centers, nurseries and family day care facilities are strongly recommended. The analysis of data shows up that the combination of C-1 floor planning model (two rooms connected, with independent access to common areas), combined with a certain pattern of use (both rooms for playing and separated rooms for eating and sleeping) is considered the best approach.
In this study we conducted a field survey on intergenerational communication at a building complex that contains a children's hall and a nursing home, and the results revealed both soft and hard ways of effectively managing such facilities as an advanced case study. It became clear that essential ellements having enough common space for them to do their own activities, a watching system over the aged and children's activities by staff, and proper arrangement of personnel are important condition. We had a discussion about the community, which has made its children become aware of the importance of taking care of the community encourages them to communicate elderly people by having them communicate not only with elderly people but also with care-giving staff, and volunteer staff from the community.
This paper focuses on the effects of residents' cognition of their local environment on evacuation behavior in the event of tsunami. We conducted questionnaire surveys and a sketch map survey in the coastal area of Onjuku, Chiba Prefecture. The results revealed the following: 1) decision-making was based on cognition of terrain, although it was not always correct, 2) choice of evacuation site was related to cognition of the elements, and 3) some improper route choice were related to “distorted” cognitive map. These results suggest that understanding residents' cognition is important to develop effective mitigation measures against a tsunami.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the problem and significance of introducing the constructive process focusing on the exergy in the design process of the environmentally symbiotic architecture. We made a design method that will improve the plan sequentially while analyzing the flow of exergy in the building. Then, We conducted a design experiment using the designing methods, examined the effectiveness of the method. Following are results. By the rate of exergy storage, to grasp the time at which the warm exergy flows into the room, it is possible to determine the time at which work effectively to frame will warm the room, to utilize the improvement plan. Knowing the relationship building techniques and flow of exergy in existing environmentally symbiotic architecture helps to improve the shape with a performance plan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the roles of coordinating organization of human support in rural area. Through this research of "Midori no Furusato Supporters", the following 3 points became clear: 1）Actual conditions of the Matching of green earth center, 2）Actual conditions of the Supporting of green earth center, 3）Potential usefulness and problems of green earth center. In conclusion, for the effective inflection of human support, the roles of coordinating organization is: In initial phase, (1) :Supporting the construction of system of use, (2): Supplying of outside supporters based on a certain level In continuation phase, (3): Encouraging area to get outside supporter on their own, (4): Reviewing the system of use to match the existing human support system During all phases, (5): Accumulating human network and information as the hub, (6): Supporting in case of emergency
In 1995, the Ministry of Tourism Malaysia established a new rural tourism product called the Malaysian Homestay Program, to encourage rural Malays to participate actively in the tourism and provide Malay Kampung as a new type of tourism product. In 2012, there were 159 homestay programs established throughout the country, with 3,424 host families in rural areas that shows increased interest from the rural community for this program. This research clarifies the benefits of this program for rural development by analyzing the following points: 1. The evolution of the Malaysian Homestay Program from 1995 until 2013; 2. The effects of the establishment of the Malaysian Homestay Program on economy, environment, society, and culture of Malay Kampung based on interviews and field investigations at the Banghuris Homestay in Selangor.
Sawara is a mercantile historic city at watery environment along the Tone River, which had been flourished from Edo era to the middle of Showa Era. Some parts of it have been designated as cultural property, namely a preservation district for a group of historic buildings. Through minute interviews of local people, the memory-evoking framework of Sawara is clarified. It consists of four conditions, 1) disappearance, 2) surviving figure, 3) inherited use, and 4) correspondence of memory and historicity. The memory-evoking framework and the system of historic value are very similar to but different each other. The local community can imagine how the life was in their habitat just by touching their surroundings. Not just the historic environment that is already put in the formal preservation system, but also the fabrics with collective memories of local people are important to succeed the meaning of its lived environment.
In this paper, population distribution and aging in future in Jakarta are estimated with organizing the raw data of population census. Through the comparison of those in Tokyo, it reveals that: In central areas with high density, mostly informal settlements, the overcrowded problem might decrease but aging problem will increase. In some growing suburban areas, both the densification and the rise of elder population will be problematic, which would require adequate policy.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the numbers of visitors by their characteristics on round trip route and purchasing behavior, and to propose some plan to vitalize the city center. We classify city center visitors into the 5groups by the round trip and consumption index. Multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate the numbers of visitors into the city center by using above mentioned survey results. Traffic volume of each observed points is objective value and the numbers of visitors on each round trip rout is independent value. The regression coefficients should be positive number because of the regression model structure. The results of this analysis are shown in the map by using GIS.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how elderly people utilize their “third place”, places where they can visit and spend time freely without an appointment, and how the importance of these places affects elderly people. To achieve the purpose, questionnaire surveys were conducted targeting healthy elderly people aged 65-79 living in four municipalities. Followings are the major conclusion; 1. A total of 69.6% of respondents could identify their “third places”. As they age, their attendance becomes more frequent. 2. Those who have a “third place” are significantly more outgoing and have more conversation with people other than their families, as well. Without “third places”, the risk of shut-in (“going out” less than once a week) and social isolation (having conversation less than once a month) increases; odds ratio (OR) were 1.76 and 2.09 with adjustment for age and gender. 3. A library is a favorite place irrespective of gender, but “third places” which do not allow for social interaction do not contribute to preventing social isolation although they provide a beneficial atmosphere for the shut-in elderly.
The historical process of the elevated walkway network around of Central district of Hong Kong was analyzed on following 3 aspects. 1. The private developer constructed the first elevated walkway in Hong Kong because it was more convenient for the customers to connect between the hotel and shopping mall in 1960's. Then it took more than 40 years and this walkway is defined by the building ordinance of Hong Kong as one of urban design methods that the private developers get the incentive of development if they connect their building to the next existing one. 2. The elevated walkway network in Hong Kong has grown piecemeal and spread out in CBD districts horizontally and vertically. This walkway network has an important role for citizen's activities and connecting between several urban functions based on the mixed land use. 3. This elevated walkway network is constituted of public space owned private sectors and the government. And it is never closed by the complicated ownership. The retail shops business always makes a strong relationship between every routes of this walkway, then Hong Kong had a these elevated and characteristic public space for citizen successfully.
The concept of pedestrian city emerged during 1950-60s has influenced many aspects of urban design. Unfortunately, China has little theoretical and empirical experience in creating a pedestrian city. Take Shanghai for instance, the street spaces in its old city center have presented serious problems such as over commercialization, over occupation, pollution and disorder. This study attempts to understand the role of street by evaluating important qualities for daily walking from the perspectives of common users. Statistical analysis is based on 803 questionnaires collected in four sample streets in old central Shanghai. Nine factors have been summarized as important factors in increasing a sense of pleasure during walking. Functions, attractiveness and social involvements are considered as the three street “affordances”. In addition, this study emphasizes the significance of introducing and implementing social control systems and public participation into urban design strategies of Chinese Cities.
This paper attempts to elucidate about a transition on volume changes of “home province” and “region” in course of study and a meaning of remaining “home province” in the showa 40s that was times changed from “home province” to “region”. First, in elementary school and junior high school, it was only in “social studies” that changed from “home province” to “region”. Secondly, for education about sense of dwelling, “home province” in the showa 40s was not sufficient.
This study combined covariance structure analysis and PSM in a quantitative evaluation of the value of the Tomioka Silk Mill as an industrial heritage. This study also investigated problems in town planning, based on differences in the evaluation structure between tourists and residents. According to residents, many things need improvement, such as various facilities and landscape. Therefore, it was suggested that the environs of the Mill should be established. By establishing the environs of the Mill and measures to landscape, environmental improvements and positive settlement effects can be achieved.
The subjects of this research are to identify the types of Okura-syo located in the Kaga Province owned by the Kaga Domain, and the commonality of the types of it. Every formation process of 11 targeted Okura-syo was indicated. The Okura-syo built in a castle showed unique regularity of spatial forming which can't be seen in any Okura-syo built in towns and villages. The research identified two facts that Okura-syo built in towns and villages have two types, and a garden-detached type which can't be seen in provinces other than the Kaga Province in the Kaga Domain.
This study aims at the rule of building maintenance in ancient Japan. Mainly, this research has three conclusions. 1. Any juridical rule of building maintenance was not constituted in “Yoro Code” and it was determined by additional regulations. 2. First purpose of building maintenance was to get the picture of building situations on the ground. 3. The basic guidelines of building maintenance ware that usual repair for minor damage would protect from major damage.
The residence (jinya) of the Nishi Takagi, local rulers of Hatamoto status, combined residential with governmental functions, like other leading samurai houses. It was composed of many rooms, some ceremonial and administrative and others living spaces for members of the Nishi Takagi family. This paper investigates how its spatial composition related to function, through an analysis of records of the re-occupation of the upper residence of the jinya after rebuilding following a fire in the Tempo era (1830s). The results may be summarized as follows: 1. The upper residence consisted of 3 buildings, the Omote, the Oku and the Daidokoro, and it was subdivided into 3 zones, the Omote, Naka-oku, and O-oku. 2. The Omote zone was used by male family members, and for official audiences, the Naka-oku was a suite of living rooms for the lord himself , and the O-oku was used by the women of the family. 3. Both the Omote and the Oku buildings were divided into south facing audience spaces and north facing living rooms for family members.
It has been assumed that the origin of the sandstone materials for constructing Angkor monuments derived from the southeast foot of the Kulen mountain. However, pedestrian survey surround this area was restricted due to the existence of land mines. Safetince safety of this area was currently confirmed, a large number of sandstone quarry including the large scale of the sites were newly discovered from the periphery of this region. Because of these findings, we could find the location of the main stone source of the ancient Angkor monuments. In addition to this region, comprehensive research on the quarry sites was conducted in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and discussing on the quarrying techniques of the ancient Khmer stonemason. As was known in the past, general quarrying technique, groove curving at the sides of blocks, is commonly observed at wide area, but other methods such as wedge use and long bar methods were confirmed for cutting out the large blocks. Ancient stonemason at the quarry site might be conscious of the final shape and dimension of the stone blocks at the construction site, in particular the stone blocks for the statue had been roughly engraved at the quarry site for weight saving during the transportation.
To restore Thai To Mieu, we researched the measurement plan of The To Mieu to establish the restoration method. The conclusion of this paper is as follows. : 1. There are basic plan that the column compartment of “moya” is 10 units, the column compartment of “hisashi” and “mokoshi” is 8 units (=the standard column compartment multiplied by 0.8) in the ground plan of The To Mieu. The actual column compartment was decided on adding the measure of column inclination to the basic column compartment. 2. The diameter of “moya” column was decided on multiplying 1/10 to “moya” column compartment in Chinh Dien. The difference between the diameter of “moya” and “mokoshi” column is 0.1 units. 3. In the section plan of The To Mieu, the height of column and ridge were decided on the “moya”, “hisashi” and “mokoshi” column compartment. 4. The measure of column expansion was about 0.15 units, and there is a possibility to have been changed when repairing The To Mieu.
In Pompeii, a two-way traffic was impossible except for limited arteries, such as Strada Stabia and Viae della Fortuna, di Nola, and dell'Abbondanza. It has been suggested that cart-drivers adhered to the principle of driving on the right-hand side of streets. However, at the Nola, Sarno and Nocera gates, through which an one-way vehicle traffic was possible, vehicles had lay-bys on the left-hand sides. And the ruts remaining on the streets, which can provide the direction of carts, reveal that the carts were driven on the centre of the streets in both directions on via del Tempio di Iside.
The laser scanner allows for a more detailed analysis and a greater potential for understanding the layout of mosaics. In insula Muse, it was difficult to lay out the floor mosaics in parallel with all of the walls of the rooms that were not exactly rectangular. Any mosaics with geometric pattern required a few choice to be made of the walls about the guideline of its layout. Those mosaics do not only occupy the floor, but also they followed the wall chosen and could be planned to mark on the floor a hierarchy of functional spaces and the division into parts serving different purposes with the movement of visitors. The layout of mosaics in the Insula of Muse could link areas connected in function.
In this paper the perspective drawing and the sketch work of Altes Museum's entrance stair hall by K.F.Schinkel were reconstructed in three-dimension using CG software. It was clarified as follows by this analysis process: 1) The perspective drawing was drawn corresponding to the architectural drawings, however the view of townscape was manipulated in order to display its picturesque composition. 2) Schinkel intended to create and represent the picturesque beauty using his architectural design techniques. 3) Making process was beginning with preparing the sketch work when Museum was under construction, then few years later the perspective drawing brought into execution.
By analyzing "Shinkou Ichiba map", this paper aims to grasp the “markets” in postwar Tokyo from the viewpoint of development approach, planning and store constitution. The map drawn 138 sheets intended for Tokyo's 23 wards, recorded the “markets” of 281 places in it. The results are given follows; 1) from the development approach, the “markets” were classified into types of detached shops and planned unit development, 2) typically, the markets has a passage in the longitudinal direction of the site, and in order to take passage and arranging two or more rows the row houses is required about 5.4 meters short dimension of the site, 3) Retail store is located on the front part of the markets, housing and pub is located in the back.
This paper presents an overview of the development of a series of city-owned publicly-accessible garden squares in nineteenth-century Baltimore. I also examine the successful 1873 campaign to remove the iron railings that enclosed these locations, showing the campaigners introduced the new mode of urban green spaces by claiming moral superiority of absence of such railings. Thus I conclude that the iron railings here were not a reflection of governance, but a cultural existence. I also mention that the city's ownership rather made the discussion on the railings open, beyond the actual users and administrators, and promoted the city-wide change.
Discussed items are as follows. 1. It has a problem in chronological order to conclude the year when Shintaro Kiuchi made, based on the documents directly. 2. There are some problems to specify the architect of the building set the stained glass made by Shintaro Kiuchi. 3. It is not sufficient to examine the Kiuchi family's documents and other materials.
The author's answer to the misunderstandings that has bearings on the central point of questionsby Dr. MATSUNAMI are shown. The important aspects are indicated as follows: 1.The definition of the achievement of Shintaro Kiuchi. 2. The differencein perception ofage on the list betweenquestioner and author.