This paper clarifies the changes in kampung and its housing during this period based on the field surveys of three kampungs in Surabaya in 1983/84, 2006, and 2016-2018. The major objective is to obtain new policy of KIP (Kampung Improvement Program) and public housing.
The field survey was firstly conducted in 1983/84, and the second was done in December 2006, as for kampung Ujung and kampung Sawahan using the same format, and the transformation for 20 years was analyzed in the previous paper. In this paper, we clarify the transformation of three kampungs adding Donorejo from 1983/84 to 2018, kampung Ujung is the highest density kampung located in the northern part of Surabaya, kampung Sawahan is a typical kampung in the city center, and kampung Donorejo is a downtown kampung in the middle. A long-term perspective-based field survey of these identical kampongs is considered to be extremely important.
The total population of Surabaya has been increasing consistently since 1980. However, the population in the central part of the city has been decreasing from the 1980s to the 2000s, and the population in the peripheral part of the city has increased. The population of 31 kecamatan ranges from about 45,000 to about 234,000, with an average of 88,270. Looking at each kecamatan, there are many kecamatan that are already decreasing. It varies depending on the vitality and location of kecamatan, and in Central Surabaya, all kecamatan began to decline from the 1980s.
Looking at the changes in the three kampungs over the past 35 years, the population density is still high in the northern kampungs such as Ujung, and there are a certain number of poor households. On the other hand, although the number of high-rise buildings in Sawahan in the city center is still increasing, the number of single-person households is increasing due to the aging of the population, the increase in vacant houses, and the rental of housing. In downtown Donorejo, although there is no significant change in the spatial composition, the number of households is decreasing, and the younger generation is increasing.
There have been no major changes in housing types during this period. That is, no new typology has occurred. However, there are some cases where some of the houses are rented. Looking at the transformation patterns of housing types, there is no change in most of the housing, but due to the decrease in the number of households and the increase in single-person households, there are some rentals and reductions in the scale of housing. All the kampungs are densely packed and it is difficult to secure a site, so there are few houses that will expand significantly.
There are no major changes in housing types and their transformation patterns from the 1983/84 analysis presented by Funo (1987). In kampungs, it can be pointed out that a certain housing renewal pattern has been established.
Urban villages in developing regions such as kampungs have often disappeared to date due to policies such as redevelopment aimed at "slum clearance." Under such circumstances, Surabaya's kampung has existed unchanged for about 35 years from 1983 to the present. Despite being influenced by the changing lifestyles of the times and the rapid wave of urbanization, kampung continues to maintain its unique form and community organization.
COVID-19 state-of-emergency declaration issued on 7 April 2021 promoted employees' teleworking from home in Japan. In recent years many companies in the metropolitan area have been constructing the ICT infrastructure to adopt telecommuting during the Olympics and Paralympics to help ease traffic congestion; however, employees' workspace hasn't been discussed. What kind of issues with telecommuting employees who work remotely at dwelling house planned as a place where the family takes a rest and gets together? In this paper, the subjects of the questionnaire investigation were based on the employees working remotely from home under the state-of-emergency declaration from 7 April until 25 May. The purpose of this research is to represent the actual conditions and issues related to workspace at home. The survey was conducted by the web questionnaire, collected 209 valid answers, and 82 respondents submitted both floor plans and the photo, which showed the workspace. The attributes of respondents included 49 single-person households, 42 Households of couple only, 96 Households of a couple with unmarried children, 15 Households of a parent with unmarried adult or couple, four three-generation-family households, and three other households.
The questionnaire survey asked the room's name, which is used as a workspace if the rooms were independent of other living spaces found following aspects of teleworking. Ninety-three households have their workspace in their living room or dining room, accounting for about half of all respondents, while 47 families have a workspace in their study or their private room. Some respondents used multiple rooms as a workspace depending on the situation of other family members at home, the weather, and the mood. 35 cases out of 42 in a single-person household and 35 points out of 49 in couple only household answered that workspace is not independent of the living space. On the other hand, 47 families consist of a couple with unmarried children, out of 94 couples answered it which accounts for only about half.
On the other hand, the answer "independent of other living spaces" includes the living room or dining room. There are cases where secure a workspace in the corner of a living room or dining room, so it seems not to secure a space dedicated to work. The analysis of 82 cases in which respondents submitted both a floor plan and photograph showing the workspace in their house found the aspect below. Some single-person households have ingenuities, such as changing the low-table into a work desk and arranging the desk in front of the wall to protect privacy. In the case of a couple-only household working from home, they sit face to face and work at the dining table together and use the bedroom as an extra workspace to avoid noise. Under the state of emergency in April, educational institutions were closed, so households of a couple with unmarried children were required to balance childcare and work. Therefore, some cases in households of a couple with unmarried children intentionally secured workspaces in the living room and dining room to child-caring, even if there was room in the floor plan. When working from home, there is an issue of the house's size, but the impact of the life stage is even significant.
More than 15,000 pre-existing housing units were rented by the Kumamoto Prefectural government and provided as temporary housing (from here on referred as “subsidized private-rental housing”) to secure accommodation for people who lost their homes during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. This provision of subsidized private-rental housing has been a cause of concern, as it can socially isolate earthquake victims and lead to the outflow of population in an area impacted by an earthquake. This study was conducted in a mountainous area hit by the earthquake, where such issues were likely to become serious. The aim of this study was to comprehend the relocation status of households that lived in the subsidized private-rental housing units and assess the relocation-associated changes in their neighbor relations.
This study was conducted in Minamiaso village, where collapsing of houses and mass landslides were severe. Based on the data provided by Minamiaso Village, we compared the trends in the rebuilding of homes among households living in subsidized private-rental housing to those living in constructed temporary housing. In addition, interviews were conducted at two separate time periods with households that lived in subsidized private-rental housing. The results were studied in relation to the trends in home-rebuilding to analyze the changes in neighbor relations.
There were three typical patterns of relocation found among households living in subsidized private-rental housing. These patterns were: “inside the village to inside of the village,” “outside the village to inside the village,” and “outside the village to outside the village.” While over 80% of the households living in constructed temporary housing had already rebuilt their homes within the village, only about 60% of the households living in subsidized private-rental housing had done so. Further, only about 50% of the households living in subsidized private-rental housing outside the village rebuilt homes inside the village, constituting a major portion of the population outflow from the village.
The neighbor relations that existed before the earthquake had been maintained to a degree through community annual events, continued participation in cooperative work, and residents visiting farmland and properties for management purposes until homes were rebuilt. After rebuilding homes, it was suggested that changes in neighbor relations differed depending on the relocation pattern. Differences were observed in both the “inside to inside” and “outside to inside” households by determining whether the site of the rebuilt home was in the original, pre-earthquake neighborhood or a different neighborhood within the village. While the households that rebuilt homes in their original neighborhoods resumed and maintained their pre-earthquake neighbor relations, the households that built homes outside their original neighborhoods gradually re-centered their neighbor relations in the new neighborhoods. Changes in neighbor relations of “outside to outside” households differed based on the means by which they rebuilt their homes. While the households that constructed new houses built neighbor relations in their new communities, the households that moved to rental housing could not build neighbor relations as easily; they were thus, believed to be at risk of becoming socially isolated.
"Tower House" is a three-dimensional one-room house that expands vertically by laminating floors without partitioning by fittings and partition walls, showing one way of urban housing. A house called "Skip-floor type" is a house in which floors with different levels are connected three-dimensionally, creating open interior space. Compared to houses with rooms as the main unit, houses with "floors" as the main unit are characterized by open and cohesive interior space, and this study refers to these houses as "open laminated houses". Open laminated house is often found in narrow sites due to the subdivision of site in recent years, and various design can be seen depending on sizes, connections on the flow line, level differences, etc. with the "floor" forming each layer as a composition unit. The "floor" is an element that can create integral unity or ambiguous and ambiguous unity inside the room. Therefore, in open laminated house whose main composition unit is the "floor", it is considered that the operation of partially segmenting by the "floor" and the operation of integrating the parts are occurring at the same time. It seems that a precise composition method can be extracted.
In this research, we focused on the "floor", which is a composition material of the internal space, for 75 open laminated houses built in narrow site, and analyzed the space by analyzing the size, level difference, and floor group due to the level difference. The purpose is to clarify the characteristics of the composition and obtain effective knowledge about the design method of houses built in narrow site.
Initially, we analyzed the size of the floor from the floor area ratio of the open laminated house, grasped whether or not it has a "main floor". Secondly, from the combination of level differences, we grasped whether or not there is a "floor group" and its positional relationship by dividing it into the ground floor and the upstairs. Finally, by integrating these, we clarified the composition of open laminated house built in narrow site. The results are as follows:
1) In a composition with both a main floor and a floor group, we found the composition operations of "fusion" and "dispersion" of the main floor and floor group, and "coexistence" of fusion and dispersion.
2) In a composition with either a main floor or a floor group, the characteristic of small house was that it secured a main place on the upstairs.
3) In a composition that does not have either the main floor or the floor group, there was a characteristic that emphasized the laminating method itself.
There is also a composition that provides a strong centripetal place in narrow site, but the feature by size and the unity of the floor are divided into upper and lower parts and dispersed, so that there is no strong center somewhere and the entire interior space is expanded. In recent years, there has been a tendency to create a composition that does not have a center and creates an expanse in the entire interior space by laminating multiple floors, and a new characteristic of the space composition of open laminated house has been clarified.
There are many unique living environments in Southeast Asia. Those environments often suffer from natural disasters. Support for rebuilding lives in rural villages is provided by a government, international organizations and NGOs. However, it is told that those support destroy the traditional way of living in impacted areas. This study spotlight to Bayan Timur village, which is famous for keeping their traditional cultural environment, and suffered from earthquake disaster in 2018, the 2018 Lombok earthquake.
We continue the field survey at this village from 1992, and also conducted the survey on damage soon after the event. This research targets to one year after, the phase of temporary recovery of housing. The goal of this study is to clarify the influence of damage, and temporary housing to the traditional living styles in Bayan Timur after the event. Field survey was conducted in August of 2019.
After the disaster, many people lived outdoors, regardless of the damage to the main building due to the fear of the walls collapsing by the earthquake, they moved to places such as Berugak and terraces where the risk of damage is low. Receiving the provision of temporary shelter from NPO, many households moved bedroom and kitchen that had been in Berugak and terraces to the temporary shelters. The way of living mainly outdoors has changed to the way of living in temporary shelter. Before the provision of temporary shelter, Berugak was mainly used as a bedroom. Bedding was placed in Berugak, and furniture such as shelves were placed around Berugak, so it was far from the original space of Berugak. One year after the disaster, the living space was moved to a temporary shelter, and Berugak returned to its original space. Temporary shelter is thought to play a role in returning Berugak to its original space.
From the analysis of relation among temporary shelter, Berugak, and main building, the pre-disaster relation among Berugak and main building has recovered even though temporary shelter was injected and used as a bed room. It means that the traditional way of space use were resilient to impact from disaster such as building damage and temporary shelter construction.
In Greater Tokyo areas with well-developed transportation networks and high land prices, there is a possibility that elderly people are leaving their familiar areas and moving to distant Residences For Elderly People with Services, or REPS. However, since prefectures, ordinance-designated cities, and core cities individually manage the REPS, the actual situation over a wide area of the Greater Tokyo area has not been ascertained as to where and what kind of REPS are being constructed.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution trend of REPS in the Greater Tokyo area from the perspective of resident attributes such as the long-term care level and the care functions attached to REPS, while comparing it with REPS data from across Japan.
In this study, 7415 registered information and 3261 management information of REPS nationwide as of August 2019 were obtained, and analyzed the distribution of the REPS in the Greater Tokyo area on GIS using CSV address matching service.
Based on the information available in the database, the distribution of REPS in the Tokyo metropolitan was analyzed on a map, and segregation by rent and tenants' long-term care level was found, as shown below.
The REPS located in the center of the Greater Tokyo area has more than 50 units and a large private area, and it also has a Home-Visit Long-Term Care. On the other hand, the REPS in remote areas have only about 30 units and a private area of less than 20 square meters and provide nursing care through Outpatient Day Long-Term Care. In addition, there were many REPS in the prefectures far from Tokyo, with about 30 units and an exclusive area of less than 20 square meters. In the prefectures farther from Tokyo, the residents' average long-term care level was higher than in other prefectures, resulting from older people requiring care moving from Tokyo.
As a result of analyzing the ratio of male and female residents, the REPS with a high ratio of male residents tended to be distributed in the outer rim of the Greater Tokyo area. The characteristics of REPS with a high ratio of males include inconvenient locations, low rent, and a tendency to require a high care level despite their relative youth. From the perspective of nursing care, there is a tendency for low-income male older people to move to distant areas with poor conditions when moving into the REPS.
In the Greater Tokyo area, a GIS analysis showed that REPS was accepting older people in need of nursing care Tokyo in prefectures 40 to 60 kilometers away from central Tokyo. In this metropolitan area, older people in need of nursing care in Tokyo are accepted by REPS in prefectures far away from Tokyo. This indicates that the land prices in Tokyo are so high that older people in need of nursing care cannot continue to live there and are forced to relocate to remote areas in search of low-cost REPS. The reality that low-income older people cannot continue to live in Tokyo may necessitate the development of low-cost housing for the elderly, such as safety-net accommodation renovated from existing private homes.
This paper presents an idea to explain the relationship between children's behavior and characteristics of places in after childcare facilities though observation researches.
Surveyed 2 facilities, W and M have outside open spaces and are considered to have various places inside and outside for diversity of acts. Observation survey to record all children's act of each scene was done. 1354 acts for 65 scenes in 12 days were recorded in facility W and 1148 acts for 56 scenes in 9 days were recorded in facility M.
Typology for investigation of children's act was proposed. Acts are categorized as "solo act", "play with form" or "spontaneous act" from a point of view of forms to be involved with others. And acts are categorized as "active", "sitting" or "with surroundings" from a point of view of way to use places.
Rates of acts were similar in W and M, about 15% for "solo act", about 43% for "play with form" and 43% for "spontaneous act"
Most of "play with a form, active" were found in open spaces in W and M. Most of "play with a form, sitting" were found in areas with desks in rooms
"Spontaneous play, sitting" and "contacting act, sitting" were found in the "area under trees" in W. "Spontaneous play, active" and "contacting act, active" were found in the "area under and around eaves" in M. "Spontaneous play with surroundings" are plays using situations given by features of places. They were mainly found in the "area under trees" in W and the "area under and around eaves" in M as plays with conditions of ground, animal, insects, plants or materials.
Many "solo acts" were found in rooms or corners for reading and rest of them were found in various places in or around group acts.
Moving acts are understood as "space using". Sitting acts are understood as "base using". These two and "surroundings using" are basic types of place using.
"Space using" is to act in a place with a void and a plain where moving acts are allowed.
"Base using" is to act in a place where it is allowed to remain at ease such as a place with furniture, wall surrounded place or a higher place.
"Surroundings using" is to act with specific feature of a place such as natural environment, natural material or unique equipment.
Open spaces for "space using" and indoor spaces for "base using" are secured in W and M. Places in particular state for “spontaneous act” were found in addition. These situations are considered to show a possibility that "spontaneous act" are done in condition where "space using", "base using" and "surroundings using" are related each other. Following study in detail is necessary about "spontaneous act". Difference of rates of acts of individuals were found according to individuals, activity analysis. Some children spend most of time with "play with a form" or with "spontaneous act" and a few children tend to spend more time with "solo act" than others.
In conclusion acquirement of places for "space using", "base using" and "surroundings using" were found to be important as a living facility for children with various ways of behaviors.
Tea ceremony room is the architecture built for tea ceremony. Because of the awareness of the floor surface by the host and guests, we focus on the spatial region that a guest recognizes as the space of his own, space of other guests and solidarity space, we define this spatial region as the region. In this research, we try to clarify the changes and characteristics on the region of guests and the host and the one shared by guests during a tea ceremony.
We defined that when an individual is situated in tea ceremony room, the region that can be considered as belong to that individual as “personal space”, the regions around other guests as “other’s personal spaces” and regions with solidarity as “solidarity space”. We hypothesize that these kinds of region will be changed during thick tea and thin tea with certain relationship. We also defined that personal space, other’s personal space and solidarity space as “regional recognition”. In this research, to clarify the changes of regional cognition and the ways space is felt, the field research below is commenced. 1.SD(semantic differentiation) method psychological experiment to figuring out what cognition would tea ceremony and space would provide to guests.2.Regional cognition experiment to figuring out the changes of personal space, other’s personal space and solidarity space, also the tendency of reginal cognition.3.Testees are also asked to write down the items that influenced the evaluations of tea ceremony and the space.By analyzing the regional cognition diagram, the evaluation of tea ceremony and the space, and the psychological quantities, some characteristics of territorial cognition and spatial consciousness were clarified. During the tea ceremony, spatial factor, richness factor and impression factor become larger from enter to exit in both thick tea and thin tea, at the same time the solidarity space enlarged indicating the rise of feeling of solidarity. The area of solidarity space becomes biggest in the middle time when the tea behavior of passing the dessert among guests happens. The personal space tends to expand to the space that unoccupied by the different types of tea ceremony room in both thick tea and thin tea. 1). The common characteristics in different types of tea ceremony are listed below: According to regional cognition diagram, in thick tea, the solidarity space tends to connect to all guests in exit time. In thin tea, no limitation for conversation influencing the solidarity space connect to the guests who are neighbor to each other. The ways of connection of solidarity space are different in different type of tea ceremony room in both thick tea and thin tea. According to the area of region, the personal space stays almost unchanged from enter to exit time in both thick tea and thin tea. Other’s personal space becomes bigger at exit than enter time in both thick tea and thin tea. Solidarity space becomes biggest at middle and smaller at exit comparing with middle approximately. 2). The most influential factor in territory recognition is "delivery of tea and sweets" for both thick and thin tea. 3). The common psychological factors that change simultaneously among thick tea and thin tea, are spatial factor, variability factor, richness factor and impression factor, while comfortable factor, tension factor and peculiarity factor change differently.
“Ibasho” is a Japanese word combining “i”(being) and “basho”(place) and was originally used to describe a physical location. Since the 1980s, non-institutional places with keywords such as “ibasho,” including “takurosho,” “community cafes,” and “kodomo shokudo” opened simultaneously around Japan. Afterward, some of these non-institutional places were institutionalized, used as models for institutions or incorporated into institutions. However, a question arises as to how ibasho, that is, non-institutional places, can be institutionalized. Therefore, this paper discusses the institutionalization process of non-institutional places and case studies in architectural planning research involved in this process.
Referring to previous studies, the fundamental difference between non-institutional places and institutions is taken as follows. Namely, the function of ibasho will be prepared in response to people's demands. Contrary, functions of institutions are predetermined in advance of people's demands. “demand-function” relationship is inverted between ibasho and institutions. Therefore, it is possible to consider the institutionalization of non-institutional places from the perspective of the inversion of “demand-function” relationship.
Materials analyzed in this paper are 31 papers published in the “Journal of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Engineering” with “ibasho” in the title between 1997 and 2019. I consider the methodologies of these papers.
Ibasho initially meant a non-institutional place, but many of these papers considered ibasho to be associated with institutions. By focusing on the critical subjects and the research aims of these 31 papers, this paper found the following disputable issues such as (a)inversion of “demand-function” relationship, namely, regarding the places studied as means to fill the scarcities, and (b)generalizing research findings from the case studies.
Twenty of the 31 papers focused on various scarcities, and target places were selected to solve the scarcities of which were supposed by researchers. In some of these papers, researchers try to grasp people's needs or suggest needs to people before starting the research to fill in the scarcities. This is the preemption of people's demands by others, thus leading to the inversion of “demand-function” relationship, where functions should be prepared by responding to people's demands.
Nineteen of the 31 papers aim to generalize research findings, but none of them explain why research findings from a limited number of case studies can be generalized, and this makes a leap in logic. One strategy employed to overcome this leap is to situate the places studied in certain existing frames. The frames referred to here are the building types of institutions, but ibasho can not have such frames, because of being a non-institutional place. In some of these studies, researchers define ibasho as their study objects from the viewpoint of functions and situate them in certain existing frames, thus treating them like institutions. Another strategy employed to overcome this leap is to reduce the phenomena found in their research objects to some physical and/or psychological elements and interpret them. In papers that aim to generalize research findings, it is implicitly assumed that the research findings can be applied to institutions or places that have not yet existed. The fact that institutions or places have not yet existed means that people who supposedly demand something can not be, is also leading to the inversion of “demand-function” relationship.
Through these methodologies, architectural planning research leads to the inversion of “demand-function” relationship. The accumulation of knowledge that inverts “demand-function” relationship will be useful for institutionalizing ibasho.
Until now, meals in infant facilities such as nursery schools were served in nursery rooms and playrooms. In recent years, dining rooms and kitchens have been placed in the center of the facility. In addition, there were increased efforts to encourage children's interest in food. However, the adjacent space between the dining room and the kitchen on children's interest in food has not been clarified quantitatively.
Therefore, in this study, the adjacent space between dining rooms and kitchens to support food education on children's food interest was clarified. Children's interest in food was measured by their interest in eating, their willingness to serve meals, preparing meals, cleaning up, and eating behavior. The kitchen is supposed to be an open type so that children can see the cooking process through the serving corner. The dining room is a space dedicated to meals, which is adjacent to the kitchen.
First, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2019 for infant facilities with a capacity of 80 or more in Ibaraki Prefecture in Japan. The number of valid responses collected was 142. As a result, in the cooking room adjacent to the dining room, a kitchen waste recycling activity was carried out by visually opening. In the dedicated dining room adjacent to the kitchen, ingredients were cultivated, harvested, cooking and childcare, and parent-child cooking was carried out.
Next, a questionnaire survey was conducted with parents of facilities with a connecting space between the dining room and the kitchen and facilities without a connecting space. The number of valid responses collected was 248. Structural equation modeling was performed on the obtained data. The results show that the children's dietary education experience at the facility affected their daily eating habits. In particular, in facilities where there is a connecting space between the dining room and the kitchen, daily eating habits increased children's interest in cooking.
In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 327 children (155 with a dining room/kitchen area and 172 without a dining room/kitchen area). Adjacent to the dedicated dining room and kitchen, it was revealed that children enjoy a series of actions such as eating together, appetite, expectation for school lunch, favor, school lunch, preparation, serving, eating, and tidying up. In this space, the dining room was used as a dedicated space for meals, creating special feelings and expectations for children and encouraging positive behavioral changes to food. In addition, this space encouraged behavior change in habits such as chewing well and eating breakfast every morning.
In recent years, further improvement in intellectual productivity has been demanded due to the progress of the knowledge society. Along with this, the way of working places has been reviewed, such as increasing the degree of freedom of working hours and places, improving productivity, and improving the working environment to facilitate communication.
Meanwhile, it is said that activation of communication is indispensable for knowledge creation in the field of cognitive science, and it is important to focus on gestures and utterances in order to understand the characteristics of knowledge creation.
In addition, the idea of “Activity Based Working (ABW)” has emerged as a work style that allows workers to choose the environment according to the diversified work content, increasing the opportunity to take various postures in various spaces.
Base on above, the objective of this study is to clarify effects of postures focus on gestures and utterances.
This study is comprised of Task selection experiment, Speaking tendency grasping experiment, utterances and gestures, text mining of utterance content. The results are as follows.
Table 5 show results of Task selection experiment. Theme A. B. C. G was selected in this survey.
Fig. 5 and Table 13 show results of Speaking tendency grasping experiment. Points of motivation was highest in standing. Points of ideas was highest in low sitting.
Table 15 and Fig. 6 show results of utterances and gestures. This survey clarified that posture has little effect on speaking time and number of utterances, number of turn-taking, gesture time, and gesture occurrence frequency.
Table 17 and Fig. 8 show results of text mining of utterance content. Number of networks was least in standing and most in low sitting.
To investigate a social prescribing for the prevention of loneliness, we used a simple screening tool to evaluate social isolation and loneliness, conducted an interview-format questionnaire survey and examined the possibility of connecting individuals having parallel careers in community activities in the city center of our own local town.
Materials and Methods
Questionnaire surveys were conducted from August 2019 to December 2019 in Station Marche, an open-air market in the train station plaza of Fukusaki City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Of the 406 survey respondents, we analysed the responses of 197 respondents who were residents of Fukusaki City. We combined the Japanese version of the abbreviated Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) and the Japanese version of the University of California, Los Angeles’ Loneliness Scale (UCLA-4) to develop new indicators to evaluate social isolation and loneliness. In addition to questions about isolation and loneliness, respondents were asked about their interests in parallel careers and community activities. A non-parametric test was performed for each questionnaire item, and a multiple comparison procedure was conducted for those questionnaire items with statistically significant differences. We then compared the effect sizes.
A comparison of interest in community careers by age found that those under 30 years were more interested in ‘tourism volunteer’ (r_13=0.28) and were not particularly interested in ‘second jobs’ (r_12=0.23) compared to other age groups. Those aged 30–40 years were most interested in specific community careers, such as ‘making handmade products’ (r_23=0.23), ‘nutrition education activities’ (r_12=-0.20, r_23=0.23), ‘cafeterias for children’ (r_23=0.26) and ‘support for childcare’ (r_23=0.22). Those aged over 50 years was most interested in ‘social contribution activities’ (r_13=0.22), ‘health promotion activities’ (r_23=-0.23), ‘residents’ association activities’ (r_13=-0.18) and ‘greeting campaigns’ (r_13=- 0.18,r_23=-0.19). Based on the isolation and loneliness status of respondents, we found that non-isolated and lonely types were more interested in ‘community clean-up activities’ (r_24=0.35) than non-isolated and non-lonely types. Isolated and non-lonely types were found to be more interested in ‘eco-activities’ (r_34=0.24) than either non-isolated and non-lonely types or non-isolated and lonely types (r_23=-0.39). Non-isolated and non-lonely types were found to be more interested in ‘residents’ association activities’ (r_24=-0.20) than non-isolated and lonely types.
The results of this study show that, by age, the formation of connections with people of the same generation who face similar challenges is a mutual aid activity that contributes to securing local leadership. Meanwhile, according to isolation and loneliness status, individuals experiencing isolation and loneliness are more interested in community careers than those not experiencing isolation and loneliness. These results make a significant contribution to understanding the positive impact of having a role within the community as a means to overcoming fears and experiences of isolation and loneliness.
Long-term residence restrictions have been implemented in the evacuation areas caused by the Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station Accident (hereinafter referring to as the nuclear accident). These nuclear accident-affected municipalities have proceeded with reconstruction in the face of uncertain situations in the future, such as resolving the nuclear accident, changes in radiation levels, and the outlook for national policies and system design, including evacuation orders.
Previous studies on nuclear accident-affected areas reported evaluating reconstruction projects, surveys of residents' awareness, business resumption, and zoning methods. But no research has been found that analyzes the impact of residence restrictions due to the designation of evacuation areas on the reconstruction planning. The purpose of this study is to clarify the impact of the designation and lifting of evacuation areas and the residence restrictions on the content of disaster reconstruction plans, focusing on the hub. We covered Namie, Okuma, and Tomioka Towns, where the entire administrative area was under evacuation areas. And there is a much population in the areas where it is expected that residents will face difficulties in returning for a long time (hereinafter referring to as the difficult to returning areas). The purpose of this report is to clarify the impact of the designation and lifting of evacuation areas and the resulting residence restrictions on the content of municipal disaster reconstruction plans.
Residence restrictions contents in evacuation areas changed in three stages. First, it was prohibited to live or enter within a 20 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station, the target municipalities areas, until the reorganization of the restricted areas. Second, after the reorganization, entry into the areas was allowed, but the residence was prohibited. Finally, once the evacuation orders were lifted, excluding difficult to returning areas, they were able to resident the towns. And the national government made the specified reconstruction and revitalization bases (hereinafter referring to as the specific bases) construction available in difficult to returning areas.
The location of the hub on disaster reconstruction plans changed by the content of residence restrictions. Target municipalities planned to make hubs in outdoor their towns in terms of inhibition entering their municipal areas. Once they were allowed to enter their municipal areas, they planned hub construction there. The national government lifted evacuation orders and made specific base constructions available in difficult to return areas, and they planned to build specific bases and the former ones. Iwaki City was selected as the relocation for the local government functions by target municipalities. Iwaki City is the hub for the Hamadori area of Fukushima Prefecture, which includes the target municipalities. It was clear that municipalities could not reconstruct the living environment in their areas choose a hub within a wide area to rebuild lives.
Furthermore, Namie and Tomioka Towns, where the radiation level was low in the central urban areas, developed hubs in the areas. While Okuma town, where the central urban areas became difficult to return areas, set hub away. In both cases, target municipalities consolidated and implemented public disaster housing and public facilities under the policy of compact cities. On the other hand, it is possible to build specific bases to be not in line with the approach of compact cities. It is difficult to envision establishing the second base in a small municipality like the target municipalities.
In Japan, super high–rise condominiums have become highly in demand because they are generally convenient and have excellent views, large–scale open spaces, and common facilities. On the other hand, these condominiums have some issues such as dealing with disaster prevention, negative impacts for local area, and weakness of local communities. Therefore, it is necessary to grasp residents’ consciousness in order to solve issues in super high-rise condominium area. This study aims to grasp residents’ interaction in the local communities and their willingness to participate in local and community activities, and clarify the structure and factors of their willingness to solve local issues in super high-rise condominiums.
We targeted in specific area of Kawasaki City. In this area, super high-rise condominiums have accumulated due to redevelopment such as factory sites since 2005. We conducted interview survey of each management association of super high-rise condominium and area management organization in this area, besides questionnaire survey of residents in two super high-rise condominiums in order to grasp actual condition of residents’ interaction and willingness to participate in local and community activities.
Firstly, we grasped residents’ characteristics of interaction and their consciousness. Many residents’ relationships are formed by the interaction in their condominiums, except for the relationships related to children. Approximately 40% of residents hope relationships such as being able to help each other in the event of emergencies, and they have high consciousness of disaster prevention. However, there are a certain number of residents who hope general relationships such as closeness of their age.
Secondly, according to the covariance structure analysis, the high willingness for regional contribution activities directly increases the degree of willingness to solve local issues, but neither the willingness for community activities nor the willingness for condominium’s contribution activities lead to the willingness to solve local issues directly.
Finally, we analyzed factors of their willingness to solve local issues. The factors that motivate residents to solve local issues are having their clear purposes such as participation of disaster prevention activities and cultural activities such as hobbies, and the ability to solve local issues.
In conclusion, residents in this area have highly motivation of disaster prevention and, their willingness for community activities does not directly lead to their willingness to solve local issues. In order to improve residents’ willingness to solve local issues in super high-rise condominiums, it is necessary to build the local organization which specializes to deal with issues and purposes.
This study focused on changes in residents’ uses and awareness of outdoor spaces due to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to gain understanding of the following three aspects of people’s behaviors believed to have been greatly affected before the Emergency Declaration in Japan and during the State of Emergency: 1) changes in how people use outdoor spaces, and 2) people’s demands with respect to the use of outdoor spaces in the future. In addition, as a byproduct of this investigation, this study aims to produce a summary of findings concerning residents’ use of outdoor spaces against the backdrop of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as well as to discuss future issues. The survey method for this study was a national questionnaire, and responses were obtained from 1860 citizens. The details clarified as a result of analysis of the data generated by the survey are described below.
First, the reality of residents’ use of outdoor spaces is summarized as follows. A large number of residents used outdoor spaces that were close to their homes (less than five minutes away on foot) on a daily basis or three or more times per week during the State of Emergency. A large number of residents made use of streets and areas adjacent to waterways or other waterfront areas as outdoor spaces during the State of Emergency period. Such use diverged from their use patterns prior to the Emergency Declaration, but these spaces were near residents’ homes. Residents used such spaces primarily for wellness and relaxation. Next, the survey revealed the following information describing residents’ perceptions of the use of outdoor spaces. Regarding the importance of outdoor spaces to respondents’ everyday lives, 80% or more of respondents who used outdoor spaces even during the State of Emergency reported such spaces to be “important.” In addition, 25% of respondents reported feeling that the use of outdoor spaces improved their quality of life during the State of Emergency, and this proportion far exceeded that of the respondents who reported “no change” or “I don’t feel any importance.” The characteristics of the respondents to this survey can be grouped into the following six categories: G1: People valuing their daily activities outside the home; G2: People valuing outdoor recreational activities; G3: People who primarily used nearby outdoor spaces before the Emergency Declaration; G4: People who rarely use outdoor spaces; G5: People who used outdoor spaces during the State of Emergency; and G6: People who rarely use outdoor spaces/people whose activities are primarily at home. Furthermore, under the influence of COVID-19, it became clear that an outdoor space that can be used as a part of daily life is required. In G1 and G2, there is a high need for various activities , and it can be said that the respondents are seeking an outdoor space as a place for their own activities. G3 seeks a place for work and social activities, and G5 seeks interaction, and has a need as a place for relationships with others. It is suggested that the need for an outdoor space that functions as a place to connect people and society has become apparent.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the cement suppliers for each construction site during the interwar period when cement consumption increased in Japan. Specifically, the authors picked up and analyzed the cement suppliers at each construction site from the contents of the "Completion Reports", which are the construction records made by Shimizu-gumi during this period. There are 3,186 completion reports in total, of which 1,729 have a description of the cement supplier. These 1,792 cases are summarized in tables and figures by use, structure type, prefectures, year of construction, and total floor space. (See Table1-Table3, Fig.2-Fig.3)
The findings are as follows:
1. The Cement suppliers can be classified into four types: "Manufacturing Companies", "Shimizu-gumi itself”,
"Merchant" and "Supplied by Client". (See Table4)
2. By region, the percentage of “Shimizu-gumi itself” was high in the Kanto, and the percentage of “Manufacturing
Companies” was high in the Hokuriku. On the other hand, the percentage of “Merchant” was high in Chukyo, Osaka, and Kyushu.
3.By period , the percentage of “Merchants” has increased since the Ⅳ period (1936-) .(See Fig.5-Fig.9)
4. The percentage of “Manufacturing Companies” in each region was almost the same as the shipment percentage
set by the regulation. (See Table6 and Table7) However, in the Chukyo, the number of cases of Mikawa, which is closely related to the Shimizu-gumi, was the highest.
5. Since the section handling cement was established at the head office, the cases of “Shimizu-gumi itself” were concentrated in the area under the jurisdiction of the head office, especially in Tokyo.
6. Looking at the breakdown of “Merchants” by region, there are some “Merchants” who have a lot of trades, but since there are many cases of "Others", it is indicated that there were trades with various “Merchants”. (See Table8)
7. Looking at the breakdown of “Supplied by Client", there were almost the same number of governments works and private works, and there were many cases of civil works and industry (See Table9). And there were many cases before 1930, when cement sales control began. (See Table9)
This research examined the relationship between renovation work done in common and exclusively-owned areas in condominiums as well as the planning of such projects, focusing on the following three issues.
1) Timing of renovation work in common and exclusively-owned areas and issues
A survey of companies with experience in condominium renovation revealed there is a correlation between work in common areas and in exclusively-owned areas, such as works in the exclusively-owned area taking place on a certain scale before or after works in common area. Planning both works together in the plumbing renovation is assumed to have an advantage in reducing risks of water leakage in the whole building by renewing both pipes in the same cycle.
2) Integration of renovation work in common and exclusively-owned areas and issues
In recent years, some large-scale renovation projects have integrated work done in common areas and exclusively-owned areas to obtain rationality and other benefits. Analysis of water supply and drainage facility renovation in which the work was done in common and exclusively-owned areas at the same time has confirmed that costs of the optional works in the exclusively-owned areas can be about the same as the common areas. Also, a case study on integrated water supply and drainage facilities work confirmed that the optional works were done on about half of the exclusively-owned residential units at the same time as work on the common areas, pointing to the importance of a system for building management association efforts and a mechanism for promoting it.
3) Rule compliance and effects of rule revision
Recent years have also shown that work for renovation of exclusively-owned areas cannot be done because of accompanying work on common areas due to building management agreements and other constraints. We therefore surveyed condominium management companies to clarify the actual situation of management rules and sort out the issues related to renovation work on exclusively-owned areas. The results showed that the management rules for aging condominium buildings do not cover exclusively-owned area renovations and that the rules had not been amended, pointing to the need for detailed remodeling rules to be written or existing rules revised. Furthermore, a case study of condominiums that flexibly revise rules to meet the needs of all parties confirms that rule revisions promote exclusively-owned area renovation, pointing to the need for rules and flexible rule revision that ensure that exclusively-owned area renovation work proceeds smoothly.
The author has clarified the following by considering the distribution of Japanese nails and imported Western nails in addition to the combined use of Japanese nails and Western nails in buildings. The Japanese nails and the Western nails were widely used in the latter half of the 10s of the Meiji era. The earliest imported nail was "Nail-rod", which produced Japanese nails (Yotetsu-wakugi), and the combined use with imported Western nails progressed in the latter half of the 10's of the Meiji era. That's right. However, after the middle of the 20's of the Meiji era, nail iron could not compete with Western nails as a product in terms of price, and I show that the import of nail iron was cut off. In addition, I showed the price of Western nails as an imported product in the Meiji era, and considered the changes in the import quantity of Western nails during the prewar period.
Zenzaburo Yasuda, who was the first to produce Western nails in earnest in Japan, wished for the import of Western nails in 1916, when domestic production of Western nails got off to a good start. Traditionally, Japan's export of Western nails began in earnest in 1928, but the grounds for this have not been shown.
Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the actual state of exports of nails in the prewar period. The following points have been clarified.
In the middle of the Meiji era, Japan had already exported nails, and the breakdown were the export of Japanese nails, the re-export of Nail-rod which were the raw materials for iron nails and Western nails. Exports of the Japanese nails and re-exports of Nail-rod were mainly to East Asian countries, and the period was until around 1897. Of these, the Japanese nails were exported to Korea, Nail-rod was re-exported to China. In addition, Western nails were re-exported to neighboring countries as a relay trade, and the quantity was in the Meiji era, the middle of the Meiji 30's was the peak, and it was carried out until 1931. On the other hand, after 1921, the export of domestic Western nails could be confirmed in parallel, and after 1932, the export volume of the domestic Western nails increased sharply and the re-export of Western nails stopped.
Conventionally, Nail rod had been pointed out as a raw material for Japanese nails made of Western iron, but Iron Plate, round iron, and square iron were also used.
This paper analyzed the changes in the layout and names of the Zashiki in 2 story house published in the pre-war period to discover the process of functional differentiation of the floor plan and to clarified some of the characteristics of the 2 story structure of modern independent houses in Japan.
In Chapter 3, the presence of the Zashiki and its placement is expressed as a percentage of the each year, and analyzed for annual trends. From the late Meiji periods to the middle of the Taisho period (1907-1920), the percentage of plan with the Zashiki was generally high, and with the exception of Taisho 1, the Zashiki was found in every floor plan from 1907 to 1919. However, between 1921 and 1925, the number of shares declined sharply to less than half of the total number of shares, and the number of shares increased again in the early Showa period. In terms of the layout of the Zashiki, the percentage of "Nikai Zashiki"（zashiki on the 2nd floor） was generally high, with the exception of the late Taisho and early Showa periods, confirming that "Nikai Zashiki" was a persistent proposal throughout the pre-war period.
In Chapter 4, we categorized the use of the Zashiki into five categories : "drawing room," "living room," "private room," "unspecified," and "the case of no Zashiki," and analyzed the changes in the correspondence between the arrangement of the Zashiki and its use. Specifically, we extracted the six patterns that were continuously listed for the functional distribution of the 1F and 2F Zashiki and looked at status of the functional differentiation of the 2 story houses plans by looking at the floor plans and descriptions that corresponded to each pattern. The characteristics of each were described in the following 4 sections. Duplication of the use of the 1st and 2F Zashiki was resolved around the mid-Taisho periods (Chapter 4.2) . After the end of the Taisho era, there was a rapid increase in the number of floor plans without a tatami room on the 1F, and as a reaction to this, there was a demand for the Zashiki or the tatami rooms on the 2F (Chapter 4.3). From the late Taisho periods, the 2F Zashiki remained as a traditional japanese style drawing room, while the reception on the 1st floor was not in the tatami room, but in a small reception by the entrance, where the reception use becoming more and more differentiated among the floors (Chapter 4.4). Also, we checked the plan, which is based on the Western-style house with the 1F as the public room and the 2F as the bedroom space, clearly separating the functions of the 1F and 2F (Chapter 4.5).
In Chapter 5, we examined the comparison between the floor plan and the discourse in light of the results of the discourse analysis we have done in previous studies.
Through the above analysis, we confirmed the attempts of architects to differentiate the functions of floor plans in the prewar period, and clarified the process of discovering the advantages of the 2 story houses.
Environmental Engineering Research Institute of Narabigaoka (1966, EERIN) designed by Tomoya Masuda & Associates is a published work and college project in Kyoto and an essential work to study relations between Masuda's works & his thoughts.
This is because they used a word called “風景 Fukei”(making architecture have a new meaning) in EERIN , and that word is also used in Masuda's writings with the same meaning as EERIN, for example, in 「建築のある風景」(1964-1965). In addition to that, the description of EERIN mentions 「建築のある風景」. So, this paper aimed to reveal the relations between the ideas and the architecture itself of EERIN.
But the description of EERIN doesn’t make a clear definition of “Fukei” and other important word like “構造化 Kouzou-ka”, “故郷 Hometown”, “表情 Facial Expression” and a relation between the architecture itself and its idea is also ambiguous.
So, the author studied National Theatre (1963), Naruto Technical High school (1963, NTH) to reveal the meanings of “Fukei” and other words and find relations between “Fukei” and the architecture itself in EERIN. Because that projects appear in the description of EERIN and the similar idea as “Fukei” called “Keikan” are used in that projects. We used some unpublished material such as 「NTH 計画案」（1963） which is referred the description of EERIN and discovered by MOMMA.
In chapter 3, we analyzed National Theatre with unpublished materials and found following 3 points. In National Theatre; 1) “Keikan” was used in the description and has same meaning as “Fukei”. 2) The relation between “Keikan” or “Kouzou-ka” and the architecture itself is ambiguous in the project. 3) The plan was designed by the arrangement of rectangular units.
In chapter 4, we analyzed NTH and found following 6 points. In NTH; 1) They devised a new method called E.S.System that is based on the golden rule and Fibonacci numbers. 2) E.S.System decided the most of the design such as the plan, the measurement, and the structure. 3) They designed NTH to symbolize alternative “故郷 Hometown” with visualizing the system, and this process was called "Kouzou-ka". 4) That symbolization like “Fukei” is called “Keikan”. 5)The plan was designed by the arrangement of rectangular units and corridors. 6) The method and the plan were stricter than National Theatre.
Conclusions are as follows. In EERIN; 1)They designed to symbolize alternative "故郷" in the same way as NTH, but that idea was called “Fukei” not “Keikan”. 2) There is some similarity to National Theatre in the site plan, for example, there are no connection unit between two rectangular unit. 3) While they did not mention completely, the dimensions were decided with the golden rule and Fibonacci numbers in the same way as NTH. 4) “Kouzou-ka” was achieved in the same way as NTH because they used similar system to NTH. 5)They designed to represent ancient farming landscape with arrangement of small rectangular units because they may know that they cannot represent the idea “故郷” itself. But they think the people seeing the architecture can have their “故郷” in each mind by seeing the ancient farming landscape.
In 2017, the author found a number of documents and drawings dated from the early 20th century in the storage of the Catholic Diocese of Fukuoka, Japan. The archival materials included documents, photos and drawings of the church buildings, which were built in the early 20th century but were already demolished or lost due to the war, natural disaster or rebuilding. Hence, they had long remained as a research gap. With these materials, the author decided to carry out a comprehensive study on building projects of the Diocese of Fukuoka. This article is the first outcome of the study.
The objective of this article is to reveal how the Catholic missionaries and Japanese master builders collaborated in construction of church buildings in the Catholic Diocese of Fukuoka, which became independent from the Diocese of Nagasaki in 1927 to take charge of the area of Fukuoka, Saga and Kumamoto prefectures. The Diocese of Fukuoka was administered by the Paris Foreign Missions.
Between 1927 and 1945, fifteen proper churches were built in Fukuoka, Saga and Kumamoto, which were Tetori, Yobuko, Madarajima, Matsushima, Moji, Oe, Shindenbaru, Yahata, Kokura, Josuidori, Sakitsu, Tobata, Omuta, and Daimyoumachi churches as well as the chapel of Hirao Gakuin. The archival materials indicated that, in the beginning of the Diocese, the missionaries took up schematic design of churches and they commissioned master builders from Nagasaki such as Yosuke Tetsukawa and Kawahara to do the technical development of design and construction works. The missionaries of the newly founded Diocese of Fukuoka already had worked with Tetsukawa and Kawahara in Nagasaki in the 1910-20s, hence, they invited those master builders to participate in the projects of the Diocese of Fukuoka. The examples to show the collaboration between missionaries and master builders are the projects of Madarajima and Yobuko churches: Fr. Joseph Breton wrote a letter to Bishop Thiry to explain how he planned to construct the churches of Madarajima and Yobuko in the late 1920s with simple drawings and cost calculation provided from the master builder Kawahara.
From 1931, when the second Bishop Albert Breton was appointed, he and other missionaries continued to do schematic design of new churches by themselves. On the other hand, they began to work with a local builder in Fukuoka. Even though the Bishop commissioned a professionally trained architect Jan Joseph Švagr to design several buildings of the Diocese in 1932, he never used Švagr or any other professional architect afterwards. Instead, he chose to continue to work with master builders from Nagasaki as well as local builders in Fukuoka. This was probably because of the shortage of finance of the Diocese: the most economical and simplest way to build churches was that the missionaries would do schematic design and master builders technically develop design and construct churches of wood instead of reinforced concrete without involving an architect. This also reflects the particular circumstance of the Diocese of Fukuoka, in which, as the Diocese was newly established, the missionaries needed to build many churches in a short period of time so that the church buildings would attract local non-Christian people by the distinctive western style architecture.
Since BC, cities have been constructed on the Mongolian Plateau with the establishment of dynasties, but most turned to ruins. However, the Tibetan Buddhist temples built after the 16th century, which are an indispensable element in the process of Mongolians settling down from nomadic life, have been relatively well preserved in Inner Mongolia. These temples are considered the epitome of the Mongolian economy, culture, art, and construction technology of the time. Therefore, there is great value and significance in researching them systematically. Interestingly, these temples originated from Inner Mongolia, the southern part of Mongolia. The architectural design of these temples has been largely influenced by Chinese and Tibetan temple architecture and is therefore considered an important sample for studying temple architecture in both Mongolia and East Asia. Yet, there is still no systematic study on this subject. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to study the arrangement plan, which is the most important aspect in the design and first stage of temple construction of Inner Mongolian Tibetan Buddhist temples.
In this study, 30 well-preserved temples, that were constructed between the end of the Northern Yuan Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty were selected as the object of this research. Firstly, the temples were divided into different levels according to the historical background of the temples. Further, the temple buildings were also classified based on their functions. Lastly, the arrangement plan has been modeled, which was also classified into a series of different types to further clarify the characteristics of the arrangement of the Inner Mongolian Buddhist temples.
Results-wise, this study suggests that these temples could be divided into three levels: Province Level, League Level, and Banner Level. Furthermore, there were 56 kinds of temple buildings among these 30 temples, which were divided into 3 types according to their functions. In accordance with the main buildings among the 56 classifications, the arrangement form of the temple has shown to be divided into Integrated Type and Separated Type. Importantly, Integrated Type could be divided into more detailed types like Symmetric Type and Asymmetric Type. The characteristic arrangement plans of these temples in different regions have been clearly found through a comparative analysis of each level’s temple arrangement of various types. Surprisingly, the reason behind the characteristics has been initially discovered during this study.
In conclusion, this study presents a classification of arrangement characteristics of Buddhist temples of Inner Mongolia, based on arrangement plans in a variety of temples in Inner Mongolia. Finally, this research also provides a foundation for further studies on Mongolian temple architecture.
The paper analyses Baillie Scott’s words and drawings to clarify the range of his conception of ‘decoration’ in his theory of house building.
Section 2 focuses on his background to uncover his references to house design and decoration, discussing his activities from two perspectives: one, the significant influence of the Arts and Crafts movement on British architecture at the end of the 19th century; and two, Scott’s reputation in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century.
Section 3 categorises 16 of Scott’s writings on house building into four groups in chronological sequence: (a) articles about suburban houses; (b) articles about country houses and cottages; (c) his book Houses and Gardens; and (d) studies on the rational and British character.
Section 4 examines three meanings Scott ascribed to ‘decoration’. The first, superficial pretentiousness, resulted from his negative attitude towards commercial decoration, such as painting woodwork and covering walls and ceilings with wallpapers, which he considered merely superadded ways to conceal structures. The second meaning, decoration as architectural clothing, considers the relationship between buildings and decorations. In Scott’s view, a building’s decoration should represent the clothing of architecture with pattern and colour. This required not a superficial but an organic evaluation of the relationship between architectural decoration and other interior factors, such as furnishings or floorplans, to which decorative designs are applied. This section focuses on the relief imparted by constructive features, the architectural embellishments connecting with furnishings, and heraldic decoration to create interiors with ‘homely comfort’. The third meaning is structural decoration. Scott thought that a building without artistic pattern and colour should possess real structural beauty to which decoration provides the finishing touch. This manifested as the expression of structural facts by strengthening the texture and colour of natural materials. The goal of this treatment was an outside appearance akin to ‘the earth’s crust’—built structures that harmonised with nature.
Section 5 summarises the range of Scott’s conception of ‘decoration’ in his theory of house building with a précis in table form of the subject matter and related keywords. It is thought that Scott’s subject matter gradually deepened from decoration as architectural clothing to structural decoration. This variation would require the extension of the meaning of the word ‘decoration’. Meanwhile, the expected effect of the finishing touch changed from ‘homely comfort’ to ‘the earth’s crust’. The latter relates to the essential problem of human common sense to nature. This section deals with a discussion of common decoration and its relation to the significance of the effect of ‘the earth’s crust’. It also refers to the problem of relationships between components of a house.
The purpose of this study is to reveal Charles-Edouard Jeanneret’s theories of urban morphology in the unpublished manuscript “La construction des villes” through the concept of parti, and clarify its ideological background. Jeanneret used the word parti to mean the types of elements of a city, such as city blocks, streets, and plazas. This paper deals with streets.
In chapter two, the manuscript is briefly summarized. Jeanneret discusses partis of streets primarily in the section about streets in the chapter “Les Eléments constitutifs de la ville.” This paper deals with this section.
In chapter three, descriptions of the parti of streets, including sentences without the word parti, are extracted. These partis are then classified into four patterns: type of single street, intersection, repetition of intersections and network of roads and streets.
In chapter four, criteria for each typology are derived from Jeanneret’s comments on these partis. Jeanneret used the following criteria to evaluate the partis: visual closure, diversity of perspective, corporeality of scale, use of right angle, visual rest, corporeal rest, hygiene, traffic problems, and economy. These criteria are classified as practical or as visual and corporeal. The former consists of hygiene, traffic problems, and economy. The latter comprises visual closure, diversity of perspective, corporeality of scale, use of right angle, visual rest, and corporeal rest. Furthermore, after examining the six visual and corporeal criteria in more detail, it is pointed out that the criteria are not treated equally and that the relationship between them fluctuates as they overlap, include, and deviate from one another, with the criteria of visual closure (i.e. visual rest) and corporeal rest being particularly dominant. Jeanneret used the terms “repos” and “se reposer”, which generally refer to physical and mental fatigue, with the word “yeux” to describe visual closure. It is partly intended to reinforce the theory of corporeal exercise as a basis for spatial enclosure recognised in psychological effects. In addition, Jeanneret seems to have referred to Henrici and Schulze-Naumburg’s viewpoints of corporeal exercise and organismic urban theory, while Jeanneret’s thoughts are based on Sitte and Martin’s theory of visual closure. Jeanneret was in part oriented towards reinforcing Henrici and other’s viewpoints of corporeal exercise as supporting arguments for Sitte and other’s psychological visual closure. As for actual partis, Jeanneret favoured curved streets, that is, designs that create diversity and closure using rhythm or sparseness and denseness and provide visual closure (i.e. visual rest) and corporeal rest. However, as an exception, he admired the monumental character of right angles and the “grandiose” impression of straight lines, and the awakening of Le Corbusier’s preference can be seen already. Although Le Corbusier later aimed to train the modern body understood physiologically and improve the efficiency of living time, in the manuscript Jeanneret focused on resting and avoiding fatigue rather than on self-control and physical training.
In the concluding chapter, the importance of corporality in Jeanneret’s and Le Corbusier’s ideologies is pointed out. Jeanneret’s urban morphology of streets can be understood in the context of corporality, which he later developed as one of his key concepts.
Counterpoint is the theory of polyphonic music developed with the purpose of balancing the chaos and homogeneity of the relation of multiple melodies. In architecture, Le Corbusier refers to this term, and he also positions that kind of musical method as a "third solution" that differs from both complete chaos and complete homogeneity.
According to this background, the aim of this study is to clarify how the arrangement of elements in architecture was controlled by the contrapuntal technique. For that purpose, I converted the color arrangement of two types of Le Corbusier's "Unité d'habitation" into graphs according to the hue, and analysed them in the same way as the musical notation.
Firstly, the following principles were confirmed throughout the whole: "rhythmic contrast", the rule to shift the position of the movement and pause for each series, "complexity of progression" , to make the change of the relation of each series vary, "discrepancy of peaks", to make the position of the highest or the lowest tone different by each series.
Secondly we focused on the more local part of the series and clarified the following common techniques were also observed in the various parts in the color arrangement of Unité; “pedal point", the method to intentionally keep the single tone to contrast it to the other changing series, "imitation" in which a part of series is repeated in another series straightly or inverted horizontally or vertically.
By the counterpoint methods as mentioned above, the color arrangement of Unité seems to have acquired complexity which is different from mere random. In the planning stage, Corbusier had tried to compose the elevation of Unité by the more complicated arrangement of form, not colors. However, the uniform pattern of brise-soleil occupies most part in realized one for mainly economic reasons. As Le Corbusier called architectural colors "architectural camouflage", contrapuntal color arrangement complements the monotonousness of form.
Besides, it was proven that the same kind of contrapuntal property as seen in the facade exists in the color arrangement of doors of each room facing the corridor which Corbusier called “interior road”, where the arrangement of 5 colors is repeated according to the order of color spectrum. "Complexity of progression" and "discrepancy of peaks" are realized thanks to shifting the arrangement by each side across the corridor.
As an additional consideration, the arrangement of different types of Unité is compared to make clear that the series on the left end of type Marseille was diverted to type Reze and the right end was not. That fact also proves that there is a similarity between Le Corbusier’s way to determine the color arrangement of Unité and the musical method; horizontal notation with the direction left to right.
From the above discussion, we can conclude that the expression of coexistence of order and complexity in the color arrangement of Unité is realized by means of the contrapuntal method similar to that in music, and it is equivalent to the method Corbusier called “third solution” learned from music.
This study contributes to raising the resolution of the analogy of music and architecture. Further studies are needed to apply these analyses into form, dimension, and other factors of architecture and establish to the general architectural theory based on the theory of counterpoint.
During the French colonial period (1830–1962), Algeria saw the introduction of modern architecture and urban planning, particularly in Algiers. In the late colonial period, however, the most pressing issue was the coexistence of the ‘Colons’, who had lived in the country for several generations, and the original habitants ‘Muslims’. The late colonial period pertains to when Jacques Chevalier, who was elected mayor on the promise of ‘coexistence’, was in charge of the city of Algiers from May 1953 to May 1958 and promoted the type of urban planning he had assured. The French architect Fernand Pouillon was invited for ‘coexistence’ urban planning and realised the ‘three districts’ of Diar es-Saâda (1953), Diar el-Mahçoul (1954), and Climat de France (1959). One of the concepts of the three districts was ‘Moorish architecture’ (hispano-maurisque )—a fusion of Roman and Islamic elements —which developed in the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb region. Indeed, Pouillon tried to reflect on the unique spatial characteristics of the region as a living space for Algerians, including Muslims. However, such attempts have often been criticised for their limitations.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the three districts of Algiers, as officially advocated by Pouillon, by critically examining the location of each district, spatial composition, urban architectural elements such as ornament, the idea of symbiosis, and the process from planning to realisation. This study is a historical research. Primary sources include the minutes of the city council meetings of the time, texts, photographs, and drawings published in the city's public relations magazines and articles in architecture magazines. Additionally, several magazine articles by the Japanese Banshoya Gyoji, who was in Algiers at the time, will be used as the primary source for this paper.
First, I will summarise the existing studies on Moorish architecture, especially the book, ‘Moorish Architecture in Andalusia’ and construct and present an analytical concept for the evaluation of the three districts (Chapter 2). As for the process from planning to realisation, I will use the minutes of the city council meetings published in the Bulletin Municipal de la ville d'Algers, articles on urban planning in the Bulletin and its successor, Alger Revue, as well as architecture-related sources such as Chantier and other architectural magazines (Chapter 3). This is then supplemented by Pouillon's autobiography, ‘Mémoire d’un architecte’, which is rich in content and contains his subjective but more concrete spatial ideas and value judgments (Chapter 4). As for the planning analysis, based on the above-mentioned primary data, the plan of each district is modified to create a base map, and then the photographs of each part are compared and analysed item by item (Chapter 5). In conclusion, it is clear that Pouillon advocated ‘Moorish Architecture’ in the three districts of Algiers. The planning theory was conceived based on this thought, and it was reflected to a certain extent in the realised space. The view from the slopes affronted by the Mediterranean Sea was liberating. The stone was massing, the spatial organisation of the square, the colonnade, and the market were organised on a small scale, the water and the planting were well equipped, and the human scale space and the diversity of the district were assured.