This paper is a continued study and the purpose is to reveal the long-term changes of territoriality in low-rise housing of different ownership. The interpenetration between human and circumstances is analyzed to examine changes of physical settings especially. The following results were obtained: 1) The usage of internal space and private garden is influenced by the area and the direction of extension. 2) These types of unit plan and access system are changed owing to the parking place built. 3) It is possible to control access with gates, however a feeling of safety tends to be lower without natural surveillance.
According to a questionnaire survey of the facilities for the elderly in Miyagi and Iwate, 95.4% of them suffered building and site damage. Tsunami had a greater impact than earthquake intensity. 31 facilities were struck by tsunami, and elderly were killed or missing at eight of them. The high percentage of tsunami attacks on small-sized multifunctional in-home care linked to the high percentage of “completely destroyed”. Land development was linked to site damage. 63.0% of nursing homes and health services facilities for the aged had developed lands, and these were linked to the high percentage of site damage.
In this study, the sceneries through the window openings of classrooms are analyzed. First, the sceneries through the openings were classified on the basis of the arrangement of school buildings. Then, photographs of the sceneries viewed from the classrooms were taken. Impressions of the sceneries obtained were assessed by the SD method in psychological estimations to determine the relationship between psychological quantities and the shape of the openings. The results indicate that differences in various factors, such as the location of schools, the shape of the openings, and the range of view, significantly affect the impression of the scenery from the classroom.
Design competitions are introduced into many building types for selecting ideas and plans to realize good quality of these facilities. However, it is seldom evaluated strictly on actual conditions after the competition or the prize. This paper aims to review the competition process for Iwamizawa compound station building with the prize of AIJ 2010, and analyze spatial characteristics based on the actual conditions of using the complex building. Many activities are observed same as expected cases in the competition. On the other hand, the main hall where is important space in the design concept makes some conflicts on persons' usage because of occupations by particular types of utilization.
This research takes as it subjects all patients in a hospital being studied. It seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the psychiatric patients' tendencies in selecting space and to how they relate to others through their use of shared space and their observed behaviors. Findings are as follows; 1.The patients' selection of space were affected by “intrinsic elements” such as the type of patients they were and the number of days of their hospital stay, in addition to “extrinsic elements” such as the type of hospital room, the space's continuity with staff stations, and the arrangement of the space. 2.Tendencies in behaviors and relationships with others were frequently influenced by “intrinsic elements.” 3.In private hospital rooms, efforts such as staff support and programs are needed so that patients do not become withdrawn. 4.In the case of a hospital ward with multi-bed rooms, arranging space in shared space so that it becomes space where one can be alone is a major issue. 5.Concerning the application of “space hierarchy” in psychiatric hospitals, designing semi-private areas using freer forms without being restricted to clusters will be a challenge going forward. Also, the special stuff support and programs like nursing home with “space hierarchy” for elderly people should be provided.
The previous study clarified the actual condition of reciprocal complementary division of roles between welfare facilities and reciprocal supporting places for the elderly. This paper clarifies the changes in the local living support environment brought about by the ageing of previous objective persons, and proposes an enhanced local living support model. A hearing survey and on-site observations were held to record behaviors and support provided for three people. Conclusions are as follows: Environmental transition such as institutionalization and shift of facilities were observed. According to this transition, decrease of the role of complementary supporting places and increase in formal caring places were seen. There are two types of elements that indicate a turning point in respective environmental transitions; private elements such as hospitalization, and environmental elements such as limitation of self-help caregivers and local reciprocal caregivers. Therefore, the support from formal caregivers such as care managers is indispensable for promoting effective use of independent and spontaneous local complementary support. From this, coping well at a turning point for such a transition would be available. The following four factors that enable the elderly to live in their own homes are suggested; 1. Various types of complementary support 2. Formation of inhabitants' gathering spaces and their development into complementary support places 3. Coordination of support networks for the elderly 4. Location of an urban area within a walking distance
This paper analyzes psychological effects of pictures of indoor greenery in a simulated office space. Indoor greenery is expected to mitigate stress of occupants in an office space mainly due to the visual effect. Inquiry sheets are composed of pictures of a simulated office room with greenery and some questions asking their impressions. 17 types of pictures are prepared for the inquiries. Greenery volumes are modified in 16 different types, including the control condition without a plant. As a result, the most favorite picture is elected when the greenery volume is in the middle ratio for the dynamic visual field among 17 types of pictures.
This study aims to clarify key points to maintain profitability and to increase possibility of community-led projects in villages through the actual condition survey about community-owned shops in Oxfordshire, UK. The major findings are as follows. 1. Community-owned shops aims to provide various public benefits for the villages, such as community centre, social centre, local business support and eco-friendly idea. 2. Intermediate support organizations should give communities comprehensive support and advice, in a close cooperation and coordination with other organizations, to increase possibility. 3. Management system by local residents should be highly organized and divide professional work to maintain profitability.
Through the analysis of inhabitants' environmental evaluation and improving direction based on the questionnaire survey and field investigation as well as interview survey, the study is aimed to clarify the way of environmental improvement of inner-city villages in Guangzhou city of China. Conclusions can be given as follows: 1) Environmental improvement in residential area should be undertaken on the historical and cultural contexts, as well as on the geographic and spatial characteristics. 2) The harmonious community environment should be structured to improve the intercommunication between the local inhabitants and immigrants.
In recent years, residential areas in local city are facing many problems; rapidly increasing number of elderly people, regional gaps of social service and shrinking social capital. For solving problems, these areas urgently need to consider for keeping livelihood, creating a safe and secure social for elderly people. The purpose of this study is constructing the evaluation methodology of present environmental condition in residential area. And the methodology will be able to judge the future situation whether the region will be habitable. We analyze the characteristics of the local, Utsunomiya city in Tochigi. And to use GIS and to calculate the physical environments clarified the situation of local areas quantitatively. As the results, the center of the city has an adequate amount of facilities within walking distance. On the other hand, living in the suburbs is difficult to walk. The study confirms the efficacy of an overall evaluation of living environment.
This paper attempts to reveal the transition process of urban design from walled city to planned modern city by analyzing comparatively the two consecutive expansion plans of Valencia in the second half of 19th century. The first plan of 1858 already shows some precedents to introduce geometric urban pattern but still it was planned to enlarge walled area. The second plan of 1884 was dominated by the generalized homogeneous grid pattern with the expectation to continue further expansion. While the former of 1858 was planned as a continuation of existent walled city following and respecting its morphological order, the latter of 1884 shows a clear intention to introduce a new order and was designed as a urban new frontier.
This paper studies on influences by setback regulation and height control to building activities through simulating using building form models which satisfy relating regulations in a case of residential zoning area. As result of the study it is clarified that the combination of building form and site figure which could satisfy most easily the setback regulations is oblong in the depth direction and their layout possible range becomes smaller according to the bigger designated floor area ratio (FAR) because its building coverage ratio also becomes bigger. Height control 12m in area of 200% FAR and 15m in area of 300% FAR are easily satisfied and these height control would be effective to realize better landscape using with the setback regulation.
This study focuses on property conservation of the National Trust from the viewpoint of the cooperation with local community. The purpose of this study is to reveal local community's participation for property conservation of National Trust in London under its last manifest, “Going Local”. In conclusion, 1) The National Trust described in the “Going Local” that it needs local community participate property conservation. From the Case study at 9 properties in London city, 2) local people participates property conservation as volunteer and they cooperates the protection and utilization of the properties with the National Trust's stuff. 3) some properties are used in local community use -events, workshops, conference, art convention, etc. - on the cooperation with National Trust, utlilizing each unique properties characters. It is considered that the local community has an important role to property conservation at the National Trust.
Malang is a city with a strong heritage of Dutch buildings. The Kayutangan Street corridor is a commercial building streetscape that is one of the prides of Malang city. Through development that respects the historic environment, it is possible to create a streetscape of commercial buildings that contributes to the visual corridor. Recently, however, the uncontrolled development of new commercial buildings has brought about major changes in the city streetscape. Weak building-control regulations for conservation areas cause degradation in urban streetscape quality. This paper aims to investigate the growth characteristics of the existing streetscape of commercial buildings in Malang city by comparing case studies of buildings in the conservation area streetscape with the new streetscape corridor. A field survey method is combined with a people preference method to compare building owners' judgment regarding the streetscape characteristics of commercial buildings. The results of both approaches will be categorized and compared based on visual characteristics. This paper also clarifies the opinions of building owners regarding the quality of streetscape visuals and investigates the role building owners play in the formation and alteration of the commercial streetscape.
Studies on urban networks often focus only on street systems, such as streets as links and junctions as nodes. This paper proposes the evaluation model for "Building-nodes", to examine how they contribute to the whole urban network. By the method of discrete system simulation, which is often used for evaluation of TCP/IP protocol studies, the author introduce the approach to treat urban network as the queueing network where "end-node congestion controls" are possible, to change the service time rate or numbers of service of the building. The result of simulation on Ginza shows the potentials of queueing network approach, and the advantage of decentralized intervention on urban network.
The result of the study is helpful in the future of the plasterer. The content of the plasterer construction of the Edo Period is considered. It makes comparative study of the Meiji era period and the plasterer finish of the present age. The plasterer term of the Meiji era period is converted. The plasterer finish constructed at the Meiji term can be contributed to the repair and restoration carried out now at practical use.
With the help of old documents and records, I investigated the houses where shogunal inspectors and their attendants rested and stayed in Echizen in the Tenmei period. The houses were the private ones in agricultural districts. The inspectors and their attendants organized three parties of five to seven members. The houses attached conditions to the first room with alcove and ceiling, the second room and another room. They were provided with the first room with toilet and bath, the second room with toilet and bath. Toilet and bath were made temporary and the wall,shoji,fusuma were repaired. Most of the farmhouses of upper class in 1787(Tenmei 7) had the first room with alcove and the second room. One third of the farmhouses had upper toilet and upper bath.
Jingu Choko-kan in Ise City is a historical museum, while JIngu Nogyo-kan is a museum that contains the agriculture-related materials. These museum were put in place together at Kuratayama by the Shin'en Board (Shin'en-kai), designed by Tokuma Katayama who was one of leading architects in Meiji Era. This research is on the plan and construction processes of these two museums, by means of analyses of historical documents and drawings investigated on site and in the Jingu Archives. Jingu Choko-kan had been planned from the outset of the Shin'en Board itself, but it took a long time for the actual construction because its cost was estimated too much. This study clarified Jingu Choko-kan had some plans in the process, and a feat that Tokuma Katayama was actually responsible for the design of Jingu Nogyo-kan became definite by the discovery of drawings with ‘Tokuma’ stamps. Moreover, it also became evident his efforts were especially put on the structural metal members and the shape of its central hall.
Through the research of “Tong Zhi Tiao Ge”, this paper clarifies the structure of the laws and ordinances relevant to the official building and repair in Yuan dynasty. The results are as follow: 1. With the format of TiaoGe(条格) had changed from the Ling(令) to Chi(勅), the influence of “Ying Shan Ling ”(営繕令) over “Tong Zhi Tiao Ge”(通制条格) was became disappear during the late Yuan dynasty. 2. “Tong Zhi Tiao Ge”, aims at supervising the official building and repair, has mainly the same contexts as “Ying Shan Ling” in Song dynasty, except the lack of legal code for city wall and architectural style. Furthermore, the ordinances of official residence's repair are more important than building regulation in Yuan dynasty. 3. The system of inspection, judgment and supply upon the official building and repair would have founded in Yuan dynasty.
This paper studies Mr.Ryu's retirement, who was a householder of a traditional house, “UNJORU” in the period of the Joseon Dynasty. Regarding the past studies for retirement, although there are many studies which focused on retirement during the mid-Joseon Dynasty the 16th and 17th centuries, there are very few studies which focused on that in the later period of the Joseon Dynasty. Based on the above, this study focused on the retirement in the period from the late Joseon Dynasty to the Japanese occupation period (1851-1936). In this paper, it is clarified that 1) Mr.Ryu was forced to retire under a negative social condition of the period, and that 2) his retirement was one of the ways of protecting himself from the social condition and in addition, discussed 3) how the retirement changed his life in the process.
The scaenae frons of the Roman Theater at Messene, which was built in the Flavian dynasty, was not a two storied but a three storied building in the Lotus-acanthus and Corinthian style on the 1st story, and the Lotus-acanthus on the 2nd and the 3rd stories. The Ionic capital probably did not belong to the scene building but to the porticus on the upper cavea. According to the new reconstruction, the height ratio of the 1st story to the 2nd story is ca. 3:2, which is approximately same to the ratio of Vitruvian design.
At the conference of the German Society for Housing Reform in 1927, Luebbert showed the six housing development models including two- to five- story dwellings and emphasized the economical advantages of a two-story dwelling model on the basis of the cost analysis results. The purpose of this paper is to examine the arguments of his opinion. In one of his opinion, the low-rise dwellings didn't require the high standard of the structural strength and the sound insulation. This paper points out that his opinion derived from his arbitrary assumption that the two-story dwelling model had neither the basement nor the attic.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the gap in outlooks on Japanese architecture between Japan and The United States in 1950's, through an exhibition "The Architecture of Japan" in the Museum of Modern Art, New York. This study focuses on the museum's method of preparation for materials and publication of the exhibition. Through this study, it becomes clear: 1. There was a gap in views on Japanese architecture between those two countries. 2. MoMA aimed to introduce old Japanese architecture. 3. MoMA Tokyo intended to propose modern Japanese architecture.