Recently, there has been a great demand for day nurseries in Japan. The purpose of this study is to consider whether it is relevant to use the floor space of eating, napping and playing per person. We observed zero-year-old-children in detail during their stay in their nursery rooms. We also measured eating, napping and playing spaces of nursery rooms. 5 nurseries fulfilling the following criteria were selected; eat and nap in the same room, 6-12 children for each class, 3.0 m2-5.0 m2 per person in a room. As a result, we found that eating and napping space is 1.02-2.42 m2 and 0.91-1.83 m2 per person, respectively. Therefore, we figured that the necessary space of eating was 1.68 m2 per person and of napping was 1.23 m2 per person, respectively(4.11 m2 per person in total) in order to make comfortable nursery room. In case the development levels of children who compose a class differ widely, it is impaired for them to crawl freely and safely.
Architectural design means to not only structural formation but also consideration about every aspect. Architect constructs the best architectural design by architectural inspections which are based on a lot of knowledge, experience social, circumstances, and so on. However, if each architect designs architecture in the same site and requirement, they make design different. That's to say, factors to design architecture are not only external requirement but also internal sense, and each people has different internal sense. This research is about investigation of architectural design process and architect's thought, we examine them based on analysis of guidelines for architectural design competition and presented work. Then we aim to find relationship between architect's planning idea development and design suggestion.
The aim of this study is to clarify characteristics of facade design in refurbished traditional Japanese timber houses, focusing on roof shape and exterior elements after refurbishing. Firstly, roof shape is analyzed according to frame construction system, surface materials, the relationship to outer structure and skylight. Secondly, analyzing arrangement of window and exterior design as "exterior element", 3 types of composition are pointed out. In conclusion, 10 types of facade design are pointed out, and their characteristics are clarified.
To clarify the changing process of building parts in conventional wooden houses built by small builders recently, this study use the data of size and materials of building parts yearly and analyze how each small builder changes its building method. This paper focuses on floor and foundation parts over 20 years used by 5 small builders and shows each part's change. In the changing process, small builders often make gradual introduction of new building method. For example, small builders often apply new building method only to limited houses or parts and then, they extend the applied houses or parts.
The traditional community house named “Guol” is a unique architecture of Cotu minorities living upland area of central Vietnam. One community house in Hong Ha commune, Thua Thien Hue province was built in totally traditional method in 2007 and it is taken as a case study in this paper. This study focuses on their indigenous knowledge of design and construction. The field research was conducted during the construction to obtain the information related to structure, form, technique, process, and materials. Moreover, the local elders were interviewed to understand their design methodology.
Ryo-taro Kurotani was a better theorist of city planning in the era before World War II and this paper clarifies Kurotani's thought of city planning from his writings and practice as a mayor of Tsuruoka City. Kurotani had admired Shunji Miyao for about 40 years from 1901 and they had coincided with a thought that there was needed Confucianism for administration. Because Kurotani's ideal society was gemeinschaft by Confucianism, his thought about city planning was depended on Confucianism. According to his thought, the purpose of city planning was intensification of public happiness and he relentlessly denounced city planning with individualism and commercialism. Because his values from Confucianism coincided with British welfarism, he understood British city planning exactly and agreed with Raymond Unwin.
Open-air-sculpture is one of the elements which constitute an urban landscape. However, when sculpture is installed, neither the index by which they are evaluated, nor the standard to install exists. We think it important to clarify relation between sculpture, urban space, and an observer from a visual point of a landscape. The purpose of this research is to clarify the technique of installing sculpture in urban space from the visual relation of a landscape. The conclusion is as follows; 1. The difference in the process of a project of installing sculpture affects the feature of a landscape. 2. About the urban space in which sculpture is installed, the subject with which a sculptural producer intention and the concept of an urban design disagree occurs. 3. When the purpose of a project is community design, a sense of unity and originality are produced, and when it is landscaping, making a excursion and stopping at view point are produced in urban space.
This Research aims to propose the method to protect the Yama-ate townscape through clarifying the structure of Yama-ate townscape. Idea of “Keirou” is applied in the investigation in order to earn the control standard over building layout and form. Three former castle towns in northeastern region of Japan were selected to categorize the “Yama-ate Keirou” by their transition of Yama-ate townscape. With further understanding of local features of yama-ate townscape, townscape control guideline was settled through the citizen participation in one of the towns, Tsuruoka. As a result of the research, followings became clear. 1) Yama-ate Keirou could be categorized into a) crossing type, b) swaying type, c)yo-yo type, and in-out type. 2) In Turuoka city area, features of yama-ate townscape earned through east-west and north-south movement became clear as well as entirety image of yama-ate townscape experience in the city as combination of plural yama-ate keirou. 3) Process of establishment of landscape control code based on “keirou” yama-ate townscape control method were clarified. As a result, possibility of yam-ate townscape protection with “keirou” in its base became clear in the town with close relations between the surrounding natural environments.
Complex transportation networks abstracted as graphs can be effectively analyzed by random walk algorithm. This paper proposes a brief introduction to the principles and benefits of the related accessibility measures and develops an alternative and computational agent model that can help us to simulate random walk process in transportation networks for the measure of accessibility. We have unified many concepts into one framework and studied in details the structural properties of spatial graphs. By modeling and analyzing movement features, this paper investigates the moving objects behavior and calculates the SpaceRank of each open place.
This study focuses on the Edo period's water transportation facilities called Okura-tokoro owned and operated by a domain. The purpose of this research is to explicate the spatial structure and its functional meanings of the Shiokawa Okura-tokoro that was the main Okura-tokoro in the Aizu domain. The analysis shows that Shiokawa Okura-tokoro consists of two kinds of okura-tokoro, partially common and partially different in the aspect of spatial structures. A further discussion is made on its meaning also.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between the spread of pan tiles “sangawara and hongawara” roofing and the decrease of Udatsu (high walls on the both side of gable roof) on town house in Kyoto. As the result of that, resent observation about “rakuchu-rakugaizu” folding screens have thrown light upon that pan tiles were too much heavy for Udatsu, so that Udatsu had decreased in 17th century, and 18th century again.
In succession to the previous article, this paper aims to clarify the transformation of the lifestyle for Shogun-family in Ohoku Goten-muki at utilizing its space, by taking notice regarding the planning idea of the toilet during Kyoho-Manen eras. As a result, after Koka era, the toilets for Shogun and Shogun-family gradually became installed on a meeting space or living space as well as increasing of its total number. These phenomena of the transformation are presumed to indicate that the “family” space where Shogun lived with his family became extended to a considerable extent within the quarters from Kyoho- to Koka-era.
The principal tower of Nagoya Castle was repaired on a large scale from 1752 to 1755. Based on historical materials regarding this repair, this paper evaluates and analyzes the repair of all sections except the erection of the principle tower and the repair of the attached buildings in the castle that were brought about by repairing the principle tower. In the principle tower the dismantled lumber was repaired and reassembled and the materials for the roof were changed from clay to copper. Repainting the walls and building new windows and repairing the windows were completed. This paper discusses the concrete ways in which these works were accomplished.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the original plan and its expansion process of Prasat Thom at Koh Ker. Firstly, we examine the measured dimension of this temple and extract its planning methods, without the pyramid-temple called Prang, based on the previous results of dimensional analysis of Prasat Pram. This analysis also makes us possible to estimate the original plan of this temple. Actually, Prasat Thom including the Prang presents a complex plan because of its several expansions. Through this study, we clarify the several stages of expansion process in each part of the temple.
This paper analyzes the epigraph of “A TESTAMENT” by F.L. Wright on following 3 aspects. 1. Wright finds out the term of the ‘poetic principle’ involved in the creation as the poetic matter between ‘the seed’ and ‘the flowers’, and discovers ‘organic architecture’ as the image of the exuberance in the ‘poetic principle’. 2. There is the thoughtful system of the ‘poetic principle’ between the ‘growth’ of the epigraph and the ‘Growth’ of the conclusion in this book, and the system derives the structural consistency linked to the whole. 3. At last Wright shows in this book that the origin of organic architecture is the eternal law of change: Growth as inner being.
Victor Steinbrueck (1911-1985), a regional-modern architect in Seattle, was the leader of the historic preservation movement since the 1960s. He also proposed a vision of Seattle with the particularities shown as below. His focus was the characteristics and livability of neighboehoods and his vision has been mainly influential to the civic activists who resist against the orthodoxy that would make the city standardized. 1.The neighborhood core should be village-like, i.e. pedestrian-oriented and mixed use with low or middle-rise buildings, narrow streets, and public spaces. 2. Preservation of the historic districts was a measure to preserve and improve the neighborhood commercial cores. 3. Independence and autonomy of the old neighborhoods in Seattle should be enhanced by empowering the community.
This paper focuses upon town planning of the eastern extension district of Amsterdam in late-16th century, which is composed of straight line canals, contrasted to distorted canals of the Middle Ages. We have investigated the historical birds eye's views and town planning plans, and reconstructed precise plans of this district at that time. There can be found the idea of grid plan, but existing polder was inherited partially and it did not become the consistent rational plan. Also the idea of urban space with riverbank was established, which is connected by the network of waterways and streets. We consider that it is one step of the formation process found on the urban design technique of Early Modern Times in Low Countries.
This paper aims at illustrating the process and main outcomes of the elaboration of the Operational Guidelines of the 2nd Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict that took place at UNESCO during the period from 2006 to 2009. The study places a particular focus on new measures put in place by the Operational Guidelines relating to the improvements brought about by the 2nd Protocol.
An approach of the technique to evaluate the impression of the three-dimensional space and proof of the effectiveness are performed from the two-dimensional (2D) map-data. The binary format-image of the building and the blank space led spatial frequency (Gray value) with an image from the map-data of six areas, and furthermore, by performing the Fourier transform for spatial frequency (Gray value), the characteristics are analyzed. The break-down into patterns by the cluster analysis has been run with the extractions of the Gray Value, which appears as a result of the analysis, and the features in every area. This result also proves that the resultant corresponds with the resultant of the impression evaluation of the three-dimensional space that used a “walk-through” cartoon film (or animation).
In this paper I'd like to try to answer the above critical paper, A summery of this paper is given below. •Construction systems of townhouses in Settu and Tanba region have a close relationship to those of farmhouses in this area. •From this point I could say that these townhouses were built by using same method of construction of farmhouses in this area.
It is truly regrettable that how change, limit or redefine the concept of "SETTANGATA MACHIYA" is not written in Mr. Oba's discussion. In the other important points, there is no difference for the fact recognition. The above is required, it is future tasks how to locate the Kyoto type town house in the history of the city and the house.