This paper is a study of the results of vibration on infrastructure. The authors got the results from measured data on vibration characteristics, it has been clarified that the main factor to determine the Eigen value of the small scale structure is the vibration level on ground motion, natural frequency of structure, and total length of ALC panels. Here, the authors have theoretically described the behavior of these vibrations, and have created an equation. Also, the equation to obtain the Engen value of the small scale and low height of steel structures has been calculated. Finally, some method to avoid these vibration problems have been presented and created an equation an prevent problems.
The dynamic evaluation method of visibility can be simplified by introducing the effective luminance concept. The method is based on the two kind of study that are on the visual sensitivity at transient adaptation and on the effective luminance ratio of visual target. To clarify the sensitivity at transient adaptation to make use of the lighting planning, experimants using uniform field were conducted and found followings : (1) The recovery time of sensitivity is determined only by the ratio between pre-adaptation luminance and field luminance, and the relation between the recovery time and the luminance ratio on a full-logarithmic scale is presented by a linear equation. (2) The luminance difference threshold at early stage of adaptation is determined by pre-adaptation luminance, and any changes of field luminance that are under than the adaptation luminance at the stage have no effect on the transient stage of adaptation.
To estimate the thermal and moisture property of the snowpack and the underground, field measurements were performed at SAPPORO and NAGAOKA during 1992 - 1993. The temperature at the earth surface never went down below the freezing point of the freewater when the snow covered the ground. It is shown that the annual average values of temperature is almost unique in the ground, and 1. 5℃ heigher than that of the outdoor air at SAPPORO. There was the liquid water in the snowpack which was colder than 0℃ due to the decrease of freezing point in porous media by the capillary pressure.
The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of constructs to streetscape evaluation. At first, we tried to find the correlations between constructs and streetscape rating by correlation coefficient or multi-regression equation technique, using the scores on semantic differential scales. Sometimes we found very slight correlation. This means that the first appproach failed to measure the contribution. Considering the cause of .this failure, we made two modifications to gain more valid results : 1. because the same construct may or may not be contributing to the rating of a streetscape, its scores should be used only when it is proved to be contributing, and 2. because there are opposite feelings towards the same construct, scores of such a construct should be divided and counted as positive and negative contributions to streetscape value.Modified calculation of the contribution of constructs from the experiment data that take the above two points into account has proved successful.
About 117 government office buildings in the Tokyo metropolitan, we have been surveyed to investgate 1) the important degree of the building equipment function in case of emergency, 2) the ratio of essential function in case of emergency comparative to normal function, 3) the hours for which the facilities can be operated normally and 4) the desirable hours for which activities should be kept in the emergency. Based on the differences of the characteristics of districts and buildings respectively, the buildings are classified into 3 groups, Ta group (government office buildings which have superior fuction for emergency activity), Tb group (normal government office buildings which are located in an area that the sum of the population is over 200,000 and below 700,000 during the day and night), Tc group (normal government office buildings which are located in an area that the sum of the population is below 200,000 during the day and night). The result of this study can be concluded, 1) Electricity, communication and water supply function is more important function on buiIding service, 2) The hours that the facilities can be operated normally and the desirable hours for which emergency activities can be continued is 64 hours,444 hours for Ta group, 36 hours, 109 hours for Tb group and 25 hours, 117 hours for Tc group respectively. The gap between these two hours means the present facilities are not enough for the emergency. 3) A supply pssibility of the electric and water supply function, which is very important in the case of emergency, is also examined with the present equipments.
We made this study in order to get useful map to promote district cogeneration in Tokyo 23 Wards. At first, we proposed the method how to express the character of districts' heat and power demand that causes energy conservativity of cogeneration systems. We applied this method in Tokyo 23 Wards District Heating and Cooling Promotion Area and classified districts into 5 categories. We calculated the energy conservation ratio of each category. By using this result, we made a mesh map of Tokyo 23 Wards that shows the energy conservativity of cogeneration systems and made future view of district cogeneration introduction in Tokyo.
This part is to choose characteristics of roomcompositions.and floorplans of public space in relation to trends in Floor-vs. Chair-Seating Styles. There are two dimentions of roomcomposition between "the omitted D or L-space types" and "the pluralised D and L-space types" in western room. The former belongs to the floor seating trends, the later belongs to chair seating trends. The most populer roomcomposition is "DL + one Japanese room". In recet years some different floorpans from LDK-plan appears because of reterning back from chair- to floor-seating styles.
One problem of the architectural planning of Japanese modern houses is that the separating private zoon from the public may not fit the dwelling styles of ordinary families, who still keep the group-oriented traditional way of living. To make this problem clear, the research method of personalization was developed. And it reveals that most families dwell in the mother-dominant style, which has replaced fatherdominant feudal style. Both styles are defferent from the individual-oriented, and it may cause the conflict between the architectural planning and the dwelling style.
In recent years the structure of demand on graves is getting to be diversified. Considering a suitable planning of graves, it is necessary to discuss the characteristics of demand. In this paper we attempt to get the basic factors of demand on graves by using the theory of quantification II. The data analyzed here are employed from the surveys made by the prefectural government of Kanagawa. As the results, it is shown that the demand of graves greatly depends on their family lines whether they are lineal or collateral. The locality and some other indices reflecting their household are also important factors to be considered in the process of planning.
How many graves are necessary in the near future? This is one of the basic concerns in the process of city planning; hence cemeteries are the important public facilities. In the past several years, many surveys on graves have been made in order to estimate the demand of graves. However, it is very difficult to get the homogeneous samples from the population by questionnaires. This is because the interests in graves are varied according to their family- or dwelling-types. In this paper we propose a method to reduce this difficulty and estimate the spatial distribution of demand on graves by using urban lattice data. The locality and some other findings are shown in a case study on Kanagawa Prefecture.
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate spatio-temporal changes of retail facilities in terms of total floor space and total number of shops in Ibaraki Prefecture as a case. Firstly, we analyze changes in geographic distribution of retail facilities over time (1970-91) by estimating a series of cross-sectional location models. However, ordinary cross-sectional models explain only interregional differences at a certain year and cannot capture the dynamics of temporal developments in retail facilities. We therefore formulate a location trend model using panel data over the same period. This panel model can evaluate both inter-regional differences and intra-regional changes over time.
There are many combinations of details in external walls. But they ought to be classified into limited combinations by qualitative analysis in details of external walls which are used in usual. The aim of this study is suggestion of all types of layerd compositior^ of external walls, according to systematic classiication, not only of actual types of combination, but of probable types in layerd composition of external walls systematicaly. In this study, it turned out that layerd composition of external walls can be classified to only a small number of types.
In this paper, the author defined the actual condition on Japanese Engineering Standard, from the point of view that a betterment of construction technics are accomplished not only by an evolution of technics, but also popularization of them. The object of this research are Japanese Engineering Standard Committee which decided standards and activities of committees in Architectural Institute of Japan. The effect of research are as follows ; the organization of the committee had become complicated by the rapid changing society and one committee was established to decide comprehensive architectural standards, and A. I. J. had some preliminary researchs on standards.
The purpose of this study is to analyze ways of life of the young and old in newly established extended families living in the same house in local cities. The following findings have been obtained from a field survey conducted in Kumamoto city and its four neighboring cities. 1)The main process of establishing extended families consists in the case which the young couple move in the house where their parents live. 2)Living spaces in the house where newly established extended families are devided into space for family, space for young couple, and space for the old. 3)There are two strong needs on this lifestyle, a) The young couple wish to have separate rooms from the old couple, b) The young couple wish to have a bedroom which is separate from the family room in the house. If there are enough rooms, the young and old can have separate rooms. If there are no enough rooms, the old tend to use the family room as their bedroom.
By analysing the uses of Lonsan-temple's precinct in Taipei, this research attempts to discover the factors involved in generating an affordable urban public place for being. Through observation of the temple and survey of the users, we believe that the signifigance of this temple as an sffordable place for being is supported by the fact that there are many kinds of activity-types occurring throughout each day. Furthermore, the temple is serving as an important place for communication and assimilation of public information related to politics, markets and other related contents occuring in city-life. These features (proximity, flexibility and locus of information) are the basic reasons of which this open space serves as an affordable place for being to users. By means of the sequential uses of the other places located in Lonsantemple's district, it is still impressed us that Lonsan-temple serves as a referent head-quarter of the located district.
To investigate how viewer's vision about the facade of high-rise buildings might vary with the distance between the two a number of individuals was separatedly asked to describe their various visions about six buildings with distinct style under the desired recognizable elements. After analyzing the collecting data, we propose that : (1) There are actually two stages when one looks a building : Perceptive Stage and Cognizable Stage. (2) Such kind of variations is at least based on 12 recognizable elements. (3) "Landscape" "Facade" and "Detail" could be 3 basic "viewcycles". (4) The differences in the composition of external wall caused distinct in visual senses. (5) The similar results were obtained from the investigation by watching slides rather than by watching the real building.
This is a report of a study on the housing and environmental improvement action by Community Renewal Programme promoted by Ministry of Construction in Japan. In these action areas by this Programme, there are three type areas; 1.redevelopment action areas to be improved for short time, 2.semi-redevelopment action areas whose houses are almost improved by council, and 3.rehabilitation areas whoses houses are mainly improved by owners self-improvement. However in case of rehabilitation action areas, little progress has observed on housing and environmental improvement during long terms. It also looks difficult to improve such areas without any active housing improvement by council. Therefore we proposed that this Programme should have to establish more encouraged planning system,subsidy system and combined land readjustment system for housing and road improvement.
The dispersed family units are related to each other in order to fulfill the original function of family and dwelling. This residential system which consists of several households and houses makes change of meanings and roles of dwelling. Here we have an idea of the network' s residence to be used in actual conditions. Results are summarized as follows. 1) Most of households have some network's residence though they establish themselves. 2) They fulfill their needs of dwelling by connecting of some houses. 3) It makes change of the original function of dwelling, and for example, causes lack and supplementation of dwelling function.
The organization of public constructions and the authorized carpenters in Shonai Ban have been studied. In the organization, the post called Ofushinbugyo was completed at 1640's, which continued to the end of Edo period. The other posts (Ometuke, Oninsokukata, Daikukata, Okairoonokata, etc) were completed from 1670's to 1680's. In place of Ondaikugashira, the post called Daikutoryo was established at that time. The carpenters inaugurated as Daikutoryo were lineal descendants who worked as carpenters in Shonai district before Edo period.
Taking up De L'Orme's theory of the orders in Le Premier Tome de I'Architecture , I try to understand the process of De L'Orme's thinking which leads to new inventions of divines proportions and colonnes franfaises. De L'Orme measured Roman antiquities at site many times over. However he didn't discover rules of measurements or proportions. Nor he knew any perfect theory from Vitruvius. Therefore he asked for divines proportions as perfect norms which are found in Bible. But these weren't systematic rules. Finally, ban esprit, which is cultivated by gazing at antiquities, can properly decide measurements and proportions, and invent new styles of columns, on the basis of wide knowledge of Roman antiquities and rich experience of construction.
In Korean construction field, so many Japanese style words have been used. This paper makes clear this reality, by translation of Korean construction field slang, recorded in the Korean dictionary of architecture. This dictionary records 1,448 slang words. In these slang words, Korean slang words are 13, Korean reading words of the Chinese character are 7, Japanese-Korean compound words are 19, Japanese style words are 1, 385, and unknown slang words are 24 words. These Japanese style words suggest not only these words were used in Korean construction field, but so many Japanese architectual techniques, about in 1,910〜1,945, were remained or fixed in Korea.
The objective of this study is to understand the relation of the resident' s evaluation on "open space", "living environment" and each environmental factors. Investigations by questionnaire method were conducted on the residents of 16 districts. The magnitude of dissatisfaction to the living environment varies to each area and specially dissatisfaction to natural environmental was one of biggest. Our analysis also showed that the larger the open space in the living environment, the dissatisfaction of the residents tend to decrease. And also as the area of water zone is larger, the more positive mental effects from waterfront were obsereved.