The present paper discusses on the better heating method at the changingroom for aged when they take a bath in winter. The main results are as follows: 1.The significant difference was observed on the psychological responses between the heating condition and non-heating one before bathing. They showed the higher discomfort at the non-heating than the heating conditions. 2.The blood pressure rose less at the warm air blowing condition compared with other two conditions before bathing. It was more effective for the older subjects. 3.They immersed their bodies into the hot bathtab till their skin temperatures rose higher levels at non-heating condition compared to the heating conditions.
The relationship between ventilation/cooling capability and channel length, width and interval of water-permeable perforated bricks, which form the Passive Cooling Wall as an outdoor/semi-outdoor evaporative cooling method, was investigated using the theory of pressure loss and heat transfer in ducts. In addition, additive materials to increase water permeability of the brick under general baking temperatures was investigated. Based on the analyses, two types of bricks were made which are characterized by ventilation and cooling capability, respectively. These capabilities were measured and the appropriateness of the calculation was confirmed.
In this paper, meteorological data was gathered and then a series of climate maps were developed in order to investigate the extend of natural energy utilization. Our study focused on the Kyushu region. Meteorological data of 137 different locations, that conforms to standard weather data, was estimated by using SDP and AMeDAS data observed in 1992. Furthermore, based on the meteorological data, the PMV distributions were investigated and natural energy maps developed which clearly indicate the natural energy potential of the Kyushu.
The rising stream around a human body due to metabolic heat can carry contaminants from the floor level to the human breathing region. Thus, the quality of the breathing air greatly depends on the concentration distribution in the lower part of the room and the characteristics of the local air motion around the body. In this paper, a modeled human body (Computational Thermal Manikin) is placed in a room, which is air-conditioned with a displacement ventilation system. Flow and temperature fields around the manikin are analyzed by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) using a low-Reynolds-number type k-ε model. Based on the predicted flow field, the age of supply air and the residual life time of air in the room are also numerically calculated. Three cases on prediction of the contaminant concentration distribution are carried out under different positions of contaminant generation. The quality of the breathing air is assessed, using the newly defined index, indicating the effective entrainment ratio of the lower region air to the breathing air. The CFD analysis results agree well with previous experimental data.
The purpose of this paper is to survey volatile organic compounds(VOC) and their emissions from building materials in residence. As a basic survey of VOC in residences, field measurements were carried out in 11 residences that were constructed 3-35 years ago. The effect of emissions from building materials on indoor was analyzed through the measurement in newly constructed residence. The results are as follows, 1) Total volatile organic compounds(TVOC) concentration in residences was ranged 95-590μg/m^3, 1.1-3 times as large as those of outdoor. 2) Alkans, aromatics, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids were detected in residences. Compounds that were mainly detected in indoor were heptane, dodecane, toluene, ethyltoluene, dichlorobenzene. β-pinene and nonanal. 3) Nonane, decane, undecane, toluene, xylene and dichlorobenzene were emitted from flooring, ceiling and wall materials that were installed in model room. And it is found that emissions from building materials contributes significantly to indoor VOC concentration.
To simulate mixing energy loss in an air-conditioned office room, it is necessary to use mathematical model considering room air temperature distribution. In this paper, we suggest new mathematical model 'six blocks model' for air-conditioning load calculation. In this mathematical model, a room is divided into six blocks. It is able to have air movement between blocks and heat distribution of air-conditioner into six blocks. After examination of the heat distribution of air-conditioner into blocks, we investigated the influence of building specification and air-conditioning system on mixing energy loss by simulation.
Related surveys were carried out in summer of 1992 and winter of 1993 on indoor climate, life style and energy consumption in residential buildings in eight city areas. In this paper, heating & cooling pattern and heating & cooling period are described on the basis of questionnaires, and heating & cooling limit temperature is discussed. The main results are as follows ; (1)Regional differences of heating & cooling hours are little for cooling season and much for heating season. (2)Heating & cooling apparatus are used intermittently except Sapporo in winter. (3)Heating limit temperature is about 10℃ except Naha. (4)Cooling limit temperature depends on outdoor temperature.
For correct estimation of the vertical air temperature distribution with the pressurized under floor air-conditioning system for occupied zone during cooling operation, the air discharge angle of the twisted-groove type 200 φ floor-outlet, air leakage through access-floor, and the temperature difference between supply and return, were taken as the most influential factors on the vertical temperature distribution. A special chart is presented to set the control target for those three factors so as to give thermal comfort within the occupied zone. It was clarified that newly devised shutter of the floor outlet for this system would not change the discharge air velocity by manual operation of occupants, and thus the height reached by the discharged air would not vary.
In this paper the authors investigated the fundamental data which were necessary for estimation of the optimum number of the fixtures in a lavatory of the multi-purpose stadium. At a multi-purpose dome-T of Tokyo, the sanitary fixture usage of the pro-baseball and the concert audience was surveyed actually by means of electronic methods. Then the following results were obtained. 1) At the pro-baseball game, the audience mainly used lavatory during the game and usage of the sanitary fixtures was concentrated when the batting of the supporting team had just finished. 2) At the concert, the usage of the sanitary fixtures was long concentrated before the concert, when the waiting line generated outside of the lavatory especially at the female lavatory. 3) Even in the same stadium, the difference of the usage of the sanitary fixtures was observed between the pro-baseball and the concert.
A series of studies has been intended to make the design guide and analytical methods of amenity water facilities for users demands. Present paper is the second report of this. In this paper, the authors have examined to extract human behavior in the selected amenity water facilities by image processing with a personal computer and to trace continuous behavior of human. The method of image processing have been improved compared with that in the previous report. And then, the authors have analyzed the tendency of continuous behavior of human and constructed multiple regression model between human behavior and environmental elements in the amenity water facilities.
Recently, amenity of human being by plants have been called "green amenity". The authors have been making a series of studies on "green amenity". In the present study, physiological and psychological effects of ornamental foliage plants, flowers(roses) and fragrance on human being were analyzed by means of brain waves (ratio of alpha wave to beta wave) and semantic differential technique. The results are as follows. Higher ratio of alpha wave to beta wave was observed in the case of the presence of fragrance. It is considered that presence of fragrance affects physiological aspect of human being. On the other hand, the presence of roses brought about higher score of factor analysis. It is considered that presence of flowers affects psychological aspect of human being.
The object of this study is to analyze the relation between evaluation of traditional green landscapes and personal characters and evaluation of green spaces. The authors carried out the questionnaire survey in Hikawa town of Shimane Prefecture, where is remaining the traditional forests called "Tsuiji Matsu". As a result, it became clear that inhabitants perceived the green landscapes with two dimensions of "pleasantness" and "tradition". We showed that evaluation of "tradition" was mainly influenced by persons who think nature important or not. However, the factors influenced in evaluation of "pleasantness" vary in each landscape.
This study have been carried out to clarify the characteristics of energy consumption of the government office buildings in Tohoku area. To verify the energy consumption from various points of view, heat insulation property, heating and airconditioning equipment have been also investigated. In the research, 280 buildings from the six prefecture of Tohoku area have been investigated, and not only the total energy consumption but also energy consumption for heating, cooling, hot-water supply, and lightings have become clear. Furthermore, energy consumption was analysis from the view point of climate, scale, and the date of construction.
The indoor thermal environment, air quality and occupant behavior in well-insulated and airtight houses in and around Tohoku District have been investigated through questionnaire and field measurements since 1993. It was showed by the authors that the houses provide a comfortable indoor environment and also has a good influence on occupant' health, but there are some problems related to dry feeling. This paper describes i)analysis on relationship between dry feeling and residential factors by a multi-variate analysis method and ii)investigation results of a questionnaire on moisture sensation and the measurement of indoor temperature and humidity, which were performed in 60 houses of Tohoku District of Japan during February of 1996. The well-insulated and airtight houses investigated have central heating and mechanical ventilation system for the entire house. These analysis on the relationship between dry feeling and indoor environment shows that the dry feeling doesn't depend on indoor relative humidity. Namely, the occupants felt dryness in the houses with relative humidities of 40 to 70%. It is suggested that the dry feeling comes from not only relative humidity but also indoor air quality. Its problem should be investigated in future.
Regarding future housing systems, heretofore the achilles' heel of housing planning, the particularities of space-use have to be considered as an influencing factor. Based on a survey of high and low density spontaneous communities, as well as a readjusted district, we were able to make the following analysis of housing types and space-use problems. With respect to the housing elements, the 41 samples of house plan we collected can be divided into 4 courtyard types of house. We analyzed the use of the courtyard which is central to living activities. While the courtyard appears as a simple space, from the mechanisms of its use and the relation between its composite elements and occupants' activities, it is more accurately understood as a complex space consisting of specified areas and hierarchical spaces. But we can also remark some change in its particularities since a mix of non-relatives families are living and must use it together.
In this study, we proposed a tentative method to optimize the welfare service in the home for the elderly by Genetic Algorithms(GA). This method make it possible that completely evaluation of needs of the elderly and supply of suitable services for old person's needs. We made 64 types of the elderly and supposed 3 service needs every 64 types. And we executed the method to the supposition model. As a result, we proved possibility of effectual supply of the welfare service in the home by the method using GA.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the concepts of the browsing area at public libraries and to explain the reason why the newspapers and magazines area has been used as the browsing area in Japan. The results are as follows; In the United States, it was important in 1960's how "the informal reading areas" should be arranged at public libraries, but they were combined into the one called either "the browsing area" or "the popular reading area", because the function of each was not defined clearly. Recently this informal reading area, now called the popular reading area, with a collection chiefly of fictions and furnished with easy chairs, has been planned for people unfamiliar with public libraries. In Japan, public libraries of 1960's, when they were based on the closed stack system, turned the newspapers and magazines area into the informal reading area furnished with easy chairs, which was called "the browsing area". Even when public libraries turned into the ones on the open shelf system, this area has been still called the browsing area.
In order to clarify the changes of the spatial use of Kobe's ward offices as refuge and rescue base for the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster, hearing and field surveys were made for the staffs in headquarters of rescue and volunteer operations in Kobe's ward offices. It is clarified that the complex ward offices combined with public health center and firehouse worked quite well under this disaster. Through this survey and interview many suggestive matters for ward office planning in preparation for disaster were presented.
Authors surveyed and analyzed the effects of new type free-address office on user satisfaction. In the new type free-address office researchers use moving desk. The moving desk could be folded when assigned researcher does not use his or her desk. As the result of analysis we found that although long term occupants highly estimated the office, but short term occupants lowly estimated. This means that new type free-address office meets the purpose of renovation that is efficient use of vacant space for the researcher being in the room. One of the remaining research themes will be how we could find satisfaction of short term occupant in the office.
The rural planninng system in France provides interesting lessons for Japan. In France, the planning system for rural areas is characterized by its strong regulation role of controling land use changes under the general direction given by the master plan and POS. Consideration of agricultural land use in the planning reflects the changing social and economic conditions affecting small cities and rural communes. The local level planning includes design control as well as conservation of cultural heritages, vernaculer architecture and wildlife habitats. Provisions for landscape conservation and environmental impact assessment are now integrated into the planning system. Rural planning also contains measures to encourage efficient use of agricultural land and to help starting young farmers.
In this study we made clear the spatial composition of "Zaigo-machi" in the Tonami Plain by a case study on "Tuzawa." This small town is a typical Zaigo- machi established to accumulate property tax from neighbouring villages in 17th century. We analyzed the town in terms of compositions of the premises, roads and watercourse networks and townscape. We came to understand that the town was divided into two districts, and that the planning of watercourse and road had been a regulating factor bringing those two districts consistency in their townscapes.
This study examines the composition of roads and buildings in Ukiyoe landscape paintings illustrated primarily by the artist HIROSHIGE. By drawing comparisons between Ukiyoe paintings and real townscapes, the following were determined: (1) Buildings appear in the short-range, medium-range and long-range landscape. Tea houses, Japanese-style inns, and dwellings were usually painted in the medium-range landscape. Straight, flat and unpaved roads usually appear in most Ukiyoe paintings. (2) The ratio of road width to building height is 0.7-1.4 which is similar to that which appears in the Ukiyoe paintings. (3) Though the main roads of the post towns in Ukiyoe paintings are depicted as straight, the actual existing roads have a gentle bend to them. Between the super short- and the medium-range landscape of the main street, buildings are usually located at the end of a road creating an eye-stop or termination of vista.
The purpose of this study is to develop a method for evaluating the capability of medical response at a community level in case of an earthquake disaster. In this paper, the concept of a quantitative evaluation is proposed, and models for estimating the number of acceptable patients in hospital is examined on the basis of the original questionnaire survey for 64 hospitals in Kobe, and the interviews for surgeons who are in charge of emergency division in Kobe University Hospital. The models are constructed in two ways: (1) the knowledge-based approach and (2) multiple regression approach. As a result, the fit for dependent variables is very good for the estimation models constructed by both approaches.
The object of this study is to clarify sufferers' views on residential environment planning for disaster prevention by applying the building agreement. From the finding of the survey in the stricken areas by the Hanshin-Awaji great disaster, it was found that in building agreement areas where the damage by earthquake disaster had been big, the building agreement had been placed high evaluation on disaster planning. And, it was further clarified that the sufferers' views on building regulation for disaster prevention have been relevant to environmental conditions of the community before the earthquake disaster.
This paper presents a method of approximate estimates of multiple dwelling house at the outline proposal stage. The approximate estimates are required to be carried out more quickly and more precisely. It proposes the developing method that follows the design information provided gradually in detail, which can define the concrete volume of construction works within reasonable error by using hierarchy neural network. Conclusions are drawn as to the relevance of the application of the model to multiple dwelling house.
This study intends to clarify the change of 2 points in time from estimation of the dwellers' side basing on the questionnaire surveys executed for dwelles of both the same cooperative town and the neighboring common public housing complex for sale over 2 times in 1987 and 1997. At first arranging the change of 2 points in time of activity at the management society, the group of stairs or residential building and the circle, the arranging the change of 2 points in time of both participating realities and estimation of activity in housing complex of men's and women's dwellers over 21 years old, we investigated about the role and points which would fulfill forming community of the method of cooprative town by grasping the present conditions and tendency of cooperative town through comparing the 2 cases. As a result, we clarified the tendency and characteristics of forming community in making dwelling environment by the method of cooperative town.
In this study, I reserch Otai which is a post town of old Nakasendou in the Edo era. I analize the regional characteristics of the house plan and the townscape in the "Shukuezu"; old maps in the middle of the Edo era. As a result, the following things can be said ; relatively small houses were intensively seen both in Kamimachi and Shimomachi while rather big houses were seen in Nakamachi, each town had its own streets view, those small houses had many similarities with neighbor farmhouses in terms of the size and the house plan.
On this study, by picking up town-houses in Osaka-city of modern ages, I drew the personal style and design of modern ages, investigated the characteristics of them. The summary of this study can be given below: ・The Omoteya-zukuri style which was one of characteristics of town-houses in Edo period was succeeded after Meiji period. ・After the middle of Meiji period, Zasiki room was formed in the second floor of town-house, and it tended tobe main room in town-houses. ・Influenced by extensions of streets, three stories town-houses came into existence after Taisyo period. Many of town-houses in modern ages took in western design. Especially facade and shop space of town-houses have remarkable western styles. But the building style of them succeeded the traditional style of old town-houses in Edo period such as the Omoteya-zukuri style.
This study determines theoretical characteristics of two volumes in mainstay books of the Shitennoji School : "Bukeki-syu" of Shoki-shU and "Den-oku-syu" of Shomei. The results are the following. "Bukeki-syu" of Shoki-shu is a memorandum stating the theory of design techniques of Bukeyashiki (the Bushi houses) in Keicho years (about 1608). "Den-oku-syu" of Syomei is a learned book stating comprehensively about the architectural theory of the noble houses in Kan-ei years (about 1624).
Kazue Yakushiji (1884-1965) was born in Okayama prefecture. He was an architect, an army technician and a company executive. He once even gave being a politician a try. Magosaburou Oohara, an influential entrepreneur, recognized Yakushiji's architectural talent and hired him to design various buildings. Yakushiji also designed many other buildings, such as the former head office of Chugoku Bank and many architectures in the Kurashiki Denken District.This study describes his architectonic activities and his great encounters with Keiji Gotou, Shizutarou Urabe, Shouichi Fugiki, and so forth. It also picks up Yakushiji's visit to Europe in 1922 where he met Le Corbusier.
This paper deals with villa Strasser which is one of Adolf Loos's house-alterations in Vienna. This work has been positioned in a germinal stage of Raumplan. The purpose of this paper is to critically study and revaluate the Raumplan-concept on the basis of analyzing this work. Therefore this paper makes clear Raumplan's structure in a process of forming the Raumplan-concept, pointing out the characteristics which are caused by the fragmentization in this work. In a word, the fragmentization in various levels, conflicts between fragmentary parts and the whole and self-negation are indicated as Raumplan's structure.