When we design large scale sports facilities, we consult the architectural and fire-service regulations to secure evacuation safety. But these regulations define only the number, width or amount of evacuation facilities, such as path, exit, stairs, etc. And those regulations usually limit the flexibility of architectural design. For this circumstance, we propose the guidelines for design and management of evacuation crowd showing the process of actual design project of a large-scale stadium which holds 40,000 seats using multi-agent evacuation simulator. For this analysis, we validate fundamental relationship between density and velocity through the comparison with past observations and experiments to acquire the validity of generation of accumulation. We mainly discussed three situations, replicating the process of actual design, and as the results, we clarified that the most of problems are stem from the accumulation of evacuees and its consecution. Therefore we proposed the design method and crowd management policy of not to generate the consecution of accumulations and where to generate / not to generate accumulations. 1. Evacuation from the spectator stands 1) To let evacuee flow out from the spectator stand, it is necessary not only arranging the width and allocation of exits, but also controlling the accumulation of evacuees at the concourse, especially not to generate the consecution of accumulation to the exit from the spectator stands. 2) Evacuation time from upper stand should be shortened to avoid smoke exposure and not to remain high place in high density which will cause fear. 3) On the other hand, lower stand where the pitch is shallow and where is little probability to smoke exposure, the policy to remain evacuees at the stand to avoid merge and accumulation on the evacuation route like stairs and concourse can be possible. 2. Merge and accumulation around stairs High density accumulation on the stairs should be avoided not to cause falling over like dominos. 1) The most desirable policy is to prevent merge around stairs. But the plan or situation which will cause merge, the width of downstream stairs should be large to let evacuees flow to the lower part without generating accumulation. And installing physical guidance like handrails to avoid merge is preferable. 2) Generating accumulation of evacuees at safer place like plain concourse not to generate accumulation on the stairs where pitched and unsteady place. 3. Evacuation to / on the ground 1) Even there are a lot of spaces around the stadium, without letting precedent evacuees move to and stay the place far from the stadium, following evacuees cannot flow out there. Especially if the following evacuees remain on stairs, they will in unstable situation which will cause falling over like dominos. 2) If there are enough space, evacuees can stay safely around the stadium. But if there are not enough space around the stadium, guiding evacuees to keep walking on roads etc. and keeping them away from the stadium also can be reasonable guiding method. This guiding method has two main merit; one is that it is easy to control the direction of the evacuation and it is also easy to keep in low density of 1.0 persons/m2 which stem from free walking. To conduct this policy, all the evacuees are kept walking until all the evacuee finish evacuation from the stadium. This means that the first evacuee arrived at the ground is kept walking about the time of total evacuation time of the stadium.
Responding to multiple simultaneous fires during large earthquakes remains a serious issue. To reduce seismic damage, fires that are expected to spread widely must first be extinguished using a sufficient water source. However, debris from collapsed buildings may block narrow streets, making it difficult for firefighters to arrive smoothly at fire sites. In addition, a lack of water due to water outages at some hydrants may prevent prompt firefighting. In previous studies, we constructed and integrated simulation models which described urban damage (such as the spread of fires and street blockages) and firefighters' activities. The simulation results showed fires with a high risk of spreading could be identified, and if firefighters were immediately dispatched to the sites of these high-risk fires, the number of burned-out buildings was likely to be greatly reduced. On the other hand, we assumed that firefighters would use water sources other than hydrants since some hydrants might not be available due to water outages. In this paper, to consider the availability of hydrants for firefighting after a large earthquake, we first constructed a water outage simulation model on the network of water service pipes, which was estimated based on the street networks. This technique is effective in cases where a large number of water pipes exist under the streets, as found in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Second, we estimated the destroyed pipes based on the characteristics of the pipes and ground surface, where the pipes are located, and earthquake response. Third, we determined the hydrants that would be out of water using a reachability analysis. The water outage simulation results, in the case that a northern Tokyo Bay earthquake were to occur, showed that the water failure rate was likely to be high in the zone far from water purifying plants and the zone where liquefaction damage might occur. It is one of the efforts of this paper to develop a simulation system of water failure on the water service pipes network. Next, we integrated this water outage simulation model into the urban damage simulation model and firefighters' activity model. Finally, we analyzed the effects on the prevention of fire spreading of using hydrants. In the case that the water supply was not cut off to any of the hydrants, the number of burned-out buildings could be reduced by a maximum of about 400 from in the case without hydrants. The number of burned-out buildings was estimated by the fire-spread simulation results from the fires that firefighters failed to extinguish because of late arrival times. When some hydrants were not available due to water outage, the number of burned-out buildings was little increased in some jurisdiction of firefighters. In contrast, if water outage rate is not high, the number of burned-out buildings could be reduced by a maximum of more than 100. When firefighters understood that all hydrants had water outages using the widespread water pressure meter system—which is accessed using the Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) available after large earthquakes—the number of burned-out buildings was reduced in almost every jurisdiction for firefighters. Moreover, in some jurisdictions with low water outage rates, the number of burned-out buildings was likely to be reduced by about 200. In addition, there are about 20, 000 buildings which exist farther than the length of 22 hoses from water sources other than hydrants, and in the length from hydrants by airline distance. These buildings could not be reached by firefighters without hydrants. Thus, it is necessary to consider using hydrants when firefighters can understand the status of hydrants, particularly in areas with few fire cisterns.
Since the policy of Chinese housing institution reform in 1991, the extent of housing market in China increases gradually. In recent years, with the rapid development and growth of housing market in Chinese, repair work for the condominium, especially the common part has been an issue for the property management. In addition, since condominiums is provided and managed by various actors, there are several agents nowadays. The purposes of this study are: (1) To clarify the legal structure about the repair work of condominium in China. (2) To clarify the characteristics of resident participation in repair work promoted by different agents based on the practical cases. (3) To clarify the difference between the legal structure and the practical cases. Finally, we would like to propose some suggestions for improving the resident participation in repair work for condominium in China. Through analyzing the legal structure, since the year of 1983, the related laws about repair work include responsibility of stakeholders, fundraising and construction. The 3 practical cases are managed by 3 different agents including Construction Company (developer), Property Company and Community (社区). These 3 cases have 4 phases in common including: (1) Initiation, (2) Fundraising, (3) Planning, (4) Construction; Resident participation in these 4 phases are different in each case. Our analysis has revealed that:(1) Initiation of the project are mainly proposed by residents, however, the decision is mainly made by agent. (2) The ideal condition of fundraising is to use maintenance fee according to legal system. However, only 1 case that agent assist residents to establish owners' committee in order to use this fund. The others cases apply the government subsidy or use the co-investment from both resident and agent. (3) Planning phase is basically managed and organized by agent. Residents respond their suggestion by questionnaire in the case of condominium managed by government; private agent takes residents' suggestion arbitrarily. (4) Construction process is imperfect compared with legal process and system. The resident participation is only receiving notification passively without timely feedback. In order to promote the resident participation in repair work for condominium in the future, we propose some suggestions for the legal institution reform in China. (1) To raise the awareness of residents about repair work and property right. (2) Meanwhile, in order to increase the use of maintenance fee, simplifying the process of application is sufficient. (3) To educate and guide residents how to make plan with the support of specialist.(4) To improve timely feedback in construction process for resident. Finally, we consider that future study might focus on other point of view in resident participation in repair work of condominium such as the social-economical structure of residents and the case comparison between Japan and China.
This study is focusing on the race structure and the space structure of old Japantown, the role of Japanese American business and Japanese American community in Walnut Grove, Northern California.
There are 2 Japantown and 25 old Japantown in Northern California. 9 old Japantown are concentrated on Sacramento Valley. The old Japantown in Sacramento County are developed at Sacramento, Florin, Walnut Grove and Isleton along Sacramento River. From 1860‘s, Chinese migrant workers, who hired on the reclamation of Sacramento River and the construction of Southern Pacific Railroad, moved to Walnut Grove. Afterwards, Japanese migrant workers moved to work at farm and farm products processing factory from 1890‘s.
The racial segregation existed across Sacramento River at Walnut Grove. The east side of Sacramento River was the Asian residence area where Chinatown and Japantown were located. And the west side of Sacramento River was the White residence area for Italian and German. However, many Chinese had moved to Locke, because Chinatown burned away by fire in 1915 and 1937. Many of Japanese who burned out from Chinatown in 1915 had moved and rebuilt Japantown, so the scale of Japantown was expanded to the Northern part next to Chinatown.
Japantown was divided into "Front Town" and "Back Town" across Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1940, Front Town was accumulated with commercial, business and public facilities. Back Town was accumulated with many detached houses and few public facilities. In 2014, the commercial and business facilities, owned by Japanese American, were closed and many buildings were vacant at Front Town. White and Mexican have been maintaining the vacant buildings and business in recent years. At Back Town, Mexican and Filipino were inflowing, instead of Nisei's aging and Sansei's outflowing, Christian church and Japanese language school were closed and only Buddhist Church were maintaining activity. Japantown, registered with "Walnut Grove Japanese American Historic District" in 1990, were preserved while maintaining the exterior of buildings and the name of tenants.
Japanese American business had targeted on Jananese migrant workers who were hired at farm and farm products processing factory owned by White. In 1940, many kinds of the commercial facilities and the business facilities were provided for the male single migrant workers. Especially, some of roomings and ryokans were juxtaposed with restaurant and cafe to combine board, also with bath and barber. In 2014, because those roomings and ryokans were closed, all buildings owned by Nisei and Sansei are left unoccupied. In buildings sold to other races such as White and Mexican, commercial facilities targeting tourists to the historic district are running.
As Japanese American community, Japanese Association and Kenjin Kai had played the important role for employment and living support, mutual aid and interaction between Japanese. In 1940, Christian church and Buddhist Church were the activity bases of Japanese American community, in addition to Japanese Associtation Offfice. Moreover, Japanese Association and Buddhist Church supported Kawashimo Gakuen to teach Japanese language for Nisei and Sansei. In 2014, the activity bases of Japanese American and Kenjin Kai were lost, Christian churches and Kawashimo Gakuen were closed, and only Buddhist Church have been continuing their activities. While receiving support from nearby Buddhist Churches and Japanese American Citizens League, Buddhist Church regularly hold events of Japanese culture and interactive meetings with Nisei. The role of Japanese American community in recent years is important for supporting the life of aging Nisei.
1 Purpose We have revealed the process of planning of the support-center for the elderly in our previous article. This study is to find how visitors spend time in the support-center and why they visit in order to consider what support-center for the elderly should be. 2 Research Methodology Support-centers are classified into four types according to their supplying services. They are “Day Care Service Center Type”, “Salon and Consultation Center Type”, “Elderly Dwelling House Type” and “Community Center Type”. We investigated support-center K and H of “Day Care Service Center Type” and support-center T and M of “Salon and Consultation Center Type” on a weekday and a weekend from November 10 to December 16, 2012. We described the behavior of visitors and staff after recording their arrival and departure time and interviewed the staff. The descriptive surveys were conducted to record the visitors' and staff's places to stay on the map, their behaviors, their conversations and social interactions every 15minutes. 3 Actual Condition of Support-center Four support-centers are located in each temporary housing estate. The visitors consist of residents of temporary housing, neighbors and children. Support-center K and H supplies day care service on weekday. On weekend, visitors come as they like and enjoy talking and tea. In support-center T and M, tea was always prepared as well. Some events, for example gymnastic exercises for elderly and English conversation for children, were held a few times a week. Almost all the visitors of support-center H and M were elderly while we observed some children and young female visitors in support-center K and T, who were mothers watching over their children playing inside. Some intellectual disabilities and a mentally unstable caused by earthquake sometimes visited support-center K, T and M, so that support-centers seem to play a role of safety nets for them in emergencies. 4 Staying Time and Motive for Visit Most of visitors of support-center M stayed for more than 30 minutes while staying time of other centers are uneven. Visitors staying for more than 30 minutes were attending events, checking own blood pressure or relaxing in a massaging chair. Visitors staying for less than 30 minutes dropped by for small matters like saying hello. 5 Social Interaction Mode Visitors' social interactions are classified into 3 modes which are “visitors and staff”, “only visitors” and “indirect”. In support-center K and H, interaction between visitors and staff often occurred because they have day care service. Support-center T and M do not supply a day care service either, however, the tendency of social interaction mode was opposite. The interaction between visitors and staff always occurred in support-center T while visitors interacted each other and staff only watched over them in support-center M. 6 Conclusion and Discussion The visitors' interaction without staff is more independent than the one with staff in terms of recovery of their community, however other support-centers are not necessarily bad because it is effective that staff change how to interact with visitors depending on the progress of the recovery. Also, enough space for staff is necessary in order to prevent staff from staying in the space for visitors.
Currently, Japanese municipalities under demographic change have struggled the issues about how to reorganize existing public facilities, such as a school, a library, a public housing, and a hospital, with the reduction of total amounts of facilities and the transformation to multi-purpose public hubs. But, since their reorganization process have just started, it is quite difficult to verify their efforts and effects based on the examples by Japanese municipalities.
Then, the authors pick up the public library named as “Biblioteca Salaborsa” (hereinafter, Salaborsa) run by Bologna city, Italy, and aim to study its characteristics, in particular, from the viewpoint of a public space. Salaborsa is highly appreciated by European experts as an good example of “social library” which is a new type of public library emerged recently in Europe to meet citizens' wide demands.
It is located in the city center of Bologna, and is adjacent to the famous plaza of “Piazza Maggiore”. In the beginning of 1990s, the development of Bolognese new public library was started together with the development of city center around “Piazza Maggiore”. This new public library was planned based on the concept of an “uncovered plaza” with the assistances from a lot of stakeholders including the University of Bologna, and was finally opened in 2001 as the advanced public library with the most advanced information technology at that time. Salaborsa benefited Bolognese citizens a lot, but gradually, various types of citizens, such as immigrants, homeless people, elderly people as well as university's students, got to visit and sometimes to request what they needed. It was beyond the general services of public libraries in Bologna to meet their requests, but Salaborsa's librarians decided to implement it in the partnership with relevant departments of the city.
As for Salaborsa's spaces, the existing building standing in the city center has been used with renovation work. The three-story atrium with beautiful glass roof is in the center of the building. But, since it is a masonry construction, the activities in Salaborsa can't be seen from outside, and each floor is divided into relative small spaces by walls and columns. Therefore, it can be said that this building is not best for a contemporary public library which generally needs wide spaces for many book shelves.
The authors conducted the interviews to key persons who were / are in charge of Salaborsa's development and management, and analyzed Salaborsa's characteristics with the published documents, in particular, from the viewpoint of a public space by referring to the definition on the public nature by J.Saito which is consisted of three aspects of “Open”, “Common”, and “Official”. To analyze Salaborsa's characteristics, three aspects of Salaborsa’s space, operation and organization were analyzed with three aspects of public nature. Some important findings differed from that Japanese public facilities are in general likely to pay most attention to the nature of “Official”. But, it can be pointed out that there were some problems which should be solved even in Salaborsa. The lack of public involvement in the process of library development was representative.
As the conclusion of this paper, the followings should be considered to develop a public library as a public space; (1) Place making for social inclusion, (2) Integral planning based on potentialities of existing building as public space, (3) Development connected to urban planning and design policy (4) Trans-sectional administration organization.
In addressing the topic of shibai goya surviving in Japan's Tohoku region, this study has primarily clarified the following points with regard to the community role and Actual situation of these local playhouses. (1) More so than in more highly developed urban areas, significant numbers of shibai goya survive in farming and fishing villages. (2) Shibai goya in Tohoku exhibited similar tendencies as in major cities, including their decline in popularity after coming to be used primarily as film houses with the popularization of cinema. Regional characteristics were also apparent in that this transformation and decline occurred comparatively slowly. Also, surviving shibai goya have generally undergone renovations or changes of ownership and usage in answer to local pressures. In some cases, they have been repurposed for public use as their community role has been reassessed. (3) Surviving shibai goya can be classified into a) theater-type playhouses equipped with large stages, hanamichi (a runway connecting the stage to the rear of the auditorium), revolving stages (mawari butai) and stage rigging (tsurimono kikō); b) multi-purpose-type playhouses lacking in any sort of stage equipment, in which the audience is on the same level as the performance space; and c) other playhouses with small stages that are now mostly used as cinemas. (4) In terms of managing authority, surviving shibai goya can be classified into a) playhouses jointly operated by private firms in partnership with the local municipality; b) playhouses operated by civil society organizations; c) playhouses operated by local municipalities; and d) playhouses operated by private individuals. (5) In terms of business models, playhouses can be classified into a) those providing venue rental in addition to conducting independent business ventures; b) those that do not conduct independent business ventures; and c) those which provide venue rental only. (6) The results of a survey of local residents' attitudes toward and usage of shibai goya revealed that, while the level of awareness was around 90% for all such playhouses, the proportion of residents who participated in events held at shibai goya varied widely, from around 90% at some facilities to below 50% at others, with some slight difference apparently depending on whether the local municipality was involved in their operation. (7) The proportion of facilities being used for purposes other than events also varied by facility, ranging from around 50% to as low as 10%. The proportion of such usage tended to be higher in facilities that provided venue rentals and whose operation involved the local municipality. (8) Around 25 to 35% of nearby residents hoped that their local shibai goya would be put to better use. The desire to be involved in their operation was also relatively high for facilities operating independently in conjunction with local residents and municipalities, with many local residents already being involved in such operation. Also, the openness of operations was also influenced by attitudes on the part of such facilities toward residents who had never visited and who otherwise had no direct connection to local playhouses.
The foregoing has shed light on the state of shibai goya and how they feature in local awareness. In summary, part of shibai goya have served as culturally important buildings used for local tours and public performances attended by visitors from outside the local community. Also, by accepting administrative and operational assistance from local governments, neighborhood shibai goya can become facilities supporting a variety of cultural and creative endeavors, including rehearsals for community events and the performing arts. Furthermore, residents who use such facilities frequently tend to develop an affinity for shibai goya and are also more willing to participate in their management.
1. Background and purpose Medical aid measures for injuries caused by earthquakes, have been supported by two plans implemented by municipalities. One, the “regional disaster prevention plan”, addresses risks in a region and human casualties. The other, the “regional health care plan”, designates disaster hospitals to receive the injured. However, these two plans do not define the areas within which hospitals should accept those severely injured in a disaster (called the "disaster medical sphere"). Therefore, the number of severely injured coming to a hospital is difficult to ascertain, despite being an important factor in a hospital's disaster activity plan. The purpose of this study was to construct a method for setting the disaster medical sphere of a hospital and for estimating the number of incoming severely injured using published data.
2. Method to estimate the number of severely injured coming to a hospital Based on the fact that survival rate increases with speed of arrival at a hospital, disaster medical spheres are drawn as a Voronoi division using a geographic information system (GIS). The number of injured generated within the disaster medical sphere equals the number of injured coming to the hospital. Three areas were chosen as cases to test the estimation method, the Tokyo wards western secondary medical zone, the Tokyo wards southern secondary medical zone and Kumamoto Prefecture. The Voronoi diagram resulted in distances between the hospitals being shorter near the center of cities and longer in the suburbs. Also, disaster medical spheres were smaller in the center of cities and larger in the suburbs. In all cases, the estimated number of severely injured coming to the hospital greatly exceeded the number of emergency patients normally accepted. For the Kumamoto earthquake, when comparing the estimated number with the actual number of severely injured that went to a hospital, differences resulted from variations in model condition settings such as the rate of severe injuries. To describe the division of roles between hospitals, the percentage of the total number of injured accepted by each hospital is designated as “acceptance rate”.
3. Method for evaluating hospital placement based on declining survival rate Normally, injured are transported from the scene of accident to a hospital by ambulance. However, according to a survey of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the rate of rescue by public services (such as the fire department) was only 20 percent. Most casualties were rescued by bystanders. For medical aid measures, it is necessary to consider the declining survival rate of the wounded over time. Thus the range from within witch injured can reach a hospital within one hour (such as “Golden Hour”) from the scene, is designated as a "self-rescue/community-rescue area". When self-rescue areas were included in the disaster medical spheres for the two secondary medical zone of Tokyo and the coverage rate for the number of severely injured was calculated, the coverage rate was almost 100% in the center of cities and declined in the peripheral areas of wards.
4. Conclusions Determination of a “disaster medical sphere” using Voronoi division is useful in order to estimate the number of injured coming to a hospital. The inclusion of "self-rescue/community-rescue areas" is a way to consider and evaluate the placement of disaster hospitals.“Acceptance rate” is an indicator showing the importance of each hospital during an earthquake.
This paper divided users of squares around train stations into three groups of “passersby”, “users taking stop action” and “users taking stay action” and further divided the attention directions of the users taking stop / stay actions into four types, as follows. “Even” means the even distribution of attention directions. “Uneven” means the presence of some unevenness while the directions are evenly distributed. “Concentrate” means the presence of concentrated center of attention. “Diffuse” means the presence of a center in the place, and the users' attention directions spread from the center. The study clarified the characteristics of users taking the stop / stay actions in the open areas around stations through quantitative analyses of whether the attention directions are always stable or fluctuating, in addition to observational surveys. As a result, it found as follows: (1) Analyses of density distribution found that the staying actions concentrate near the space components, such as clock towers and ascending and descending staircases, and places where people can sit down, such as benches and steps. Stopping actions, on the other hand, are observed along the traffic lines of passersby, entrances of department stores, and around guide signs. Stopping actions occur in a more expansive area than that of staying actions. (2) In terms of the relation between space components and user actions, more people use a space as a meeting place when the space is more densely used. Outdoor squares are less used, and many people use them as a space to relax. (3) From the results of quantitative analyses of density and dispersion concerning the stopping and staying actions, in addition to the observational survey of stopping and staying distributions, the study found that the classification based on the space users' attention directions are significantly influenced by the user density. When the user density is extremely high or low, the space components do not function.
A lot of children are still waiting list to enter subsidized day-nursery in urban area. To reduce the waiting lists, certified nursery has been performed independently in some municipalities. But new child and child-rearing support system has started from April 2015. Most of certified nurseries operated with the municipality's standard have been forced to change to the national standard. In the previous paper, we examined the results of the survey for certified nursery in Kyoto-city. In this paper, the purpose is to clarify the actual circumstances of the certified day-nurseries in Sendai and Kawaguchi-city sifting to the new child and child-rearing system. As a survey method, we conducted document analysis and visit survey to 22 nurseries in Sendai and Kawaguchi-city. Some results show as follows: 1) The transition rate to the new system is different in each municipality, reflecting the difference in standards of the certified day-nursery. 2) Because the capacity and area standard are different, differences were found in the way of transition to the new system between Sendai and Kawaguchi. 3) Problems hardly occured in nurseries where the situations before the shift were close to the standards of "small- scale daycare". 4) It was difficult to continue using the building where problems occured in safety standards such as earthquake resistance and refractory standards. 5) In large nurseries transferred to "small-scale daycare", unauthorized nursery and temporary custody are installed utilizing vacant rooms to meet various needs.
1. Background and purpose of the research In the metropolitan area, various large-scale earthquakes such as a direct type are assumed. The maximum of the affected population of the earthquake, are expected to be about 160,000 people. For that reason, the municipalities of Tokyo and the capital are planning to establish first-aid medical stations (hereinafter called FAMS). In this research, assuming that FAMS are opened in elementary schools, we simulate based on the estimated number of affected patients and examine the following issues. 1) How many people in the victim can correspond with the number of assumed medical staff? Conversely, what countermeasures can be considered by the assumed number of doctors and nurses? 2) What is the area required for each function? 3) Are there other issues to consider? 2. Outline of the simulation In this research, we apply multi agent simulation to reproduce and predict outpatient behavior in hospital. The simulation of this study considers sufferers as outpatients and makes them act at FAMS according to the assumed behavior patterns. Afflicted patients stop by each functions of reception, triage, treatment, etc. in the virtual space of the elementary school designated as FAMS, according to the situation of the disaster, based on the preset behavior pattern. As with outpatient simulation, the waiting time, etc. for each tag color are calculated. Four physicians, four nurses and administrative staffs will be placed at the FAMS. The total number of expected disaster affected people is 500. The arrival time distribution of red and black affected patients was calculated from the record of KN Hospital at the time of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. 3. Summary of the research Based on the assumed damages in Shinjuku Ward, when designating elementary school as FAMS, we will summarize the results of examination according to the purpose of this paper. 1) Because waiting for treatment is occurring in seriously affected patients, we found that there is a problem with the number of staff or countermeasures (measures to assign classroom of elementary school by tag color). 2) It was also found that there was a problem in the situation that causalities (red) waited to be delivered to an appropriate medical institution after temporary treatment was given. Therefore, it is considered effective to designate a triage place or a place to perform initial treatment and a hospital which is going to do full-scale treatment as a set. 3) After the disaster affected patients receive treatment, they will wait for recovery in that room. Therefore, at regarding FAMS, it is necessary to consider in advance how much room area is secured. It is also necessary for the patients (green and yellow) waiting for recovery to return home as soon as possible. 4) For transporting seriously affected patients including death and sudden change, it is necessary to consider relying on volunteers as well as municipal officials. Meanwhile, there is a problem such as how to move a suddenly changing patient when they are performing treatment / recovery observation to a sufferer in a room corresponding to each.
Underground spaces connected with railway stations gather a lot of pedestrians. Clarifying pedestrians' movement in underground space is important for flow control and evacuation planning. Based on a pedestrian traffic survey data and estimated OD matrix, this study aims to clarify the pedestrians' route choice probability in underground space. Through the definition of “state” and “transition process”, pedestrians' route choice model is constructed according to the utility of routes. Next, Absorbing Markov Process is adopted to solve the trip assignment in the underground pedestrian network and build the functional relation between estimated flow counts and obtained data. Through minimizing the difference between estimated and observed flow counts, unknown variables are calibrated. Finally, the influential spatial motion attributes are examined through linear regression analysis.
The commemoration of specific people and events has been one of the important role of architectures in society since a long time ago, as Adrian Forty, who is a famous historian states that “The creation of buildings for commemoration is one of the oldest purposes of architecture. The expectation that works of architecture can prolong collective social memory of persons or events beyond the mental recollections of individuals who knew or witnessed them at first hand has been a regular feature of architecture since antiquity, ···” in “Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture”. In contemporary architectures the memorial architectures are built with the purpose of the commemoration. Here we aim to illustrate contemporary Japanese architect's thoughts on the commemoration by investigating design theories of the memorial architecture. Initially several descriptions about the architect's intention in designing the memorial architecture were extracted from each design theory. First these descriptions were analyzed by applying the method created by Jiro Kawakita, and were classified into two meaning ; one is the meaning proper to commemoration, which contains “expression of the commemoration object” and “transmission of the commemoration object”, the other is the meaning attendant on commemoration, which contains “relationship with local society”, “relationship with surrounding environment” and “relationship with interior capability”. Secondly the combination of these meanings in each design theory was studied. Then following characteristic design theories were found ; the design theory in which an intention about the meaning attendant on commemoration is described and the design theory in which both intentions about the meaning proper to commemoration and intentions about the meaning attendant on commemoration are described. Thirdly several descriptions about the way to represent the architect's intention were extracted and analyzed. The descriptions of the representation were abstracted into two different level ; the level of object to represent and the level of character of the object. Then the object to represent was classified into “whole” and “part”, and the character of the object was classified into “shape”, “color - material”, “composition” and “scale”. Consequently, the relationship between the architect's intention and its representation were analyzed, and following characteristic relationships between the architect's intention and its representation were found ; the meaning proper to commemoration and “part”, the meaning attendant on commemoration and “whole”.
Previous studies have shown that a high proportion of wooden main halls completed in the Edo Period or earlier still existing today. Thus, when estimating the average usage period of main halls, it is believed to be necessary to consider not only the usage period of the previous main halls that have already been rebuilt, but also the usage period of the current main halls to date.
There is prior research using survival time analysis to estimate the usage period of buildings, and the Kaplan-Meier method used for analysis including censored data (observed data on buildings still in use for which the lifetime is not determined) is used in such research, and this research also uses the same method of analysis.
As a result of survival time analysis of wooden main halls of temples nationwide under the conditions of complementing lost data by two times, it was found that the average usage period is estimated to be 235 years, which is 100 years longer than the usage period based on the arithmetic average already reported. By region, Hokkaido and Tokyo are particularly short at 78 and 119 years, while the average usage period in Kyushu is 173 years, 60 years less than the national average. Also, the five other regions (Tohoku, Chubu, Osaka, Chugoku and Shikoku) fell in a range between 210 and 273 years, comparatively close to the national average. Current wooden main halls included local cultural resources, and the estimated average usage period of these was 504. This is more than double the average for wooden main halls as a whole, indicating that the usage period of cultural property is particularly long in cultural resources.
As described above, survival time analysis was performed to reveal a more accurate actual condition of the usage period of main halls and the regional differences thereof. This research is focused on wooden main halls of Buddhist temples from a variety of eras extending to the present including those that were mainly completed prior to World War II. The results of this statistic and quantitative research indicate that even normal wooden main halls can withstand a considerable passage of time by conducting ongoing repairs if it is believed that there is a much intent to continue using them.
Recent year, vacant properties has become a severe problem in Japan. Some of these properties in bad condition are called “blight” and they bring negative affect to urban environment. Japanese government formulated new law to demolish designated old and dangerous vacant houses. But this policy is based only on grade of damage and created without the perspectives of urban planning and design. Japanese local governments should create more comprehensive way to deal with such “blights” when financial and human resources are limited. This paper aim to clarify the effective planning methodology to manage huge amount of blights in the city. We focus on the city of Flint, MI one of the most famous shrinking cities in the United States. Flint has experienced the profound population decline since the end of 1970s and suffered from huge amount of vacant properties. In 2013, city government formulated a new master plan named “Master Plan for a Sustainable Flint”. They introduced new place type called Green Innovation that is designated to areas with heavy vacancy. After the master plan approval, the city of Flint and Genesee County Land Bank Authority(GCLBA), and some of the CDCs tried to plan a new framework for the “blight elimination” and aligned their activities based on the masterplan. The city of Flint planned the Blight Elimination Framework(BEF) to comprehensively manage huge amount of blights in the city areas. They focused on each stakeholder's activities and the place types defined by the master plan. They categorized 7 activities (waste removal, boarding, demolition, mowing, vacant lot reuse, building rehabilitation and redevelopment, code enforcement) to manage blight and allocate the relevance of each stakeholder. Maximally, they can save 21.7 million dollars (29% of the cost estimated without this framework) by the efforts based on this framework. GCLBA created the “Decision-Making Guide(DMG)” to align property sales based on the master plan. GCLBA has sold vacant properties based on each property's situation, such as condition of site boundary and adjacent house ownership. With the GMG, it became possible for GCLBA to consider the future land use and desirable physical environment logically. GCLBA can also contribute to lead the transformation for future land use by integration of individual property sales based on DMG. There are two major CDCs in Flint. Salem Housing shifted their activities to community engagement because of the difficulty of housing development in low demand housing market after 2000s. On the other hand, Genesee County Habitat for Humanity (GCHFH) aligned their activities based on the master plan. GCHFH converted the land uses from housing to greenery land uses such as pocket parks and pavilions in several Green Neighborhood area designated by the master plan. As a result, the following points are suggested. 1) The city of Flint faces the financial gaps between the cost needed for blight elimination and the actual manageable budget. They planned comprehensive blight elimination framework to reduce the cost for blight elimination. The framework is to integrate each stakeholder's activities and is expected to reduce the cost by 29% from the cost estimated initially. 2) GCLBA created Decision-Making Guide to convert the current land use to future land use planned by the master plan. This guide is considered useful because it helps to achieve integration of GCLBA's individual property sales. 3) CDCs in Flint are facing difficulty to keep their work after financial crisis of the 2000s and they had changed the direction of their work. GCHFH has aligned their activities based on the master plan and contributes to convert current land use to desirable land use.
Establishing a disaster mitigation planning is an urgent issue in Japan where people are facing the high risk of a devastating earthquake. We need to utilize various information for supporting quick and safe wide-area evacuation. This is especially important for densely built-up wooden residential areas where many building collapse and big fires are presumed. For instance, the locational information and the route information of evacuation areas will contribute for quick and safe evacuation. Also, the information of the fire-spreading and street-blockages is expected to reduce the risk of fire-exposure. As the means to obtain the information such as fire-spreading or street-blockages, Social Network Services (SNS) by portable terminals will have the great potential. They might enable us to acquire various and real-time information efficiently and effectively. However, there are many issues to be discussed for acturalizing the evacuation surpport system by SNS. These include the quality and accuracy of information and robustness of the information network. Under the situation with difficulty in using SNS and in getting the information through portable terminals, not only bulletin boards but also the information-hearsay among evacuees are expected to play an important role. Even if the information is scattered by the information-hearsay between evacuees, however, incorrect information may be generated and adversely affect on evacuation. We need to investigate the influence of information-hearsay on wide-area evacuation in a situation of the incorrect information outbreak, for realizing quick and safe evacuation. In this paper, we construct a model that describes the information-hearsay and the wide-area evacuation behavior of evacuees immediately after a large earthquake occurs. Using the model, we evaluate quantitatively the effects of the information-hearsay on evacuation time and safety of evacuation routes. The principal novel findings about the influence of information-hearsay on wide-area evacuation are as follows; (1) In areas where most people are unfamiliar with geographical information, the unuseful information is repeatly exchanged through the information-hearsay of evacuees. This is because that the limited number of people have correct information about the locational information of evacuation areas. As a result, the evacuation time and the risk of evacuation may increase. (2) If a few guides who are familiar with areas start guidance immediately after a large earthquake occurs, the correct information spreads through the information-hearsay between evacuees and may greatly reduce the evacuation time and the risk of evacuation. (3) If the guides share the information each other, they can instruct and support evacuees using the latest and wide-area information, and not only the risk of evacuees but also the risk of themselves can be reduced. Next, we construct a model that describes the process of the generation of incorrect information by the misrecognition in order to inspect how the incorrect information affects on the wide-area evacuation, and obtain some new findings as follows; (1) In case of high probability of misrecognition, the incorrect information around the evacuation areas spreads out and may affect on the wide-area evacuation, since many evacuees need the information around the evacuation areas. (2) In areas where population density is high, the correct information is scattered and evacuation becomes effective. However, under the condition in which much incorrect information is generated, it is scattered rapidly and immediately after a large earthquake occurs, and this results in affecting on the evacuation time and the risks of evacuation.
There are some researches on behavior remaining at home despite the risk of danger from earthquake-induced tsunamis. However, there are few researches on difference of the behavior considering habitant attributes such as their household characteristics, type of house, regional condition, etc. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the evacuation behavior of habitants in the tsunami inundation hazardous areas using a large scale questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was distributed to habitants living in the tsunami inundation hazardous area following the Nankai Trough massive earthquake based on damage estimations published by the national cabinet. The areas of focus include the following 13 cities from Kanagawa to Miyazaki Prefecture in Japan facing the Pacific Ocean: Kamakura City, Zushi City, Fujisawa City, Shizuoka City, Shimizu Ward in Shizuoka City, Nishi Ward and Minami Ward in Hamamatsu City, Iwata City, Tsu City, Matsuzaka City, Ise City, Wakayama City Kochi City and Miyazaki City. Given the broad location coverage of this study, the questionnaire survey was conducted through the internet. The questionnaire comprises three parts: questions about respondent attributes, questions about respondent houses, and questions about respondent behaviors they will choose after a large earthquake occurred. Firstly, respondents answer their home address, gender, generations and whether or not they live with handicapped family members. Next, respondents answer the type of their house: detached house or apartment buildings, number of stories, and whether they own or rent. Finally, respondents choose their evacuation behavior after a huge earthquake by choosing one behavior from a set of choices provided for two specific scenarios: 1) earthquake occurs at noon, and 2) earthquake occurs late at night. The behavioral choices include: staying home, moving to a school, moving to another residential building nearby, moving to higher ground outdoors, and so on. Within the 13 cities surveyed, there were a total of 1103 respondents. The responses were aggregated by attributes and analyzed. The analyses revealed that, after large earthquakes, people living in detached houses tend to stay home, while those living in apartments tend to evacuate; respondents who rent are more likely to evacuate than those who own their home; respondents living in high-rise apartments tend to stay, while those living in low-rise buildings tend to evacuate; and elderly people are more likely to stay home than younger people. In addition, people living with handicapped family or with children tend to evacuate. These results also demonstrated a difference of the evacuation behavior among the 13 cities in the danger of tsunami inundation.
Some of urban planning system in Japan have progressed the ways in which to improve urban environment along with urban development projects by providing open space or any local use facility within the urban development site, in return for being obtained extra floor area. These contributions produced by urban developments have been collected in the central area of Japanese cities. As the decreasing population and being the aging society, it is needed for the local authority to take advantage to use such contributions to improve urban environment with more effect, and for the developers to consider the sustainable management strategy for these spaces and facilities including financial backups. In England, it has developed the planning gain system in the planning permission process for urban development to mitigate its influences to surrounding area of the project site. Through the transition of the planning gain system, the Section 106 agreement system was established under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990. It has developed the planning gain methodology which allows local authorities to negotiate about the development mitigation with developers and derive various contribution along with the local authority's Supplementary Planning Document. This paper aims to discuss on the ways in which urban development projects contribute to improve local built and social environment by closely looking at the transition and implementation of Section 106 agreement in England. To understand the planning gain system in England, first of all, the paper makes clear its transition process, in which there were criticisms such as the unclear negotiation process between local authority and developer, the longer process to obtain the planning permission, the different standards by each local authority, and so on. The Section 106 agreement was progressed to make the system to be clear and sentenced in the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 to be able to use it outside of the development site, to combine the small amount of contribution for a certain size of a project, to use for not only capital but also revenue expense, and so on. However, it has constantly criticized as the dual tax system. To correspond to the criticism, each local authority sets up the formula to calculate the quantity of the contribution in Supplementary Planning Document, prepares the list of the targets for local authority to ask the contributions, to present the project names implemented the contributions as the results to the public, and so on. Since 2008, the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) was introduced to charge urban developments along with the fixed rate calculation system, which recently each local authority are preparing to introduce. CIL will take over a part of the role of Section 106 agreement, and thus the number of Section 106 agreement will decrease. Based on the research, this paper finally discussed the ways for urban development projects to contribute to improve urban infrastructure including parks by pooling and combining the individual contributions to make bigger amount for urban infrastructure improvement and maintenance projects for the establishment of sustainable society. To develop this system, it would be needed to establish the standard to calculate the contribution amount by formula or other methodology in order to keep the accountability of the agreement.
Nowadays, against the backdrop of decentralization and to promote sustainable urban development, it has become important to realize carefully-crafted land use and the establishment of public facilities through the decision-making of municipalities, and even greater expectations are placed on the District Plan System (DPS) as a tool for achieving this. However, according to a survey of local governments, there are issues regarding the effectiveness of the DPS. The aim of this study is to figure out legal measures to ensure the effectiveness of the DPS, and then to present ingenious ways to enhance the effectiveness of the DPS by examining the implementation status of the DPS at advanced local governments. Specifically, we firstly investigated legal measures to ensure the effectiveness of the DPS. The DPS has become a system with legal enforceability through its combination with other security measures such as building certification and development permits, and owing to the details of plans and the enforceability of combined legal measures, differences in the “effectiveness” of each DPS arise. Therefore, we classified the legal measures in the DPS, examined trends at local governments nationwide, and clarified the ways in which local governments are (A) ensuring the execution of notification details and (B) performing cross-sectoral management. Secondly, we examined the management status in Kobe, Setagaya and Amagasaki, which are advanced local governments in terms of the DPS, from the perspectives of (A) and (B). Firstly, in regard to (A) ensuring the execution of notification details, procedures that enable execution have been made compulsory through ordinances, and with respect to the process of these procedures, systems to promote conformity with notification of DPS and district development plans have been established. However, each local government uses a different method concerning procedures: Kobe uses guidance based on prior notification, Amagasaki uses prior consultation, and Setagaya uses consultation combined with procedures for district-level plans based on an ordinance. Next, (B) cross-sectoral management achieves cross-sectoral cooperation among organizations to enable the effective management of the above systems. The methods used are diverse: Kobe ensures cooperation by circulating prior notification notices among relevant departments, and Amagasaki does so by consulting with departments related to business operators. In contrast, Setagaya has enabled cross-sectoral management based on a contact organization in the form of liaison and coordination meetings and a general branch office system. In conclusion, systems to verify conformity with DPS notification and district development plans have been created, and owing to cross-sectoral cooperation with other departments as well, management that enhances the effectiveness of the DPS has been realized through diverse methods.
Since many workers are involved in construction work, it is important to improve work efficiency. For this purpose, time duration and motion studies are often applied during construction work. The authors have developed methods for time and motion studies by using factor analysis. Moreover, in this paper, the authors describe analysis methods to improve work efficiency via factor analysis. The methods can be decomposed into the following seven steps: 1. Recording the tasks and activities of workers by using a camcorder 2. Observing and defining each task and activity of the workers 3. Evaluating each task and activity 4. Analyzing the task and activity times (time study) 5. Predicting the latent factors affecting task and activity times 6. Verifying the latent factor predictions via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) 7. Analyzing the cause of work delay by using factor scores from CFA as the task and activity times To illustrate time and motion studies by using factor analysis, we record the tasks and activities of workers. Fig. 2 shows an example of ceiling light installation work. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show the shape and product drawing of the luminaire, and Fig. 5 shows the office plan and layout of the luminaire employed in this study. Time to completion of the ceiling light installation work was two days with three construction workers working, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. We observed and defined the task, activities, and motions of the workers. Table 3 provides definitions for each activity and motion of ceiling light installation. The motions have been classified into 19 types, and represent a detailed analysis of work motions performed for a manual task. Fig. 7 demonstrates the proportion of total performance duration of each installation activity. Three workers installed 49 LED luminaires. Fig. 8 and Table 4 demonstrate the proportions of activity performance duration for each worker relative to the proportional sum of duration. To analyze task and activity times, we evaluate the learning curve for installing ceiling lighting. Fig. 9 shows the task times of workers, as represented by time to complete the installation tasks. This figure shows that task time per unit decreases with increased installation task repetition. After analyzing task and activity times, we applied factor analysis to the activity times. The purpose of this analysis was to predict the cause of work delay. First, in order to investigate the relationship between total completion time and individual activity time, we calculated the correlation between completion time and individual activity time. The results are shown in Table 4. To validate the probability distribution of task time and individual activity time, we provide histograms (Fig. 10) of the times taken to perform each task and activity. Next, we applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to the six activity durations. By eigenvalue (Table 6) and parallel analysis, we determined the number of factors to be one or two. Table 7 shows the results of exploratory factor analysis. This table displays the respective loading of each variable onto each factor for the cases of one and two factors. In the case of two factors, Factor 1 is defined as "work environment of back plate installation work, " and Factor 2 is defined as "work environment of electrical wiring." According to the results of EFA, we reevaluated the work-time relationship between each activity and the two factors F1 and F2. Next, we calculated the factor scores generated from CFA, as shown in Fig. 12, and analyzed the cause of work delay. Fig. 13 shows the relationship plot of factor scores obtained via CFA analyses, with the horizontal and vertical axes being the scores of F1 and F2, respectively.
Currently in Japan, a situation exists where residences and their live-in residents are aging. Therefore, there is a growing interest in restructuring the property management systems to support the extension of both building and resident lifespans. As part of the issue, concern has risen over the possibility of human management. Human management can be defined as house management duties performed by a permanently stationed person.
France can be said to be an advanced country that has adopted human management of apartment houses. On-site managers called gardien(ne)s d'immeuble have been employed in private apartment houses in France since the nineteenth century, and a 2001 decree has made it mandatory for social housing estates to employ gardien(ne)s. Prior to the decree, a vocational qualification for gardien(ne)s was created by French government in 1994. Thus, it can be said that the French government promotes the professionalization of gardien(ne)s as on-site property managers.
This paper aims to evaluate the status of gardien(ne)s' vocational training programs for developing human management in Japanese apartment houses. The following conclusions were drawn from the results:
First, gardien(ne)s' vocational training programs can be classified into three categories according to their educational purposes. The first category, which began about fifteen years ago when the vocational qualification system was improved, contains programs for acquiring a vocational qualification . The second category, which was the pioneer program and was started about thirty years ago, contains programs for gardien(ne)s in social housing. The third category, which was created a few years ago, contains programs for gardien(ne)s in private apartment houses. Judging from the commencing times, it might be said that French human management was reorganized in social housing after which it was born in private apartment houses; on the other hand, it is actually having an effect again on human management in private apartment houses.
Second, according to the job advertisements, the management duties of social housing gardien(ne)s are as follows: (1) management of rooms in the social sector on behalf of owners (e.g., inspection of rental units), (2) maintenance of common areas, which is also a part of the gardien(ne)s' duties for private apartment houses, and (3) reconciliation between residents and the social sector. Therefore, enhancement of communication skills and acquisition of specialized knowledge are considered the most important aspects of the vocational training programs.
Third, there are four types of cost burden for the vocational training program: (1) local government subsidy, (2) funds to manage individual leaves for vocational training , (3) employer contribution, and (4) self-pay. The self-pay type is rare, whereas the employer contribution type is common.
Fourth, the institutions that provide gardien(ne)s' vocational training programs consider the following four points based on the changes from the 2001 mandate for French social housing estates to employ gardien(ne)s: (1) improvement of the vocational qualification system, (2) enhancement of the image of gardien(ne)s, (3) the increase for duties with specialized knowledge, and (4) the importance of the gardien(ne)s' role as the residents' mediator.
It can be concluded that, as far as the multifarious vocational training programs for gardien(ne)s in private apartment houses and social housing are concerned, human management is adaptable to varied residents. It should be noted that the adaptability of human management is reinforced by selecting the contents of vocational training programs or gardien(ne)s' duties according to the residents' characteristics, as in the French case.
From ancient times, mountains have been worshiped in Japan. Mt. Fuji is archetypal and the stone huts that served its pilgrims can be regarded as the original form of current mountain huts. Nowadays, since Mt. Fuji is a world cultural heritage site, its huts are required to be historically based. We examined historical materials, held interviews and conducted field surveys on the Yoshida trail to investigate their development. Great numbers of pilgrims who belonged to Fuji-ko societies made worship ascents from the trail. In the late Muromachi era, the Chugu shrine was built halfway up Mt. Fuji's Yoshida trail. Around the shrine, the oshi (owners), who controlled the worship practices there, managed 18 huts, assisted by their servants, the hyakusho. At the huts, called Chugu koya, they collected admission fees from the pilgrims, enshrined gods and the Buddha, sold water and offered resting spots. Eventually, the recognition of worship changed, and huts could be built above the 5th station on the Yoshida trail. These, called “ishimuro” (stone huts) might have developed from small shrines or temples into accommodations by adding water and fire places or expanding resting rooms to be like the Chugu koya huts. These stone huts already existed in the early Edo era before Fuji-ko flourished. They were concentrated around the boundaries of Mt. Fuji's religious areas, “Kusayama, ” “Kiyama” and “Yakiyama”, and where trails met. The current mountain huts sit in almost the same locations as the huts in the late Edo era. Travel guidebooks for Mt Fuji from that time state that the wooden huts located below the 5th station were for resting and stone huts higher up were for accommodations. There were 2 types of stone huts. Some were spontaneous “cave” type huts that began as religious training places. Other were artificial “building” type huts. The building huts were hirairi, wooden frame structures with cinders piled on the kiritsuma roof and around the walls. They had 1 or 2 entrances facing the trail. Some had a separated shrine and others had a shrine somewhere inside the hut that faced the trail or the interior room floored with tatami mats. The stone huts were shrines or temples and also shelters. The Chugu koya huts were located in the woods (Kiyama) but the stone huts above the 5th station were in the harsh mountain environment (Yakiyama). Based on our knowledge of the Chugu koya huts, the wooden huts had cinders piled on their roofs and around the walls and came to be the stone huts. These were built to protect against the harsh environment using cinders that were abundant in the Yakiyama area. Around the 5th station, on the edge of the forest, the buildings developed into a style intermediate between the wooden and stone huts. The width of the stone huts gradually expanded in the ketayuki, or ridge direction along the trail rather than in depth (hariyuki, beam direction) to suit being built on sloping ground. With breadths set to be reminiscent of shrines, the stone huts were 2 ken wide × 2 ken deep or 3 ken wide × 2 ken deep in the middle Edo era, growing to 5 to 8 ken wide × 2.5 ken deep in the latter part of the era. Oshi and hyakusho owned these huts, which might have been built by the hyakusho themselves or partly donated by Fuji-ko. As with the Chugu koya huts, equality among the stone huts was regarded as important by the oshi and hyakusho. They followed specific rules about the management of the stone huts and might have controlled their size and uniformity.
This paper verified the description of "Takayoshi KIDO diary" about the construction phase of the Educational Museum is as early museum building in Japan. And it revealed the relationship with Takayoshi Kido, verified for impact on construction due to the fact that he was involved. The point that became evident this is shown below.
1. It is known that the Educational museum exchanged the site with the Ueno museum just before construction. According to the Takayoshi Kido diary, prior to the exchange of this site Takayoshi Kido had confirmed the planning site and drawings.
2. According to the Takayoshi Kido diary it was confirmed that he was going 22 times to the construction site of the educational museum in August 1876 to January 1877. Not only Takayoshi Kido was in a position to lead the Japan at that time, it became clear that was deeply involved in the construction of the educational museum.
3. Key persons that has been promoting the business of the educational museum, Education Vice Minister Tanaka Fujimaro, the educational museum curator Hatakeyama Yoshinari, Ministry of Education audit Debit Murray, were not in japan during construction of the educational museum, because of they traveled to the US for the Philadelphia Expo. While responsible persons were absent, Ryuichi Kuki responded during construction. At the time Public buildings were in charge Ministry of Engineering, but after March 1876 buildings such as school had excepted from the project of them. Construction of the educational museum was ordered directly from the Ministry of Education like school. However the Ministry of Education at the time it was in a situation where there was no architectural engineers. Ryuichi Kuki asked Takayoshi Kido about the construction work. Actually Ministry of Engineering of technology bureaucracy Michiyoshi Hiraoka and Seiichi Asakura supported construction work underway.
4. For construction contents of the Educational Museum, It turned out that there was a point where Kido Takayoshi felt dissatisfied. It seems that he was dissatisfied with the design, because he seems to be unable to understand the structural one of architecture. This is because the educational museum was constructed without technicians with knowledge of Western architecture, and that Kido Takayoshi knew the European and American museum architecture through the Iwakura mission group.
5. According to the Kido Takayoshi diary design of a "window" and "floor" design was adjusted with Michiyoshi Hiraoka. resulting that window was become the similar shape as the Shinbashi station.
6. Regarding the external plan, Takayoshi Kido asked Magohachi Suzuki to design. Therefore, even though it is a Western building, outside design became a planting plan of Japanese style.
For the early Meiji era of the Ministry of Education Buildings Department business was at that time still organizationally immature. The presence of Takayoshi Kido, and the support of the Ministry of Engineering by the connection between Takayoshi Kido and the former Choshu-han clan of Hiraoka Michiyoshi revealed the situation where a building with a new function called a museum was built.
In 1871, Meiji Japanese government founded Ministry of Public Works, which consisted of 11 departments including Kogaku-Ryo or the Engineering
Institution. This department aimed at training young Japanese as engineer to be hired by the ministry. Main establishment was the technical school, which
would open in August 1872 soon after teaching staffs arrived according to initial scheme. Construction of the school buildings started in the end of 1871 by
two British civil engineers. However, the initial scheme failed, and Hirobumi Ito and Yozo Yamao had to find new advisor for foundation of the school.
Yamao reopen correspondence with Hugh Matheson in the end of 1871, and Ito officially commissioned Matheson to provide convenience for foundation
of the school in 1872. Matheson asked W. Rankine of Glasgow University to draft the school regulation, and to arrange a list of the teaching staffs. When
Rankine tried to found complete professional engineering college for Indian Public Works in 1870 through his sandwich programme, Henry Dyer was
studying new technical education for the Britain under Rankine. After Rankine’s attempt failed, Dyer was appointed as principal for Japan’s technical school
in 1873, and fully realized the most complete technical college in Japan. The college buildings and fittings were also elaborately designed and furnished by
architect de Boinville in cooperation with Dyer and other staffs. This Imperial College of Engineering was regarded as the most complete engineering
college in term of educational system and technical school building ever the British founded till 1880.
The turn of the “decorative art” in the 20th century has not yet discussed under the assumption of the negation of “decoration” by modernism in architecture. In this context, this paper aims to elucidate the formation of the notion on “equipment” by the Architect Le Corbusier (1887-1965), using his all kinds of books and his correspondences conserved in Le Corbusier Foundation in Paris. Several periods were divided for this purpose: the question of “furniture” and the birth of the notion of “equipment” before 1920's, the theorization of “equipment” in 1920's, and its transformation after 1920’s. In the youth of Le Corbusier, under his real name Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, he made out the report of Study on the Movement of Decorative Art in Germany (1912) to investigate the production method by Deutscher Werkbund, while he was influenced by the French Architect Auguste Perret who pursued the possibility of the reinforced concrete and its classicism. In this condition, he could not settle his notion on “furniture”: “mobile furniture” or “fixed furniture” in his viewpoint of human comfort. It was the 1920's that Le Corbusier referred directly to the notion of “equipment” (Decorative Art of Today, 1925). His unique notion of “equipment” has come from the consideration about “furniture”, in particularly, the question of “storage cabinet”. According Le Corbusier, the “storage cabinet” is an “object-member” (object like the limbs), which has to fit with the body dimensions. Hence, his notion of “equipment” is extended to, not only desk and chair, but also “clothing”. On the other hand, independent objects of body size, for example wallpaper, carpet, tapestry, or heating apparatus, what are called “decorative arts” do not belong to the category of “equipment”. After the 1920's, the notion of “equipment” proposed by Le Corbusier was more developed. He has been placing the treatment of wall “color” in the notion of “equipment” (Talks with Students, 1943). Moreover, he has been regarding even “window” which is opened out on the wall as “equipment”. “Window” is a devise for the natural light instead of chandelier as the decorative art, and it is also a devise for the control of the natural environment (Modulor 2, 1955). As a result, it can be seen that the Le Corbusier's notion on “equipment” has been spreading from “furniture” to the devise for the control of the natural environment. In conclusion, it is pointed out that such a formation of his notion is closed connection with his notion of “wall”: In the 1920's, Le Corbusier proposed the tree types of installation: incorporate on the wall, lean against the wall and detach from the wall. However, he has come to incorporate all devises of “equipment” on the wall. Therefore, the element of “mobile” is only the human body. All element of “fixed” is equipped with the wall. However this kind of “wall as equipment” have to have the function of “clothing” at the same time. Le Corbusier's “wall” is more ambiguous: although it is immovable, it is also flexible as devise for the control of the natural environment.
“Maison démontable en ancier B. L. P. S.” was designed by French architects Eugene Beaudouin, Marcel Lods, Jean Prouvé, and Forges de Strasbourg as a constructor in 1936. An external form is 3.3m×3.3m, this small house is used for 2 persons. It consists a living room with 2 beds and a dining table, a kitchen space, a toilet and shower space and also could assemble and be demountable at anywhere. The begginig of this small house was made a prototype at Ateliers Jean Prouvé that was presented at the sixth exposition de l'habitation in the salon des arts ménagers in January 1939. All parts not only the entire house but also furniture were made of the thin steel sheets, there was not the foundation by Reinforced concrete. When Lods demonstrated at the exposition, in fact he could assemble for 2.5 hours and be demountable for 45 minutes. In the same year, someone stolen this small house before begining World War II, and it can never be seen anywhere. As a background and purpose of this study, it aims to clarify architects' thoughts of “Maison démontable en ancier B. L. P. S. “, which focuses on the relationship between features and building components. It is about the features such as floor planning, concept of space, structure type, facility planning, and also about the building components such as the assembly system as well as the list of all parts. Finally, we discuss what kind of relationship the two has. The previously-mentioned 3 French architects collaborated mainly in 3 projects, this small house is one of them, and its second project. Prouvé has explained through an interview in the book that was written by Peter Sulzer in 2000, it is “B. L. P. S. entirely made at my place… an enormous number of innovations… like the system of assembling the panels...”. Besides Franz Graf has explained that this small house, it's design, has been a great help in designing the façade of the Medische Faculteit in Rotterdam (today: Erasmus MC) by Prouvé, built in 1968. This means that Prouvé used the similar details in different project 30 years past, it could also say to find an importance innovation in this small house. As a result, we found that important design through to clarify features and building components of “Maison démontable en ancier B. L. P. S.”. It is consisted by 5 building components which are the roof panel, the floor panel, the wall panel, the facility unit, the funiture unit, and they are a set for 2 components. Each of them has a meanings, such as it plays a role as Instruction how to assemble or where sets a position for the next assembled parts. Detail of the joints which connects between building components, has same detail, it can say that a set of building components are able to use turning upside down and is possible to make entire building what it is designed 2 building components by same one without the floor panels and the facility unit.
The present paper aims to clarify the territorial transformations occurred during the first half of the 20th century at the Lido in Venice. The Lido, island facing the Adriatic Sea, had preserved a rural atmosphere, to be altered gradually by the opening of the public sea baths on 1857 and the consequent touristic developments. The end of the 19th century saw paved roads, lodges, inns and villas occupy vast areas of the island. The creation of the international film festival on 1932 further increased the number of both domestic and international visitors, consummating the transformation of the landscape. Still nowadays numerous film lovers and creators flock to the island by the end of August to attend the cinematic event. In the aftermath of the collapse of the Venetian republic, with its economy shattered, the prospect of creating a modern tourist base at the Lido was well received. Its development became a symbol of regeneration and modernization of Venice. This study emphasizes the analysis of urban transformations occurred at the island during this period from a chronological point of view. The Lido brimmed with new, modern life styles with the arrival of tourism. Wealthy patrons, during their long stays, thrived at majestic hotels lining up broad planted avenues. Initially the development efforts lied on private initiatives, without much public funding. It was thanks to the likes of Nicolò Spada and ‘Società Bagni di Lido’ that the Lido saw its first big transformation. By the mid 1920's the government finally realized the potential of development in the Lido area and heavily invested in the promotion of cultural activities, essentially through close collaboration with Volpi and his C. I. G. A. Society. They were responsible of the consolidation of Venice as a major international touristic destination during the interwar period, sustaining the construction of the airport and the implementation of the vapporetto lines. Furthermore, the Commune and C. I. G. A. played a fundamental role in the accomplishment of the città-giardino, a new living environment. Lido, a suburb of Venice, transformed into a touristic resort albeit preserving many of its natural features. In this respect, its development greatly differs from those of the Terraferma municipalities of Marghera and Mestre. At a time in which expansion of rail network and economic prosperity after the war enhanced touristic developments all over Europe, Lido stood out as a very special place, due to its significant cultural value and its peculiar approach: visitors descended the train on the main island and could not but sail a boat through the Laguna in order to reach their final destination.
This paper aims to clarify the GHQ military disposition which changed rapidly and nationwide location of Dependent Housing (army family house) and the numerical transformation process in the occupied Japan by the U.S. document. Soon after Japanese people had begun to convert the building stock which was left after WWII, occupation forces were stationed in each place and began the requisition. The occupation forces requisitioned the building which was judged to be available locally in the short term and they rehabilitate it and used. D.H. was built approximately 12,000 houses, and about 70% was built newly in Japan. The construction of D.H. was hurried, and because material was short, it was often supplied in black markets. And, by grasp of the numerical transformation process of D.H., the different requisition situation and situation of distribution became clear in each district. 9 districts where there were dependents more than 200 households as of June 1, 1948 are as follows in decreasing order. Tokyo, Yokohama area, Tachikawa, Osaka area, Kobe, Johnson, Yokota, Nagoya area, Kyoto. It's that there was the large-scale new construction enlargement is more than 50 in there having been enlargement in 8 districts in 12 districts belonging to the 5th Air Force, 5 districts (Nagoya, Tachikawa, Johnson, Itazuke, Itami) of those to understand from the numerical changes from June 1948 to October 1950. Enlargement was not seen in the district that belonged to the 11th AirBorn Division (Sapporo, Hachinohe, Jinmachi), the 1st Cavarly Division (Asaka, Nagai, Ota, Omiya), BCOF (Etajima, Miho, Hofu, Fukuyama), Navy (Totsuka), the 5thA/F (Kisarazu, Chitose, Kanoya) and the 24th Infantry Division (Kumamoto, Beppu). From the number of new construction and rehabilitation and the numerical transformation, it was inferred that the situation peculiar to the occupied area had an influence on the judgment of the requisition and the D.H. construction. Procurement demands of the occupation forces disturbed inflection of building stock of the city space attacked by the war damage. It's the fact that we can't overlook in thinking about after the war of each city. The requisition house rebuilt as a general tendency became the derequisition earlier than new construction. The new D.H. has many examples removed with the return of the requisition, and there are many still uncertain points because there is little number of the existence. In this study, it was clarified that correlation of military unit deployment and D.H. of the occupation forces by the cross-reference of records of the both Japan and the United States. The result of this study will make the base that pushes forward the study on history of city and building in each occupied area.
When a large earthquake occurs, rescue operations and fire-fighting are obstructed by street-blockages. In order to reduce property/human damages caused by the delay in arrival at the disaster site, it is important to quickly collect, share and utilize disaster information among multiple users. In this paper, we developed a system that can collect and share information acquired by users in real time in the event of a disaster. The advantages of the system are summarized as follows: (1) Users can access to the system by using various kinds of information terminals such as mobile phones (Android/iOS) and personal computers because it was implemented as a Web application; (2) The system can run on a cloud server in several countries with high disaster resistance; (3) A simulation to predict the property damage by fire-spreading can be performed based on collected information on the location of building fires as an example of secondary usage of disaster information; (4) Persons in charge of collecting disaster information and the location with high possibility of damages are recommended to support users for effective information collecting. Using this system, we conducted a demonstration experiment on the assumption that local volunteers collect information immediately after an earthquake occurs in Setagaya Ward, Tokyo. The participants were asked to post a virtual disaster site to the system which they discovered while walking around freely. The locations of virtual disasters were expressed with markers, which vary according to the type of disaster (building-collapse/street-blockage/fire-outbreak) and the distance from a user (i.e. invisible beyond 60 m, visible 30 m or more and less than 60 m, detail view less than 30 m). As a result of the experiment, about 0.7% of disaster information distributed in the whole of Setagaya Ward could be clloected by just a dozen people for 15 minutes. The collection rate can be further improved by increasing the number of participants in collecting disaster information. Additionally, we clarified factors related to the efficiency of collecting information and discussed policies for improving the system based on the rate of correct information out of all posted information, the movement log of participants, etc. Next, we evaluated the effects by using the function to support collecting disaster information through another demonstration experiment. More specifically, recommended collection zones and persons in charge were calculated by the system and shown on a user's screen on the basis of the damage estimation by simulation. Comparing with the case that the support function was not used, the number of posted information increased by 2.2 times per person, and the travel distance required for discovering a disaster site decreased by 0.47 times. The result suggests that it is possible to perform more effective information collecting by reducing the duplication of traveling routes or improving the method for recommending collection zones. Furthermore, we conducted an evaluation experiment to verify the system availability under the bandwidth limitation after a large earthquake occurs. Under the condition of a certain transmission speed (1 Mbps/15 Mbps), we measured the time required for synchronization of sharing disaster information among all users in 100 times. As a result, the time increased to less than 50 milliseconds while virtually increasing the number of users to 3,000 step by step. Therefore, it may be possible to support the activities requiring immediate response such as emergency vehicles. However, the connection state was sometimes unstable in case the number of users was more than 3,000 persons. For higher reliability of sharing information in real-time, it is necessary to improve the system from the viewpoint of load distribution.
We conducted a survey of students in the early stages of architectural design education to analyze the following factors involved in the process of completing assignments: amount of time spent studying, presence or absence of studying, and space recognition. By examining the relationships between study content and the students' grades, we identified what study content elements achieved results for each assignment. 1) Students who observed buildings prior to beginning their formal architectural design education classes and reviewed many architectural data achieved better results. 2) For figure tracing assignments, there was a correlation between the time spent on the assignment and the results. For space conceptual design assignments involving 3D building conceptualization, there was a correlation between the amount of review sketches drawn and results. 3) In the design of houses, the number of collected books of related data was large in the first half of the exercise, people who draw a lot of sketches tend to have obtained the results, those who placed persons in the model in the second half and those who visited other houses were getting results. 4) In the design of the park, the number of volumes that gathered data in the first half of the task was large, and those with high self-recognition of space had been successful. Also, those who spend a lot of time in the second half and those who are making designs while producing models are getting results. 5) For residential and park design assignments, investigating a large amount and wide variety of relevant materials was effective for the former, while placing a person inside of the models correlated with improved results for the latter.