The purpose of this study is to examine the walking characteristics of disabled people passing through fire equipment. The objective equipment of this experiment are a fire door and a "sheet shutter". The "sheet shutter" is a curtain-type silica-based screen that prevents fire from spreading. It has been recently developed as fire-protection construction in building. The objects' movements are recorded by VCR and motion capture system which can measure the 3-D coordinates of body parts. The walking speed and the movement of subjects are analyzed. Responses to a questionnaire which deals with degrees of difficulty for people vulnerable to disasters to properly manipulate the door are also examined. The results are as follows; 1. Physical ability and body size are related to the speed of the action of passing through the door. Small subjects, such as children and women, can easily get through the opening of a sheet shutter. 2. The force needed to open the sheet shutter door is less than for the fire door. 3. The movement of the upper-part of the sheet shutter door is different from the lower-part because the door has no rigidity. 4. It is more effective to widen the sheet shutter door than to raise it for wheelchair users'.
This study aims to quantify the effective opening area of automatically operated doors with an intermediate vestibule dependent on the passage of people. The authors analyzed the effects of various factors on the relationship between the number of people passing through doors and the effective opening area. The factors such as size of maximum opening and waiting time when doors are fully open largely affect on the effective opening area. The changes of the effective opening area at entrances on a weekday for 4 office buildings are estimated based upon the results of the measurement of the number of people passing through entrances.
The authors have conducted the following research works in order to estimate evapotranspiration rate from evergreen shrub in analysis of urban thermal environment. Evergreen shrub is one of plants which are generally planted around buildings and on the roof of buildings. (1) An estimation model of evapotranspiration rate was developed by combining the JARVIS model with the calculation model of PAR distribution inside a shrub canopy. (2) Some parameters appearing in the estimation model were identified using experimental data on rhododendron pulchrum and rhododendron indicum, and then validation of the model including the identified parameters was carried out by comparison between estimated data and those obtained in an artificial climate room. (3) A simulation study was conducted using the developed model to find the best arrangement of shrub for evapotranspiration.
This paper aims at clarifying the influence that the ventilation characteristics have on formaldehyde concentration in a house. The indoor formaldehyde concentration, ventilation rates and routes have been measured using an experimental house. The formaldehyde concentration has been calculated by characteristics of emission rates. It was found that the room in which polluted air flows is higher than that of an inflow of outdoor air. It is important to design ventilation routes into which polluted air doesn't flow. The calculated concentration is consistent with the measurement results excluding the period after being made airtight. After being sealed, the experiment value decreased gently as compared with the calculation value.
Field survey on indoor air quality was conducted in summer, autumn and winter season, in three elementary schools in Kagoshima city. In every classroom, in summer and autumn, the open degree of a opening was high, and CO_2 concentrations under pupils staying in the classroom were kept below 1000 ppm. In winter, since changing into the state where the opening was closed by the fall of temperature is expected, it is presumed in this case at the time of the lesson end for 45 minutes that indoor CO_2 concentration reaches at about 2260 ppm. The CO_2 emission rate from one sixth grader child was calculated as 0.014m^3/h. In the state where the opening was closed, by operating two sets of ventilation fans, the air change rate of 3 h^<-1> or more is secured, and it is thought that indoor CO_2 concentration is also set to below 1500 ppm at the time of the lesson end.
The purpose of this study is to clarify thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness of displacement ventilation system ia a music hall which requires large outdoor air for the ventilation. Displacement ventilation is characterized by naturally generated stratification in density (thermal) and scalar concentration (pollutant). It was considered appropriate to keep good indoor air quality even if reducing the amount of outdoor air. The black lamp was installed in all seats in order to simulate the heat source from the audience. From the measurement result, the local mean age of air in the respiration point of the displacement ventilation system was about 1/3 of the complete mixing condition. The horizontal distribution of local mean age of air in the occupied zone was little. Vertical temperature distribution in the occupied zone was within an acceptable range, and the horizontal temperature distribution of the hall was almost uniform. It was found that the displacement ventilation system maintained comfortable thermal environment with relatively high air conditioning load, while it kept indoor air quality in the occupied zone within an acceptable range.
The possibilities of network of the existing district heating and cooling system in Shijuku area have been discussed in this research. We have a survey to heat supply company to find the problem in realizing network of the existing district heating and cooling system. It became as a result of such that be not able to embark on realization unless the problem such as an economic face is solved, although the company admit the effect of heat source network. With a theory examination, we have an evaluation on the pressure and the backup effect in the network of the existing district heating and cooling system. In pressure examination, the connection method that changes part of tip plumbing to the big thing, will be appropriate while using existing plumbing at its maximum.
Concerning the fluidity of disposer drainage in the plumbing, the Japanese approved system is not equal as the already popularized system in USA. For the Japanese system, drainage in the plumbing is only for disposer and kitchen drainage and disposer operation is batch garbage feed. On the other hand for USA, the all-household drainage is fluidized in the plumbing and disposer operation is continuous garbage feed. Then, the effect of disposer operation mode, water feed condition and disposer type on the fluidity of the disposer drainage was investigated to clarify the influence of the Japanese disposer installed condition on the plumbing. The fluid velocity was not affected by the crashed particle diameter, which was varied by the disposer type, but strongly affected by the solid concentration in the drainage, which was determined by the disposer operation and water feed concentration. The batch feed operation was found to increase the solid concentration several times higher than the continuous, and reduce the fluidity. The programmable water feed for the disposer to reduce the solid concentration, attained the fluid velocity as equal as the continuous operation.
We examined estimation method of drainage piping systems in order to apply wastewater treatment systems with food waste grinders to real high-rise appartment houses. The piping systems were set up in the high-rise experimental tower, had drainage stack of 90m height and house drain of 90m length, were supposed the models in real buildings. In this study we investigated how facters influence the performance and pressure in branch, were 4 types forms of drainage fittings, and 2 types diameters of grind garbage particles or characteristics of discharge by food waste grinders. Further we examined influence of offset in lower floor, relief vent pipe for back pressure in stack closure at the bend, and house drain length. As a result, special drainage fittings systems are able to decrease negative pressure than usual sanitary T fittings system, using food waste grinders break to pieces finely are able to decrease positive pressure than using its break to pieces roughly, and offset has effect of making horizontal transport smooth, were found.
In this study, characteristics and variations of Heat Island Potential (HIP) on urban blocks were examined from a viewpoint of land use and countermeasure for thermal environment in order to obtain knowledge about the influence factor on sensible heat flux from all surface of urban blocks. First, four types of land use, commercial/business, residential, industrial and main road, were selected for analysis. All surface temperature and HIP of urban block was calculated by heat balance simulation at 28 cases on clear sky day in summer. It was clarified that HIP of each model was different characteristically, and material of urban block, planting method and room temperature of building influenced largely on that. Especially, drop of HIP by tall trees planting was remarkable.
An experiment used eye camera (EMR-7) was carried out to study cultural influences on visual scanning. Three subjects groups (Chinese foreign students, Japanese students, European foreign students, and all the subjects lived in Hiroshima or Higashi-Hiroshima city) were tested by presentation of 8 peaces of river-landscape. Data of the fixation behavior were measured, when the subjects were looking at freely and evaluating the landscapes. The similar tendency was appeared on fixation behavior during looking at the landscape, as they like. However, if any questions were given before scan the landscape, there was the difference among the fixation behavior of the three groups. By using discriminant analysis with fixation and evaluation, the results were showed that the different visual behaviors affect evaluating landscape too because of the subject's different cultural background.
What are the determinants of prediction of the other people's personal space in the limited space? This article discusses the question on the study of perception of the others in the limited space. Two experiments were executed in order to understand the prediction of the distance from the viewpoint of the personal space. One is about perception of the interpersonal distance, the other is about prediction of the own reachable distance and prediction of the others reachable distance. The results of the experiments were summarized as follows : 1) People can perceive the interpersonal distance by 10cm in the limited space. 2) The predicted distance that one could reach is larger than others'. 3) The discrepancy of the distance could make people uncomfortable in crowding space. 4) The balance between interpersonal distance and depth of space relates to the comfortable in the room. 5) The psychological territory in the room can be investigated through the experiment using the instruct pronoun. (at least in Japanese)
The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference of visual evaluation under combined environment of noise and temperature between architectural and non-architectural students. Environmental conditions were temperature condition (20.5 C and 24.5 C in winter; 20.5 C, 24.5 C, and 28.5 C in summer) and noise condition (47dB of ambient noise, 65dB of road traffic noise). The Semantic Differential method was used. Consequently, it was shown that environmental factors other than vision, such as temperature and noise, influenced significantly the evaluation of landscapes. Furthermore, the influence of noise, the difference between subjects, etc. were discussed in detail.
"Special space" is defined as the space that influences the domain and use of housing space, reflecting the life-style of modern Japan ese people. This study aims to establish a methodology for evaluating people's way of life in using this space. The second part of the study applies to houses shown in "Jutaku Tokushu" published by Shin-Kenchikusha in 1990,1998 and 2000. It aims to establish an investigationg method based on accumulated data. It determines whether the data and analogs obtained by the method applied here correctly captured changes in Japanese society.
In a series of papers including this part, interaction between traditionalist Akha of Northern Thailand and the house will be empirically studied to understand ideal model of the house which is common among them. In this part, house space and household unit will be mainly focused on and described to clarify some factors of the model, as follows; 1. Characteristics of spatial organization. 2. Use of the space. 3. Social and ritual roll of specific man and woman in household unit who are each called the owner of the house. 4. Reciprocal relationship between those owners and spatial organization.
In Japan we have national curriculums in elementary schools. Ministry of Education of Japan settles several learning units of each subject per each grade and the learning content. So teachers have to teach the same contents of all subjects, but they can choose learning space, the learning methods, and learning equipments and environments as they think. I think it is important to grasp the patterns of combinations of what teachers can choose for planning learning space in elementary schools. The purpose of this study is to extract several representative patterns of combination of learning space, the learning methods, and learning equipments and environments per learning units per each grade of science .
The establishment of Dongan Market indicated the new stage of the development of urban commercial facilities in Beijing of modern era. The evolution of Dongan Market was very significant for the emergence and the configuration of modern public market in Beijing. This paper sums up the characters of Dongan Market, associating to the organization of the market and the arrangement of shops, from the point of view on regulations, rules and so on which were issued by Beijing city, with the historical full textual researchs.
The present research aims to investigate how hospital ward environments can contribute to psychiatric patients' treatments. Behavior of patients in a psychiatric hospital were surveyed over time before and after a move from the old ward to the new ward. The findings are as follows ; 1. About half of the patients' behavior observed were categorized "idle" before moving but decreased after moving. 2. Communication did not occur much at places where the function was defined only by objects placed there, for example a stereo set. 3. Though most of the activities did not last longer than 10 minutes before moving, activities that continued for a longer time span took place more often after moving. 4. It was often observed that patients used spaces in contrary to its function. For example, some patients went to common spaces to be alone. 5. Some staffs had an impression that the common spaces became quieter in the new ward even though the patients were more active after moving. It is possible that enlarging the space had a positive effect on calming patients' behavior.
The aim of this study is to clarify the exterior composition of architecture as continuation with the ground plane. That exterior composition is formed by continuity part and not-continuity part. Each part is articulated to outside volumes, building elements and banks. Continuity part is analyzed from the points of sectional outline with the ground and arrangement of not-continuity part. On top of that, facing materials of continuity part and relationship with an approach space are considered. Comparing the patterns of composition, they are classified into three methods; assimilation into natural landform, contrast building between ground, buffer of building between ground.
Targeting the terms used by architects appearing in works selected by AIJ and the company T, the terms were classified in two groups : "conceptual terms" that express abstract and conceptual content concerning design, such as the architect's concepts and descriptions of spaces and functions; and "morphological terms" that express concrete and substantive content, such as shapes of buildings, parts of buildings which generally allow the shape to be realized or imagined. The following observations were made : 1) "Conceptual terms" and "morphological terms" are highly unique for each application and for each work, and the reaction relationship of the two exhibits a high degree of uniqueness for each work. 2) The 79 "conceptual terms" that appear in all of the three applications of "stores, " "office facilities, " and "education facilities, " appeared with a high frequency in a large number of works, and architects, while treating these terms as a type of keyword, utilize methods of expression which are highly individual and unique. 3) Designs, by nature, have this uniqueness for each work.
The purpose of this study is to develop a decision making tool which is more rapid than community design models and to reveal that the tool is useful in consensus building on community design image. This paper shows effects of a method called "Digital simulation" developed for urban plannning through community participation. In February 2001,we used the method at K-area shopping district in Sumida-ku, Tokyo-to. A final plan was decided through the process of visually understanding the community design and the exchanging of opinions.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through the comparison of the Housing Survey, conducted every 5 years, and the statistics of building starts and losses about housing stocks according to construction material or type of building. 1. Comparing to the statistics of building starts, number of housing stocks about a category including steel frame houses is too few, and it about concrete block houses is too many. 2. The destruction ratios in stocks of wooden houses and tenement houses are greater than others in many periods. 3. Number of housing stocks estimated by the statistics of building starts applied "apparent destruction ratio" is very similar to it by the Housing Survey smoothed the results by "proportional destruction ratio".
Analysis of the relationships between human walking and level difference in buildings was conducted to find out ways to prevent tripping accidents. Natural walking of subjects was observed to identify the trajectory of tiptoe, and the result was examined from the viewpoint of potential tripping risk due to an obstacle on the floor. The findings are : walking speed slows down as subjects get older; and, if the subject does not notice the presence of an obstacle, risk of tripping can be estimated from the research result.
An experiment was conducted to investigate direction judgment in a curved corridor. Each participant walked through the curved corridor. A direction was presented to participants at the entrance, and they were asked to point this direction at two points within the corridor. The present study proposed two hypotheses : (a) participants underestimate the change of their traveling direction while walking; (b) participants use four-direction reference axes (front, back, left, and right) for direction judgment. Both hypotheses were supported, and it was suggested that participants estimated the change of their traveling direction to be approximately 90% of the actual change.
Urban Complex (UC), recently is built a lot, is important and up to date spaces that form community and amenity in urban spaces. Also it is an important element that forms cityscape. The purpose of this study is useful guide for Architectural planning and design by clarifying psychological evaluation of 3D composition of UC. In this paper, we clarify psychological evaluation of 3D composition, "Site plan", "Height", "Volume", "Density", by Ranking and Marking evaluation method using CG simulation. Also we clarify correlation of "Total evaluation" and "Site plan", "Height", "Volume" composition.
Spatial composition in the landscape paintings done by Hiroshige was analyzed in comparison to the types of disposition of the river in relation to the picture frame in the "landscape montage technique". Seven types of disposition of the river in relation to the frame were found : river along the top frame, along the bottom frame, connecting the left and the right frames, connecting the bottom and the side frame, connecting the horizon and the side frame, part of the bottom frame, or the entire bottom frame. Characteristics of spatial composition according to these types were clarified.
In this paper, we make clear how to deal with the landscape potential from topographical features of a city to obtain the basic information for taking landscape countermeasures which will be effective in promotion of tourism. We adopt photographs published in tourism pamphlets as samples in this study and analyze the photographs to classify the space composition of them. Using topographical features simulation, we analyze viewpoints, view objects and Visible area to get the characters of each space composition types.
Under the principle of New Liberalism, the Dutch housing policy is being transferred toward privatization of housing associations, decentralization of government administration to the housing association and local authorities and liberalization for owner-occupied activities since early 1990s. As a result of this policy, there has been a serious problem for target group including low-income people in their affordability and social residualisation. The purpose of this study is to explore the social influences of residualisation and fragmentaion for those income stratum by overlooking the historical and social background of Dutch housing policy and also analyzing the process of structural reform of the Dutch housing policy.
The purpose of this study is to examine how the various actors have involved for consensus building in the urban renewal project at Fujishirodai neighbourhood center in Senri New Town built in the 1960s and 70s. The result of the study will reveal the facts that through long negotiation the actors including property right holders and neighboring residents have realized the agreement integrating rejuvenation of the shopping center and protection of the surrounding environment by lowering the initial height of high-rise building to final low-rise building. The actors achieved self -determination by setting up negotiation body in which they can make agreements.
The purpose of this paper is to lead the necessity of 'Urban produce' from the viewpoints of both the comprehensive plans and the urban activities. To pursue this purpose, we extracted the factors which are observed in the urban activities by using the statistics of Nagoya city. As a result, the characteristics of urban bases(urban center or sub center) are to promote or to attract urban activities by their valuable charms. It is necessary to introduce a new effective way to do it. 'Urban produce' is the necessary measure to create the town design form now on.
This paper will focus on Conservation and Environmentalism which Benton MacKaye, a conservationist-regional planner, collaborated through 1910s to 1950s. Apparently, MacKaye was a trained forester who got his professional start at US Forest Service, and also a founder of The Appalachian Trail as well as The Wilderness Society, establishing as a humanist mentor to the Environmentalism Movement in US. As a conservation advocate on problem of resources, MacKaye explored the certain important ecological aspects with the profoundly social angle in his works. Admittedly, throughout this paper, the most observing values will be made to trace the interest in his conservation dealing with Habitability and natural resources on a regional base.
This article develops a method of spatial autocorrelation analysis in order to improve the understanding of tendencies of spatial autocorrelation and to make facile comparisons between different areas. This method extracts two main characteristics of spatial autocorrelation, i.e., the successive decrease tendency accompanying the increase in distance and the effect of direction, respectively, and quantitatively evaluates them with simple indices. Furthermore, the factor of distance, the major tendency of spatial autocorrelation, is formulized with the exponential function. An application of the developed method shows a good fit.
Arousing the public interest of long life periods of the houses, the importance of house maintenance has been realized again. Considering the fact that many of the houses are being replaced despite their satisfactory conditions in physical endurance, it is necessary to search for some way to prolong its life. This paper analyzes from the survey of the present of house maintenance, extension, remodeling and rebuilding behavior to grasp the relation between maintenance and house life, with a goal to find ways to lead rebuilding-motivated factors towards extension and remodeling activities, thus promoting longer lives of Japanese houses.
The aim of this paper is to systematize asset management support information, to detail the way of system development of enterprise resource planning packages supporting this management and to propose the way as a fixed method. The main conclusion of this paper consists of the following four points. (1) From the point of view of management cycle, it is proposed that asset management support information could be classified into five groups. (2) Next, the author outlined the process of enterprise resource planning packages and presented the arranged applications for asset management. (3) Then, devised the basic structure of enterprise resource planning packages by giving a context to five basic packages based on five information groups. (4) Moreover, planned tenant leasing management application with the aid of the proposed system development method and presented this application as an example of management applications.
A Study on Right form and the Use actual condition of the Gangi Arcade in the Edo era. In the Imperial court ground, Gangi Arcade was occupancy-ized, and the passage function was maintained in private land. As for this, townspeople show having established the life base of oneself by the intention of oneself against the background of community-consciousness.
The Honma family of Sakata was the greatest landowner in Japan through the Edo Period. They owned vast farmlands and rice paddies around the Shounai area in Yamagata Prefecture and placed farmland managers - taya and shihai'nin - in major areas to supervise their farmers. This paper focuses on the historical analysis of farmland managers' residences. 1. Studies on two extant farmland manager residences were made to clarify original configurations of exemplary structures. 2. Studies were made to analyze the rebuilding of farmland managers' residences in the Meiji Era. 3. The necessity of guest rooms in residences of farmland managers, to welcome the Honma Family rice inspector, was clarified based on surveys of extant residences.
This paper describes the analysis of the renovation of the Kencho-ji garden during the Horeki-era (1751-1756) mainly based on the record titled "the diary of renovation of Ryuo-den." Followings are the new aspects of the renovations found through the analysis. 1. The partial renovation of the pond and vegetation were conducted two years before the construction of the hojo building. 2. Those renovations were done under the direction of the principal builder named "Sanzaemon." 3. The principal builder were in charge of designing and constructing both building and garden instead of separate manner.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between kohai pillars(pillars supporting a narrow portico which projects from the roof over the moya - the raised core of the shrine) and the hisashi (the peripheral area in front of the moya) in the architecture of the inner sanctuary of Shinto shrines with facades featuring three bays (sangensha) or more. The study concentrates on shrines in the former Satsuma feudal domain. First we classified shrines according to whether they have kohai pillars or kaidanshita hisashi pillars(pillars supporting a portico of the same width as the roof covering the moya). Next, we distinguished between shrines which have a hisashi in front of the moya and those that do not. We make it clear that, in their primary form, the inner sanctuaries with kohai pillars have hisashi in front of the moya, while those with kaidanshita hisashi pillars do not. Thus, the hisashi in front of the moya is related to the presence of kohai pillars.
The aim of the study is to examine the change in composition of the common-use rooms of Japanese hotels in cities during the Periods of Meiji, Taisho and Early Showa. The examination illustrates the process in which the building styles of the hotels developed to meet the needs of the modern Japanese society. The development of the styles led to two contrastive types of the hotels. While some hotels were built as composite establishments with restaurants, ceremonial halls, entertainment facilities and variety of other functions, others were built as facilities built strictly to provide accommodation.
This paper intends to shed light on the composition of scenic views created by William Kent (1685-1748) in Rousham Gardens. Scenic views are to be perceived statically, in contrast with sequential views implying the viewer's movement. Garden elements in scenic views can be divided into architectural, arboreal and topographical. The scenic views are analyzed by considering the arrangement of the garden elements according to the line of view. The 13 scenic views selected are divided into 4 types : 1) perspectival; 2) overlooking undulating land from a high vantage-point; 3) looking up at undulating land from a low vantage-point; 4) with architectural elements placed both close and in a distance.