The purpose for the study was to clarify the distinct features in the construction as well as development of Via Giulia located in the Florentine's residential district, Rome. The following was evident from the 16^<th> century census records as well as present street conditions: (1) Restaurant owners, tailors and bakers were amongst the wide variety of occupations which took up business in the Florentine residential district during the 16^<th> century. (2) The 1508 urban redevelopment project was undertaken to correct streets intersecting "Via Guilia" diagonally and rearrange the intersections to a vertical angle.(3) The Florentine Antonio da Sangallo il Giovane was responsible for construction of three buildings, thus contributing to the prosperity of "Via Giulia".
The aim of the study is to find out what kind of daily living environment for inpatients should be provided in hospitals by clarifying the relationship between therapeutic / healing environment and inpatients' days. The analysis focused on the differences in inpatients' behaviors during ordinary and free time in different physical settings. The questionnaire and interview surveys had been carried out in each medical/surgical ward in three hospitals. The four major findings are shown below: 1. The behaviors are proved to be influenced by physical environment, especially in the case during free time. 2. The difference in physical environment around beds located in window side and corridor side is found out less in the case of new type "territolialized" 4-beds rooms than traditional type. 3. Although it is found that the inpatients carried out more various activities and stayed longer in their own bedrooms in the case of the new type than the traditional type, the Quantification Theory 1 revealed that the decreasing tendency had been observed in the case of the new type, while increasing tendency in the case of single bed rooms and the traditional 4-beds rooms, stemming from the fact that there are less provision of the space for inpatients outside their own bedrooms in the wards in the case of the new type. 4. It is observed that the inpatients stay longer during free time at the multifunctional day-spaces, especially the spaces are located along the way to the dining room.
It is needed to building up environment for children to foster the ability and willingness to learn independently. The purpose of this study is to find the methods of planning space of children's living activities to learn independently in elementary school. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Each homeroom is the core territory of children, and 1st-3rd graders play around their homeroom. But activity area is getting widely as one's grade in school advanced. Therefore, it is important to be considered the territory of children's activity. 2) Open-spaces shared passage are effective in communicating with different grade children. 3) It is necessary for communication with different grade children not only to get large space but also to check up on the way to use space.
Imperial universities played the big role of educational base before World War II. This paper clarified the nature of educational base, judging from the imperial universities' feature of the system or actual condition of the construction. The results of this study are as follows. The arrangement of the imperial universities was considered that the nature of educational base was balanced in the whole country and the district. Each imperial university was founded by the national demand and the district demand. In case of the establishment of imperial universities depended on the national demand, the establishment was based on the occasional national policy or the social situation. On the other hand, another imperial universities were founded depending on the locality of national demands.
This paper aims to clarify the process of transition in framing system of vernacular farmhouses in Tsukuba City. Analyzing the arrangement of structural columns including Okama-bashira and Daikoku-bashira, and also checking the composition of columns and beams, it's clarified that the frame has not simply shifted from Okama-bashira with lower beams to Daikoku-bashira with tall structural Kamoi named Sashi-gamoi. Okama-bashira originally acted structural base to obtain wide area including earthen floor and living space. Adopting Daikoku-bashira frame in the main living space, Okama-bashira frame still remained, however it placed far from Daikoku-bashira and exclusively acted to expanding the earthen floor.
In this paper, we proposed a fire safety design method, which optimizes plans using a genetic algorithm (GA). The balance of the safety performance on fire prevention and economical efficiency evaluates the goodness of safety design of building. Changing weight of the safety performance and economical efficiency, the form of plans and the installation item of fire prevention equipments would be optimized by another combination.
Recently, the area of wasting land, such as abandoned land, disposed refuse land, disposed material land, is increasing in suburban area. This background is the decline of farmland value by the serious situation of agriculture, and high demand for urban land use by facilities for travel. This paper clarify the diversity of wasting, categorizing wasting land, and analyzing the process of its wasting. Urbanized land can be categorizing in the view points of quality and quantity of refuse. The wasting are mainly caused by activities of construction industry in the cities around this area.
When we review the modern settlements in Hokkaido began in Meiji Era, Tondenhei-muras are considered to be composing the first among the layers of developments. Here we would like to reveal the planning theory of them and evaluate how it worked up to now. By the method of overlay mapping analysis with field survey and reference of documents, we succeed to describe the general spatial model of Tondenhei-mura. Different from the established theory that explains the settlements emphasizing the reasons of national defense, it is made clear that most of settlements were carefully planned rather by rational reasons for cultivating farm fields, managing colonized communities, protecting from the severe climate conditions on topography. The model can be described of the composition of territorial orders of land use, oriented by the axis with the careful setting of central zone, creating spiritual symbol as a Shinto shrine, preparing common property for various purposes and common reservation land.
Since 1949 China has built around 86,000dams and resulted in over 12 million involuntary resettlers. The state's housing construction, facing the people's longing for reviving their pre-resettling life pattern after moving struggle, is a tough issue with the mission to meet the settlers' hope for unwavering post-resettling peace. The Government since 1980s has in general applied the "Typical Design" policy, which was set up to standardize the housing construction and to upgrade the safety level. So far, not a study about this issue has been done and the writer with what follows would show some study results about this issue. It is hoped that by the study the current governmental housing design and construction process would be improved. In doing so, the writer has done field survey and researches covering 16dam resettler residential areas, seeking to offer the policy an analytical evaluation in terms of its history good and weak points in the process in practice from the specific data via the field work.
Convenience stores contributed supplies to the damaged area due to the 1999 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Since then, how to practically use the convenience stores after earthquake disasters has been discussed by the Cabinet Office, Japan Franchise Association, and the convenience store companies. However, it cannot be realized without consideration of the location and regional potential capacity of each store. In this paper, the authors estimate the regional potential capacity for the distributable supplies of the stores in Kawasaki City from view points of the population, location, and range of the activity of the residents. Also it shows the disaster response plans by the companies.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the method which clarify the combination rule of traditional facade with rough set theory. The sensibility evaluation test on Sanneizaka preservation district for groups of historic buildings was done with elevational facade photos, and acquired some reducts, Covering Index and Column Score by employing the rough set theory. From the analysis of them, the combinations of several contributory form elements could describe the aforesaid facade significantly.
This study is the analysis for the characteristics of regional linking plans which are around prefecture borders. The analysis is based on questionnaires and a case study for 9 regional plans created by organizations which are linked around the prefecture borders. The followings are the findings of the study. 1) Conceptual Plan for General field (CPG), Conceptual Plan for Specific field (CPS) and Action Plan for Regionally linked organization (APR) are demanded by the local governments office which are in the prefecture boarder regions. 2) CPG is influenced by the national government plan. The vitalization of industry and information/communication are the main fields of CPG Each projects of CPG tend to concentrate into the prefecture border region. 3) CPS is based on the ideas from the prefecture border area. The promotion of tourism and related business is the main purpose of CPS. Each projects of CPS tend to concentrate into individual prefecture. 4) APR planed for the projects which the prefecture border linked organizations are able to carry out. Each projects of APR tend to concentrate in inner/outer-area of the prefecture border region.
We studied that the effectiveness of the Neighborhood Matching Fund (NMF) on the promotion of community-led developments in the city of Seattle in terms of (A) "Community building and fostering" and (B) "Incremental changes of neighborhoods by communities". The NMF's roles are the following: As for (A), (1) the NMF encouraged more participation, (2) the NMF promoted collaborations between community and professionals, and (3) the NMF promoted developments of new community groups. As for (B), (1) the NMF promoted incremental changes of neighborhoods by various community groups and (2) the NMF provided grants for various phases of developments.
This paper analyses the differences between management and confirmation to get the final products by comparative study between manufacturing industry and construction industry. As the result of it, the authors make it clear that Kouji-Kanri in Japan is limited for "fitness for purpose". Furthermore, Kouji-Kanri has the similar function as Construction Manager in the US, Clerk of Works in the UK from the view point of their business objectives. The difference between management and confirmation in construction projects is whether information process management or quality confirmation by checking products. The Japanese construction industry has been focused on not customer side but supply side like productivity increase of construction projects. This paper shows that the changing definition of Japanese Kouji-Kanri produces management procurement system, which is based on client's objectives and the nature of projects; furthermore, it has come to introduce new management style for the Japanese construction projects.
In a super-highrise residence project, a project manager needs to form the long-term risk management plan which covers the problems from the beginning of construction to the time of demolition. The cause and responsibility for a risk are clarified and quantitatively evaluated through the life cycle of a project. Development of the system which supports a risk strategy effectively is needed as a project becomes complex. In this paper, through the life cycle of a specific super-highrise residence project, a risk phenomenon is specified from a viewpoint of each participant, and the mathematical model is formulated choosing the combination of the optimal strategy against a risk quantitatively within a fixed risk strategy budget.
The purpose of this paper is to develop an analyzing method of relocation transition matrix change, and to confirm the effectiveness of that method through application to actual data. 1. Transition matrix change can be broken roughly to 3 factors. Those are (1) Eigenvalue change, (2) Eigenvector change, (3) the Compound effect of Eigenvalue and Eigenvector change. 2.In the case of relocation transition matrix change, these factors are interpreted as (1) Change of influence in the regional relocation sphere, (2) Change of the regional relocation sphere structure. 3. We applied this method to time series change of the relocation transition matrix in Tokyo metropolitan area, and confirmed the effectiveness of this method.
Prefabricated housing plays a important part in the market for newly built detached housing. In this study, We have carried out a survey of prefabricated owner occupied detached houses. We attempted to present the position played by prefabricated housing in relation to the total housing market. This paper reveals the characteristics of purchasers of prefabricated detached houses who scrap their old house and rebuilt a new house on the same site. The main results are as follows: 1) The rebuilding ratio of prefabricated detached housing is roughly at the same level as for the total newly built detached owned housing market. 2) Prefabricated rebuilt houses, on average, are larger and more expensive than newly built traditional timber constructed houses. 3) In general, scrap and build house purchasers, relative to first time buyers tend to be older. And they tend to have higher incomes and private funds so homes purchased tend to be of higher quality, have a larger floor space, and are more expensive. 4)As for the motivation for scrapping and rebuilding the extent of dilapidation and cramped size of the previous house are the primary reasons. Another important reason is to build a house specially designed to have two married generations under the same roof.
The purpose of this study is to clarify actual condition of network residence in Tohoku district. We continued the survey and from the data analysis, the following results were obtained, 1) The average number of members of "family consciousness" surpassed that of household, and will be up to 8 in Tohoku district. The average number of household among network residence is 2.6, which means a number of family include 2 or 3 dispersed residence. 2) Over 70% households in every district have over 2 dispersed residences. The average of channel (a number of dispersed residence) tends to decrease in elderly households. 3) About 80% of members of "family consciousness" are parents, children, brothers and sisters and spouse. In Tohoku district, the family consciousness for children tends to increase till they are in 60s, and to decrease thereafter. 4) We found out regional tendency according to family types of the network residence. From a comparison of each district, we presupposed the process for each type of network residence in Tohoku district.
In the central area of local city, there're many traditional vacant houses. This study is suggesting the renovation system of vacant house as rental house. The system is constructed by the clauses of rental contract on a guarantee of long-term residence, and the planning process of repair included the performance diagnosis and reinforcement program. Firstly, the problems of rental contract system are pointed out and next the new system is proposed. Secondly, the case study of long-term rental housing contract is carried out. Thirdly, the simulation of repair with the reinforcement of heat insulation and earthquake resistant performance is shown.
This paper traces one of the wooden tiled roofs called Toribuki. Toribuki fixes wooden tiles to a roof by means not by pegs or strings but by stones, bamboos or logs. Each wooden tile is not planed and uniform, and is easily replaced for a very short time and finally used as fuel. Today the remains of Toribuki almost disappeared except some properties. Yet, the term dates from late medieval and the examples date from the late ancient. Toribuki could be seen both in the lower-class buildings and in the attached small buildings particularly completed by no craftsmen.
Of the housings designed for Hojo during Kamakura era, history of two types of housings are studyed. These two residences were at the west of Okurra residence. The west residence of it became a housing called Akahashi and it was inherited from Nagatoki to Yoshimasa, then to Naritoki, Akitoki, Hisatoki and Moritoki of Hojo. The east residence of it became a housing called Nishi and it was inherited from Masamura to Munemasa, Akitoki and Morotoki of Hojo.
In ancient literatures such as "Kojiki", "Nihon Shoki", and Shinto prayers, there is a cliche in relation to form of Shinto shrines and palaces. The shrine of Ise is one of those architectures. This cliche reminds people of 'setting up big pillars on the bedrock, putting up ornamental crossbeams of gable in the sky'. Such image of archaic architecture coincides with existing form of the shrine of Ise. This paper investigated the relation between this cliche and form of the shrine of Ise, so as to ascertain patterns and historical importance of this cliche. Through this investigation, the following issues were found. 1. There is possibility that this cliche expresses partly form of the shrine of Ise in ancient times. 2. It is inferred that there is mutual relationship among the descriptions contain this cliche.
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime (Tokugawa era). In this paper, it will be clarified the role of Kyoto hikeshi and Kyoto johikeshi these were fire fighting teams of Tozama Daimyo (feudal lord group) in the Kinki area. Some studies described that the role of them was fire extinguishing for Kyoto city only, and others described fire fighting team of Tozama Daimyo were defense army of Kyoro. But, in this paper, it will be clarified that Kyoto hikesi started as substitute for Kyoto shoshidai (governor of Kyoto and its neighboring district) and the fire house located near Tuijiuchi (the royal palace). There for the role of Kyoto them included fire fighting for Tuijiuchi.
In the Meiji Period, the estimation of Nikko Tosho-gu written in the textbook of the compulsory education was high, but that of the specialists were under the conflict between admiration and criticism in their mind. In the early years of Syowa that in the complete history about Japanese architecture, the textbook of higher education, was lower, though that in the compulsory education was still high. Therefore the estimation of Tosho-gu between compulsory and higher education was becoming split.
In order to clarify an organizing concept of the Housing Corporation, this study reviews the organizing process and reveals the roles of Housing Problem Committee of Architectural Institute. On the course of organizing process, Housing Problem Committee emphasized an importance of 'Housing Quality,' which was seen in 'Proposal for Housing Urgent Measure.' To realize the 'Housing Quality,' the Housing Problem Committee further proposed designing standards in 'Technical Study For the Common People.' Based on these proposals, the Ministry of Health and Welfare made 'designing standards for housing and its surroundings,' and organized the Housing Corporation in 1941. These pieces of evidence indicate that, under strong influence of Housing Problem Committee of Architectural Institute, the Housing Corporation was organized on a concept of supplying houses with standardized quality.
By this study, We paid our attention to an intention of the public presentation in the Marine Biological Station Aquarium and Specimen room attached to Hokkaido Imperial University. The characteristic of a building of the Marine Biological Station was Expressionism, Functionalism and Art Deco. In particular a cylindrical aquarium and specimen room are unique. Prof. Oguma, Chief Hagiwara and Okada were related to preparation of the Marine Biological Station. And Hokkaido empire university repairs section had strong will toward preparation of this building which was considered about an exhibition. The design thought took influence of exhibition thought.
In 1910, Japan annexed Korea. As a cultural policy, the Government-General of Korea accomplished the investigation activities of "Cultural Properties" including historical buildings in Korean peninsula. Preservation rule of relics and objects is established in 1916, and law for the protection of treasures, historic sites, places of scenic beauty and natural monuments is established in 1933. And they started the repair of the historic buildings from 1913. This paper considers: 1) investigation and preservation systems, 2) administrative systems 3) repair activities.
Before the first use of en delit shafts at the chevet of Saint-Denis in 1140-1144, there were two types of construction system of colonnettes responding to rib vaults in Ile-de-France. The first type is seen at the churches of Saint-Etienne at Beauvais and Saint-Germer-de-Fly, and the second type is at Saint-Pierre de Montmartre and at Sens. By making the schema of the construction system, this paper reveals the difference of the two types of system, and concludes that the system seen around Beauvais led the buildings in Ile-de-France into the gothic style.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the cult of ruins in the Picturesque movement in architecture, gardens and landscape during eighteenth-century England. The ruin-mania and the heightened interest in landscape gardening produced a number of artificial ruins. The leading architect of such artificial ruins was Sanderson Miller. In this study, the ruins at Radway Grange and Hagley Park and his original design for Wimpole Castle will be analyzed as case studies. Through the analysis of artificial ruins, this study aims to clarify the historical meaning of the cult of ruin in term of the Picturesque and Gothic Revival.
The purpose of this study is to make the meaning of Scale in Architecture clear by doing an analysis of various literatures which explain the terms of scale. The results of this analysis, the scale of architecture is not only the system of size in various levels (physical, visual, technological, economical, etc.), but also the allometrical relations between the proportions which exist in similar forms of different size each other.
This research aims at clarifying modernization process of Busan, Korea and finding how the city had developed by capital and commerce. When it became Japanese Annexation of Korea in 1910, Japanese developed Busan by large scale. The number of the Japanese who emigrate to Busan increases, various kinds of construction and the development project also increase, and it becomes a bigger city. With these developments, Busan strengthens character as a commerce-and-industry city, the influence is reflected also in the composition of a city area by development of the commerce and industry of Busan, and the tendency for the city areas to specialize functionally came to be more clearly. When development of the west side of the Yongdu mountain progresses, Japanese's place-of-residence division has visible signs that it extended to the west greatly. And the east side of the Yongdu mountain becomes the area which has a function as a business area. In addition, Choryang, Busanjin area, and Youngdo Island which were the suburban areas in Busan, there become a manufacturing area. With enlargement of the city, it is shown that each area had each features functionally within the period of Japanese annexation of Korea.
This paper aims to clarify the transformation of the landscape of tourism just after the World War II through the oral explanations by the tour guides in the reconstruction period of the sightseeing bus tours in Hiroshima. Analyzing the guide texts and the interview to the tour guides at that time, we can find out the process of the connection of the various information; the tradition of Hiroshima before the war, the historical evidences in the wartime and the postwar rehabilitation. That is to say, the atom-bombed city Hiroshima in the beginning intended to be the 'peace' city, integrating the landscapes of tourism of the various times and spaces.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process of approval of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 enacted by Sir John Lubbock, and to consider the people's attitude to the conservation of historical monuments in Britain at that time. It took 9 years to approve the act. Meanwhile, a lot of discussions were performed in the Parliament. These discussions are very important to understand the British building conservation system since they are related to the basic idea for the administration of them. Then, I focus on details of enactment of the act. I discuss the difference between the National Monuments Preservation Bill 1873 that Lubbock presented first and the Act that actually approved, and I argue about the discussions in the Parliament. I also examine the influence to the later British building conservation administration system briefly. In conclusion, I show how the British people thought about the conservation of historical monuments and buildings in late 19th Century, and how the 1882 Act influenced to the later system.
In recent years, Japan has been experiencing a conspicuous demographic increase of the elderly as well as the disabled. In response, the central and local governments have been promoting developing work incorporating the concept of barrier-free living space. Given the limitations of barrier-free development, there is increasing interest in development work using the new concept of a universal design. This Study focuses on such a universal design which is a development method for all, including the elderly and the disabled, and aims at understanding the present development state of beach facilities constructed by the administration based on the concept of a universal design and presenting basic materials which will be useful for the future development of facilities which adopt a universal design. The Study also aims at obtaining useful knowledge by clarifying several issues listed below and examining the desirable direction for the administration to develop beach facilities adopting a universal design and the possibility of developing the best facilities for users.