In Tokyo, super-high-rise housings have been rapidly increasing since 2000. We studied 99 housings which were built 1989-2011 with over 100m high. In early time, in relatively larger sites 1 to 3 residential buildings were built with mid-rises ones and other facilities. In recent years, in small sites 1 or 2 ones are often built without mid-rises and other regional facilities. In these cases one residential building is built parallel to the frontal street so that its floor area ratio becomes maximum. Its building coverage ratio of high-rise part is about 20~45%.
The purpose of the study is to select the villages which were planned and established in the Ryukyu Islands during the early modern period and to clarify the spatial composition of the villages by classifying the configuration based on the conditions of topographic location. Villages planned and established during the early modern period will be selected from the preceding studies and literatures. The landscape of the prewar villages will be reproduced and analyzed, and the spatial configuration of the villages will be classified with the locations selected based on the characteristics and configuration. The spatial composition of each village will then be clarified by analyzing the characteristics of the villages classified.
This paper analyzes in detail the use of space, furniture and equipment in 6 private family day care facilities with the C-1 floor planning model (two rooms connected, with independent access to common areas) and a certain pattern of use (both rooms for playing and separated rooms for eating and sleeping). The analysis of observational data shows no disruption on common nursery actions for this combination of floor planning and pattern of use. A detailed table of suggestions about floor planning, pattern of use, furnishing and use of materials and equipment is proposed.
The aim of this study is to clarify a class room, a playground and a gallery in the educational theory written by David Stow and to investigate the relationship between the Stow's school models and school models created by the Committee of the Privy Council on Education in 1840. So the Committee's were influenced by the Stow's, that they had class rooms, playgrounds and galleries. In the addition to it, the Committee's might be influenced by the design of class room in the University of Edinburgh where the first secretary of the Committee, James Philip Kay had studied and experienced it.
It was found by analyses as below how occupants feel disharmony when they live together: 1. Occupants sometimes feel disharmony in daily life, and it happens when occupant's private area and behavior area are overlapped with family areas and their behavior areas; 2. To understand the reason that occupant feels disharmony in the house when living together, occupant's private area and behavior area was analyzed. As the consequence, it turned out that occupant's behavior area was smaller than his/her private area overall; and, 3. According to the analysis of relationship between the occupant's private area and behavior area, and family relationship, three types of family relationships were found: 1) the type of invasion of mother's area, 2) the type of balanced invasion of areas, and 3) the type of free invasion of areas.
This study investigates pedestrian avoidance behaviors in a crowd. In order to appreciate avoidance behaviors in detail, the new graphic illustration method, called “Pedestrian-Perspective Movement Tracking Diagram” was developed in this paper. This illustration method packs a sequence of pedestrian movement from the pedestrian's perspective visually in one picture. The results of our experiment show for example detouring avoidance behavior can be observed after pedestrians reduce their speed. A case study in a real railway station was also carried out applying our new method to observe avoidance behaviors in a more complex pedestrian flow.
This research aims to construct a total building “commissioning” process that is currently underdeveloped in the architectural planning and design field and clarify its value through practical cases of total building commissioning at a university research facility. We organized and verified lifecycle commissioning from the predesign phase to the occupancy and operation phase. We then analyzed the examination items and the examination flow in architectural commissioning by organizing all the documents on related subjects, including programming and design requirements. In addition, we surveyed participants regarding their attitudes about the commissioning and determined that attitudes varied because of differences in status.
This research aims to explore problems involved in the resumption and restoration of school management after the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster by analyzing the relocation process and closing and consolidation of devastated schools in the three years from the immediate aftermath of the earthquake disaster to March 2014. In this research, we regarded the process from the devastation to the establishment of a situation that enabled students to move into a permanent school building and commute to school without anxiety as school restoration and covered all of the 27 schools destroyed completely by the tsunami in the coastal area of Iwate Prefecture.
This paper discusses the characteristics of spatial formation of Zhonghuamen Menxidiqu area in the city of Nanjing. Nanjing, which is known as the capital city of Ming Dynasty, had developed as a central city from ancient time in Jiāngnán Region. Zhonghuamen Menxidiqu area is located along the river which connects the Nanjing to the Southern fertile region of China and have been a prosperous area as commercial node. There still maintain the traditional house type, so called sìhéyuàn, but most of them are occupied by several families. This paper clarifies the types and their variants based on the field surveys to discuss the formation and transformation process of the urban tissues.
This paper shows that mountain worship contributed to city formation in medieval Hiraizumi, using some indices of buildings and roads extension axis. As a result, the concentration of buildings and roads axis to two mountains -Kannonyama and Rambaisan- was found, where important shrine designated by the Imperial Court formation exist. The fact suggests a possibility that mountain worship of Japan ancient times also contributed to construction of main facilities and city-formation in medieval Hiraizumi, as well as the belief of Ohshu Fujiwara Family to Buddhism.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the numbers of visitors by their characteristics on rambling route and purchasing behavior by using 2008 and 2011 survey, in order to propose some plans to vitalize the city center. In the first part of this paper, we classified city center visitors into the 4 groups in each year (2008 and 2011) by rambling route and consumption indices. In the Second part of this paper, Multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate the numbers of visitors into the city center by using results of behavioral survey and traffic volumes survey. We considered several proposals revitalizing the city center based on the characteristics of each group.
Recently, the alternative risk transfer (“ART”) has been known as a useful risk management tool in the risk financing to diversify the natural catastrophic risk that retained by the insurers and re-insurers to issue the Cat-bond. Usually the parametric trigger based CAT-bond linked to natural phenomena such as an earthquake magnitude and a central pressure of the hurricane is popular product in the market due to their transparency for the investors as a risk taker. For the designing of the CAT-bond, the efficiency of the risk transferring is key factor to measure the effectiveness of the Cat-bond. In the study, we studied the efficiency of the risk transferring to vary the parameters such as a center pressure difference, a gate size of the cyclone passing etc.
This study focuses on homeowners who reconstructed housing with self help relocation after the Great East Japan Earthquake. It aims to clarify why they have decided to relocate, what kind of action they took in their housing reconstruction process, and how they are satisfied with the results. It is proved that the motivation for relocation is a fear of the next tsunami and the aggressive withdraw from governments' group relocation projects because of its slow speed. This decision-making and reconstruction action has given significance influence for post-disaster recovery plan developed by local government that need to be revised.
This study aims to clarify the relationship between the grown lichen and the difference of roof tile. The characteristics of the grown lichen were analyzed on following two methods. (1) The growth experiments of lichen on Mock-ups have been carried out for 6 months in Inabuchi village by using six kinds of roof tiles through the difference of production area and method. (2) The distribution of tiled roofs with lichen was surveyed in Inabuchi·Kayanomori villages and Obuse neighborhood area. The condition of the grown lichen was classified by the difference of roof tiles and the substrate of roof.
The castle town cities, Yama-ate and Vista, refer to Donjon, Turret and the surrounding mountain peaks, which provide people perpetually changing views, applying GIS to analyze the actual landscape condition of Murakami city, Niigata. First, It aims to restore the mid-Meiji streets tracing back to the feudal and the Castle, measuring the micro-topography. Second, Classify the streets into four unobstructed views basing upon street patterns and the appearance of objects, and specify the object mountain. Third, Analyze these four by street condition, Object Mountain and topography. The characters of relationship among landscape composition, objects and their locations, can be manifested.
In Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings (hereinafter IPD), some buildings are built very close to their adjoining ones, and their roofs often protrude beyond borders with the adjoining premises. But, the current Building Standard Law does not consider problems arising from such situations. So, it is not possible to determine whether such roofs protruding out to adjoining estates are violating the law. This study revealed the following points. Many officials of preservation sections generaly instruct to to keep them as they are. But, their interpretation of whether these roofs are compatible or not with the current BSL is divided, and most of them are reluctant to support major remodeling of historic buildings, which might cause a complicated problem of legitimacy of the remodeled buildings. And this study examined about how to make these roofs relevant to the current BSL.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the knowledge about the assessment methodology of present environmental condition for the elderly people in residential area. And the methodology will be able to judge the future situation whether the residential area would be habitable. We analyze the characteristics of the local, Nasushiobara city in Tochigi. And to use GIS and to calculate the physical environment clarified the situation of local areas quantitatively. As the results of the analysis, we made sure of distribution of the accessibility between the urban area and the agricultural and mountainous rural area. The most accessible facility is “bus-stop”, and the agricultural and mountain area have relatively low accessibility. The worst accessible facility is "medical institution". Distribution of accessibility with regard to police station and post office is low.
Since the Great East Japan Earthquake, the victims in the area, where their house ownership rate was far higher than the rented house one, have used the housing lease program for disaster victims. To examine their moving process, housing conditions and housing reconstruction trend, we conducted questionnaire surveys and interviews on residents have living in Ofunato City under this program through the disaster. We obtained the following results. (1)Many residents were able to acquire housing in the same or surrounding school district as where they lived before the disaster. (2)Many residents got the house with the help of relatives or acquaintances and some did so through real estate agents. (3)The victims living in the old houses experienced stress with the bad living environment and some repaired their old houses paying their own expenses. (4)They want to build their new houses near the original home locations both in city area and in coast area.
This article examined the photographer of 34 photographs placed in “THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891,” and clarified as follows; 1) 6 photographs (PLATE X, PLATE XII, and PLATE XVIII of the second print) were photographed by Mr. Kin Miysashita. 2) The photographer of PLATE XIV of the second print could be Mr. Bokuyo Nakamura. 3) The photographer of PLATE II of the second print must be Mr. Saburo Aoyama, and PLATE XX of the second print must be Mr. Kinbei Kusakabe. Therefore, it is certain that 25 photographs except for above 9, were photographed by Mr. Burton.
While Seiiti Sirai was an architect, he spent a lot of time practicing calligraphy in his last years. Comparing the features of this activity with his theory of tradition, it can be said that both of his intentions are similar. In addition to the commonality of attaching importance to “utility,” according to the theory of tradition, the concept of grasping the inner potential of an object without being misled by its external form and source, can be realized by the “ascetic practices,” which can make something exceed consciousness and form by practicing calligraphy.
The investigation place and the schedule in the Nobi earthquake stricken area by J. Conder are written down in the Japan Weekly Mail.”, “AN ARCHITECT'S NOTES ON THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1891.”. The details of the schedule are written down to the former. The details of the investigation place are written down in the latter. Therefore we can know the whole picture of the investigation due to J. Conder by weighing both.
One of the greatest characteristics of Preah Vihear Temple is the repeatedly pairs of "口-shape" "田-shape" building. These buildings called "annexed building" are almost limited to guideline on research, and they were not deemed about functions and features. Originally in Khmer temple architecture, architectural styles and functions of the main constituent building like main tower and library are not particularly changed, in contrast, vigorous emergence of "田-shape" architectural style is remarkable. This paper focuses on "annexed building" especially "口-shape" and "田-shape" buildings in Preah Vihear Temple, to consider the significance of these buildings and its transition process by comparison of spatial characteristics, temple layout, and functions, "annexed building" shows the transition tendency of whole picture of Khmer architecture. Through the analysises, this paper points out the characteristics of Preah Vihear Temple as "vertically-oriented" layout temple and the provincial city in flourishing ages of Khmer empire.
This paper focuses on the architectural spatialisation of the results of scientific analyses in the ‘Communal housing for the factory workers of the socialist state’ project (1930) by Philip Tolziner and Tibor Weiner, Bauhaus students during Meyer's era. This paper explores their drawings and Tolziner's text. At first, the results of scientific analyses (social structure, timetable, flow diagram etc.) and the architectural spatialisation of them are discussed. Then, we consider this project from the perspective of architectural education at the Bauhaus, showing that Tolziner and Weiner reached an important solution to the problem of unifying individual scientific analyses into an architectural space.
The purpose of this paper is to cast some light on differences in the view on architectural styles between Gottfried Semper and Konrad Fiedler, showing discontinuity appearing in their architectural theories that have been treated as continuous. The following are the results of this study. There were some differences in Semper's and Fiedler's views on Roman architecture and Romanesque architecture. Their views on Renaissance architecture relate to those on Roman architecture and Romanesque architecture. These differences in their views on architectural styles were based on differences in their views on artistic possibility of the arch costruction.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the features of Spanish citadels in the late 16th century by analyzing the projects of the citadels in four cities by Tiburzio Spannocchi. These cities are categorized into two groups. One is a city near the border where some revolt against the Court could occur from the inside, the other an international port where many foreigners were always coming and going from several countries, including France and Holland that conflicted with Spain at that time. And this study concludes that the disposition of a citadel was the most important element in the planning process and it was evaluated by the distance between the center of a city and the citadel to dominate and oppress a city. With regard to Spannocchi's activities as an engineer, his professional abilities were clearly demonstrated in practical aspects like field survey, designing, supervising the construction works, and so on.
In Italy, the conservation and utilization of historical cities, landscapes and regions are conceptual values that have always coexisted with modern urban planning. With post-World War II reconstruction, urban planners began studying ways to conserve historical landscapes in agricultural regions. They established planning methods from a botanic perspective and human geography perspective. Since 2006, in their cultural landscape management plan, urban planners have connected the conservation of physical historical landscape to the recuperate of social and economic foundations of a region. In such way, they have completed a scheme that draws on the history of a region.