Public collective housing has been constructed since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake occurred. It is expected to help form good communities especialy for the elderly. However, its effect on the formation of communities has not been clarified. This paper aims to clarify the effect of collective housing on the formation of communities and its factors by analyzing how people in the collective residence and the conventional residence conceive differently of mixing with their neighbors and how they behave in each residence. The results of the analysis show that new communities, along with the previous ones, are formed and communities of the elderly living alone are easily formed.
This is a part of research to examine how apartment house planning should be to contribute to residential environments. We elucidated the trends of product planning regarding apartment houses and attitudes towards residential environments through interviews with developers in the Hanshin post-quake area, where apartment house issues became obvious. In order to induce contributing .planning to residential environments, the key issues are; i) Flexible countermeasures with judgments of changeable enterprise balances regarding condominium apartments ii) Supporting policies to urge individual enlightened landowner to participate in enterprises spontaneously regarding rental apartments iii) Visualizing blueprints of urban areas for those who concerned
This paper aims to clarify needs for housing and services of families with children. Mother's preferences and real situation for childcare support were investigated through questionnaires. The results were analyzed, considering the situation of common facilities and social contacts in the dwellings. The results are as follows : 1) Mothers can be categorized by their preferences for childcare support. 2) Most of mothers are given instrumental and emotional support by their neighborhood. 3) However, childcare facilities set up in the common facilities are the most accessible and helpful service. 4) Most of mothers demand for collaborative dwellings with child care services.
This paper is the second in a series of a study about architectural planning of "free schools" They provide places for students who do not want to go to ordinary schools In these spaces various self-controlled activities are carried out by children in various age-groups The aim is to clarify the group dynamics of children and The structure of place composed by group dynamics, by using the method of Cluster analysis, studying the flow of their activities, and classifying their flow patterns The result of field surveys and analysis are as follows, The group dynamics are classified into 9 patterns by the style of the group process Besides, the patterns can be reduced to 4 types by two points, that a child forms a group or not and that he is intereested in the other children or not These types are related deeply with places for group activities, ones for individual activities in groups, or quiet ones for individual ones
In South Korea, the public hall developed greatly by enforcement of local autonomous system. Although it has been installed centering on a big city before.actually carrying out local autonomous system, in recent years, the concern about the cultural art by the side of a. self-governing body is also increasing, and installation of a public hole is increasing also in a core city or a farm village area in 1993 and afterwards. And many under-exclusive-contract with public art teams have been working by making the public hole into an activity base for local culture art promotion. In a city part, although the correspondence promotion tendency to cultural art is imagined with a quantitative expansion of a public hole in recent years, while fullness-elation of a functional element progresses, depending on an area, there is also a place which is. behind and, on the whole, the gap of a city part and a farm village part is seen.
I investigated the situation of the practice fields use of city bands and satisfactory degree for practice fields and analyzed it. Now city bands used a social educational institution most. Users of social educational institution have dissatisfaction toward that the practice field is not for music, but it is thought that they endure it because the fee for use is cheap. Local governments should consider the use of a cultural organization in public facilities and should keep the multi-purpose use.
In this research, we aim at clarifying the classification and distribution of "level type horizontal member" for exploring a relation between the natural climate and propagation of culture style in the Eurasia area. "Level type horizontal member" is classified to 12 sorts from four angles and by analyzing the map of distribution and transition we get results as follow. The typical form of the stone-made "level type horizontal member" are simple beam and entablature type while the typical form of the wood-made type are the beam and "beam+ tokyoiT with complicated composition and various section shape. Originating from Greece, the Occidental entablature continued to spread and at .last it reached Southeast Asia in 19th century. The influence of the "beam + tokyou" is strong in East Asia.
This paper is aimed to perceive the relationships between children aged under five and their environments, focusing on the children's growth of the perceptions of their environments. The children's activities in their environments including people, things, and events around them, can be defined as children's environmental behavior. For this purpose, children's activities in a nursery were analyzed as follows. Firstly, 22 children's activities were observed and recorded. Secondly, based on these data, the places for their activities were compared by different sexes and ages. Next, the individual children's activities, which were classified into two groups : staying activities and traveling activities were analyzed based on this classification. Consequently, these analyses inferred that although children's environmental behaviors are different between individuals, such differences are strongly influenced by degree of children's growth as well as by the programs in a nursery.
After instructing architectural design in the digital environment for 5 years, we decided to develop our instruction method by introducing systematic design method. In this paper, we describe the pros and cons of our method by evaluating students' handouts and their comprehension. We found out that students can develop their idea, especially under unrestrained condition of rule sets. Although, it is likely that they tend to follow the samples shown by the instructor. By considering these facts, we finally compiled a spec of digital design instruction tool. The tool is best used at the model analyzing stage of design process, and controls the rule sets in order to match the progress of students.
1. We surveyed Barangai Seaside, a high density village on the sea, of Parawan Island in the Philippines on (1) layout of the terraces, (2) daily uses of them and (3) wind flows. (1) The terraces were placed in between a house and a passage. (2) The terraces were used both for private daily doings and for public communications. (3) Such terraces had comfortable wind flows. The wind flows were different on daily times and on dry and wet seasons. 2. Main layout devices for comfortable wind flows were : (1) raise of the terraces from a sea (2)and from the passage (3) opening between the house and passage. Larger amount on the each item increased wind flow. 3. Main layout devices for private and public uses were (2) raise of the terrace from the passage, (4) area of the terrace, (5) width of the terrace for the passage,(6) width of the entrance to the passage. Larger amount on (4), (5) and (6) seemed to invite public uses, whereas larger height more than 1.5m seemed to invite private uses.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of environmental factors on distance perception through a series of experiments conducted along actual urban streets. The experiment revealed that such factors as the presence of right-angle turns, road width, and amount of traffic affected distance perception, though subjects varied on which factor influenced them the most. The intensity of each factor was also measured using psychophysical methods. A route with a right-angle turn was perceived as being equal to an 8〜9% shorter straight route, while distortions due to variations in road width and amount of traffic were about 5%.
This study investigates external appearances of Chinese and Japanese contemporary architecture by testing Chinese university students. Two stages image tests were given. The object of the image test I is to find out the most suitable buildings of the Image test II. On the other hand, the purpose of the image test II is to examine the relationships among personal preference to buildings, the image of buildings by word association test and the image of buildings represented by elements. According to the results, words and elements which can describe the image and identity of Chinese and Japanese contemporary architecture are limited, and words and elements which have strong influence on the "very Chinese" and the "very Japanese" are extracted.
Hahoe village has handed down to these days the remnants of Chosun Dynasty. The houses have their axis of orientation arbitrarily, and the distinctive layout of buildings makes Hahoe Village a very unique village compared to other traditional villages.in Korea. However, little attention has been paid to the principle from which the uniqueness derived. ・ In this study, in order to specify the distinctiveness of this village, surveys for the measurements of height of all roads and the site of buildings have been conducted repeatedly. Through these surveys, it was found that the whole terrain of the village, that could be seen like a bowl shape simply, twisted slightly. The crook has let each housing slope to its own gradient in the various directions including north orientation, instead of concerning the adjacent site. That is to say, the development in consonance with the feature of terrain led to the unique layout of Hahoe Village, where "Rear mountain, front water", one of the basic principle of Feng-shui, could not be applied.
This paper analyses the settlement quarters of Buddhist communities of Patan of Kathmandu Valley utilizing the cadastral survey map of the city made by Department of Land Survey, HMG of Nepal. The case studies include four settlement quarters characterized by dwelling clusters arranged around the large residential quadrangles with Buddhist monastery courts. The study finds that the quarters are planned in the quarter block scale and follow a grid system whose dimensions are found to confirm with a system of measure described in the Arthasastra of Kautilya who lived in 4th century BC, and was the prime minister of Chandragupta Maurya. The analysis reveals the employment of a particular form of open quadrangle as the central feature emphasized by axes and the monastery court at the core, and a standard quarter block that results from this manner of layout planning. The paper, thus, discovers a layout pattern of settlement quarters that may be identified as one of the planning principles of Buddhist community settlements of Patan.
This study aims to clarify the change of enterchange structure by commutation in local urban region in order to gain some useful information to the merger of municipalities at present. Therefore, we selected Fukui Urban Region as the subject of this study. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) In Fukui Urban Region, the commutation pattern of 25 peripheral municipalities in 1965, 1975, 1985 and 2000, can be divided into 5 series and 12 types. 2) From 1965 to 2000, the commutation relationship among municipalities has become strong gradually. In 2000 six small-interchange-regions can been seen. 3) The merger of municipalities within smalHnterchange-region is common in Fukui Urban Region.
When we estimate office migration in particular area, the general method is spatial interaction model. The model can not describe change of number of offices in the target area, because the model is constructed without considering comings and goings to the outside and establishments and closings of offices. In this paper, we propose office migration model which can describe change of number of offices in the target area. We introduce outside zone to describe comings and goings to outside zone, establishments and closings of offices. Our model is based on a logit model. We adapt spatial interaction model and the model with outside zone to Tokyo and Yokohama, and compare these models by AIC. The result shows that the model with outside zone is superior to spatial interaction model in the case that number of offices in the target area is variable.
In developing countries, paratransit system that developed informally fills the gap of conventional buses and private cars, and plays a significant role to meet the rapidly changing transit demand. This paper looks at Songtaew in Khonkaen, Thailand, as a case of paratransit system that provides convenient and cost effective transportation service for a provincial city away from major metropolitan areas. It analyses the characteristics of Khonkaen's Sontaew operation by comparing it with other cities; operating system for inner- and intra-city services; roles of public sector, operating organizations and drivers and their cooperation as well as users' profile.
This paper considered the enforcement process of original urban plan formed before World War 2 and the continuity to urban planning afterwards from a case study of Nagano Toshikeikaku Planning from 1930 to 1969. Original plan by Hiroyoshi Yamada had been followed generally from 1930 to 1945 but had been added the planning alteration with the defeat of the war and 2 times consolidations of municipalities as turning points. The factors of planning alterations are industrial advance, magnification of administrative area by consolidations, motorization and developments disorderly into planned areas. The continuity of original plan can be recognized the continuation of the concept of sightseeing city, streets-system plan of ring roads and land use zoning.
The objective of this study is to understand the present conditions and seek the ideal future situation of group homes by studying the residential environments of group homes by type of construction activities based on the results of case-study questionnaire, interview and measurement surveys conducted with the collaboration of nursing-care managers and staff at 51 group homes for elderly people with dementia in Chiba Prefecture. The study classifies group homes by type of construction activities into new construction, renovation of detached houses, and renovation of apartment houses and dormitories, and also classifies surrounding environments of group homes into Type I (residential area close to built-up area), Type II (suburban residential area) and Type III (agricultural area, ) Further, the study clarifies various relationships between group homes and the surrounding environments, including communications with local residents, based on the typified construction activities and surrounding environments.
The earthquake disaster or war damage disturbs the land-use of the city. However, it was said, it passes a while after the disaster, the land-use pattern may return to the previous state. We prove theoretically that the transition process of land-use after the disturbance is equivalent to the Bayesian estimation process of original pattern from a disturbed pattern under the assumption of ran- dom disturbance of the land-use.
The housing competitions of "SHIN-KENCHIKU "were performed from 1948 to 1949. The purpose of this study is to make clear that plans of competitions became the model of the housing style after World War n in Japan. These plans were advanced targets and had proposed the postwar housing style. The housing style is "dining-kitchen", "separation of family rooms and the individual rooms", etc. By the advanced nature, the plans of competitions became the model of a postwar housing style. Furthermore, it is thought that it spread all over Japan as the today's housing style after a high growth of economy in 1965.
Under the influence of the synthesis plan for practical use of stocks, it is expected that the number of an elevator installation to the existing stairs room type multi -dwelling houses increases. Though the resident evaluated the stairs room type elevator to some extent, there are several problems still remaining for the elevator installation to the stairs room type. Therefore, it is necessary to give careful and synthetic consideration to it with due regard to the other types elevator installation.
Considering long-life of houses, it is indispensable to graps the present of the lifetime of houses. The perpose of this study is analysis of the transition of the lifetime of wooden houses from the building times for extending the life of houses. This study focuses on the fixed asset tax rolls data, the times when each wooden house was built and pulled down, and researches them for estimation of the data since 1980. The result is that the lifetime of wooden houses is certain to extend since 1980, it is considered the affectitons of economy and locational condition.
The purpose of this paper is to restorate "Kotensyu" in Yonago castle. Yonagp castle was built by Hiroie Kikkawa and Kotensyu was built in about 1596. But it was destroyed in Meiji period, so there are no existing buildings now. There are some historical pictures drawn in late Edo period. So we can know about some details of Kotensyu. Kotensyu shows the appearance of Early Borogata Tensyu, and there are no remained Castle Towers built before 1600, so it is important for studying Borogata Tensyu to restration Kotensyu in Yonago Castle.
Ueda house built in 1934, Hashimoto, Wakayama still has four construction documents. The documents proves several economical points of building Ueda house, as follows; 1. The building costs were 5,418.44 yen. 2. The donations consisted of money and articles. The articles could be converted into money, as a result the donations totally valued approximately 576 yen, which was 10.6% of the building costs. Building construction in the end of modern times must be based on monetary system; however this case study of Ueda house indicates that the mutual support in early modern times still remained as donations.
The purpose of this paper is clarify the scale and feature of Zuisenji temple in the medieval ages. A summary will be given as foUows : 1. Zuisenji temple which Muso Soseki established was a small-scale life space centering on hojo. This life space is similar with the environment where it is located in the back part of Gosan of south Sung or Kamakura of the same age. 2. If based that kyochi of zen sect temple concentrated in the circumference of hojo in future.'Zuisenji temple is positioned as a forerunner of the environment which suited composing gatha. 3. When Gido Shushin became "juji", the scale of Zuisenji temple was expanded aiming at "jissatu" for expansion of denomination. Consequently, the scale near the so-called composition of "sichido garan" was realized. 4. Each descent of the scale and social background of Zuisenji temple corresponded mostly.
In the extant paintings of the Tosa School, now in possesion of the Kyoto City University of Arts, there are materials which were concerned with the reconstruction of the Imperial Palace in the Kansei era By comparing these materials with the Osashizu-goyo-ki, it is seen that Tosa Mitsusada contributed much to reconstruct the burnt Palace in the traditional style He collected many copies of the interior and exterior views of ancient palaces, and redrew them as lucid pictures He also collected materials which helped us comprehend details of the architectures of the traditional Imperial Palace
In the Romanesque nave wall, the convex or concave angular edges made by intersecting the flat surfaces are dominant. These edges accentuate the impression of massiveness. In order to eliminate the massive feeling from the wall, it was necessary not only to reduce the thick construction to a skeletal and membrane-like structure, but also to a) divide the large surface into smaller parts, b) conceal the thickness of the wall, and c) exclude the angular edges. In the Gothic wall, a), b), and c) were realized by articulating the wall surface with the thin, round, bar-like members, or linear elements., For the purpose of achieving the fullest effect of the linear articulation, the following three steps were indispensable : A) dividing and bordering the wall surface with linear elements, B) progress of independency and thinning of the linear element, and C) exclusion of the remnant angular edges in the compound pier. The third step C) was realized by replacing the compound pier with a column.
I tried to clear the topological structure of the mortal place through the interpretation of "Eigamonogatan" In the story, "Tono" built the "Amidadou" as the mortal place and the place being possible to be born in the Pure Land The essential dwelling in the "Amidadou" was realized by correlating the "Hotoke" in, "Moya", "Tono" in "Hishashi" and the "Ama" in "Shunoko" And, it brings these things into proper correlation, because it is beleaved "toporogical ineteraction"
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the transformation and the development process of the function of the Ogakumon-jo in the imperial palace. In this study, I tried to indicate the transformation from period of emperor Gonara to Ougimachi, and the development in the period of emperor Gomizunoo. A summary will be given as follows : 1. The Ogakumon-jo came into use as one of the space for the private reception, especially of doctors from the emperor Gonara. 2. The Ogakumon-jo changed into the exclusive space for the reception of doctors in the period of emperor Goyouzei. 3. The Ogakumon-jo developed into the space for the various studies and exercise, at the Keichodo-Dairi in the emperor Gomizunoo. 4. The character of Ogakukmon-jo where was a private space for the emperor was unchangeable.
The collapse of the Tokugawa regime was attended by sudden filling out of samurai estates (bukechi) which had occupied large areas of urban land in early modem Japan. Tokyo felt this effect particularly strongly. The New Government overcame this crisis by dividing the city into two domains - the kakunai (inner) and kakugai (outer) areas. The bukechi of the kakunai formed the initial structure for the filling-in of new elements. The extents of these domains were repeatedly modified by the new govern- ment until Meiji 2 (1869), when Tokyo was decided upon as being the Imperial capital. These processes were significant in the process by which Edo became Tokyo, and formed the foundation of a continuing "dual structure" in the urban space of Tokyo.
In a conservation project, architects, craftsmen, and clients need to consider various aspects such as what should be preserved, how it should be protected, and what should be its use after conservation. Regarding Coventry Cathedral, bombed in 1940 and reconstructed in 1962, there were primarily two issues concerned, namely the treatment of the ruined old cathedral and the architectural style applied on the newly constructed cathedral. Eventually, the ruin was preserved as a war memorial, and Sir Basil Spence built the new Coventry Cathedral in a 'contemporary' style.
Concerning the paper, "The possibility of housing condition improvement system through management of existing housing stock", the following 4 points were raised as topics of discussion. 1). In the long run, will "the creation of starting points of the housing chain" by the method of "supplying ultra-small houses" bring about improvements in the housing standard? Will it not invite contrary results? 2). In this paper, elderly people who own their houses, who are generally regarded as wealthy people, are included as targets of public support in housing administration. However, are such people appropriate as recipients of public support? 3). Isn't it more reasonable to start the creation of a housing chain from the private side (wealthy people) rather than the public side? 4). This system, which ignores the free housing-market, is very closed, and requires many artificial and administrative adjustments for the management of systems related to the housing chain, will invite many restrictions to the housing of general users. It may be employed in a limited scale as mentioned in 3), but it is considered to have many negative aspects from the viewpoint of the total welfare production, and to lead to a housing policy that contradicts the public interest.
The author thanks Chihiro SBKJKAWA for this discussion, and the answers are as follows; (1) In our system, -the target of public assistance is family households living in rental housing. Households living in ownership housing are not the object of public assistance. (2) We consider that the Housing condition to be improved is the concept defined by relation between physical housing condition and household's condition. The improvement of physical housing condition itself will not be the target of housing policy in the background of the future decrease in population and increase of the small size household.