This study examines the regionalism of a small housing production system called "Machiba-shigoto" from the perspective of material supply and relationship among local carpenters. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The small-scale carpenter's offices are more widely distributed in the rural area than urban area. 2) Through the interviews with the local carpenters and other craftsmen, we grasp the transformation of their working situation including materials supply system, in the past 50 years. 3) By use of "Building Mile", which is an index of material extent and volume, we made the comparison between two houses that built in 1967 and 2013. 4) In this case study, Building Mile of the house in 2013 is 6 times larger than the house in 1967. Also, the imported material-rate increased from 1% to 21%.
This paper found the characteristics of environmental settings of schools in Mwingi East District as follows: 1) Community is the one who plays the most important role to establish and develop schools. 2) There are three phases in school development. In 'Germination Term', schools use under-tree classrooms or construct Temporary Structure classrooms. In 'Growth Term', they try to construct all the classrooms in Permanent Structures. In 'Maturity Term', the number of constructions tends to decrease. 3) There are strong relationships between schools and shopping centers. They interact and support each other to develop both of them.
In this paper, we analyzed "Memorable scenes" and factors of how they are formed. The target was graduates of K Elementary School, which has particular design of both school buildings and yard. As a result, from the viewpoint of strengthening the capability of easy recollection and recognition of school environments in adulthood as a foundation for own growth and development, this paper pointed out the importance of school environment design that includes not only school buildings but also exterior space, and creating the environment with both learning and playing factors where children are able to proactively make activities.
In this paper, an observation study was conducted in 22 facilities in Tokyo to derive the accurate scale of an after-school day-care center. From an investigation, the scale of bases such as indoor area and the number of useable areas was investigated. The activity area was calculated and checked a state of playing . I analyzed a state of playing for an index. The index of the child viewpoint is provided in this report and gets the index of the staff viewpoint in the study in the past. Combining both these indexes can help improve the quality of the base.
Successive studies set a goal to clarify spatial factors in medical institutions to contribute the development of severely disabled children. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the actual behavioral characteristics from the sight of effects of their ADL-scale and their postures. The following results have been revealed. 1) Incidences of Inactivity behavior and Play behavior are influenced by the mobility capability and the communicating-receiving capability ADL, the former trend of negative correlation and the latter trend of positive correlation. 2) Children are using selectively the spaces that can be devided into four by difference of floor-finishing materials and common-space/bedroom, and differences in how the relationship with the other children and staff was observed in the difference of the Play behavior.
This paper aims to clarify the functions of metaphors in design thinking of architectural design. Especially we focused on divergent and convergent processes. In order to find the mechanism of design process, we applied the method “Linkography” to the analysis of protocols in design experiment. Then, we described the design processes as conceptual graphs, and analyzed them. Through these analysis, we found some functions of metaphors in the divergent and convergent processes. The results are as follows. 1) Metaphorical thinking generates a lot of ideas and their interpretations in a very short time. 2) Metaphors connect some ideas even if they are generated at remote time. 3) In divergent process, designers think about concepts only in the base domain. 4) In convergent process, designers think about concepts both in base domain and target domain through connecting two domains by metaphors.
Spatial cognition of visually handicapped people has clarified and walking environment for them has been improved. However, the pedestrian spaces of present condition are still highly constrained for them. A spiral ramp is one of them. Therefore, we surveyed the spatial cognition of visually handicapped people on a spiral ramp. In this study, in order to clarify the characteristics of their spatial cognition and search behavior, experiments were carried out in 14 kinds of courses on a spiral ramp. Subjects were visually handicapped people and eye-masked people with ordinary vision. The search behavior of the two is compared and analyzed by walking locus and observation; and the spatial cognition, by interview and bservation.
A field research on the changes in housing and lifestyle was conducted in a Chinese rural village in Shandong Province and some low-carbon factors were extracted. Concerning housing, larger floor spaces, removal of plants from the tiled courtyard and a glassed-in room under the southern roof increase indoor cooling equipment use. Whereabouts and behavior of inhabitants may affect energy consumption. Those who habitually hang out with neighbors, on the one hand, get together in the shade, the community center or plastic greenhouses. Those who don't have such customs, on the other, prefer watching TV or operating PC in an air-conditioned room.
Parks are equipped with various urban functions, and the basic parks are especially familiar to local resident's life. In Mizushima, basic park plan was drawn up before World War II, and maintenance has been carried out continuously. On this paper, we analyzed plan circumstances and space characteristic about basic parks. The results are summarized as follows; Location of parks changes to corner lot type or passed type from island type. Some equipment (horizontal ladder and pond) were removed, and rest stations were added by residents' request. In new parks, the space of play equipment and open space were divided clearly. Although the number of planting and play equipment was not constant at first, in new parks, it became constant regardless of size.
This study aimed to clarify the method for the design and alignment of streets in the Tokaido Road during the Edo period (1603-1868). For the analysis, I selected 24 streets in 53 station towns in the Tokaido Road. These streets still reflect the same straight alignments created before its adaptation into modern town planning. My findings indicate that the alignment of the Tokaido streets was closely tied to the surrounding terrain, such as mountain summits. I believe that the relationship between street design and surrounding mountain landscapes will be useful for future discussions of regional landscape planning.
In order to promote the urban residence for aged society in the future, it is important to create a residential land use in central urban area. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the suitability of residential area based on the relationship between demand and supply of land in central urban area. Land value function models are used to show demand and supply of residential use. Using the estimated land value function models, we calculate the evaluation values of residential areas. As a result, we clarify the areas considered to be preferable for residential land use in central urban area of Tokushima city.
Gated housing project (GHP) in vicinity area of Bangkok is continuously expanding without well-urban planning. This situation leads to environmental and social problems on living conditions of residents in area. These problems can possibly disturb overall urban development plan in the future. This research aims to assess social relationship of inhabitants who live inside and outside GHP in order to illustrate its impact. Through field survey and social questionnaires in five types of existing community including GHP and Non-GHP within in study area conducted results of research. This study revealed obviously different social relationship between inside and outside residents that affirmed conflict and influence of GHP. Therefore, it is necessary for GHP to be addressed their physical design and concerned cautious regulation to reduce impacts on surrounding communities.
This study aims to formulate a numerical model to predict choice behavior of refugees seeking a tsunami refuge building in a coastal area. We interviewed respondents about their choice of building during a tsunami and analyzed their selection behavior. Such choice behavior was then modeled using a logit model. The findings reveal factors that attract refugees toward a particular building in coastal areas. This model consists of the utility variables that are psychological utility of the refuge direction, the distance to the tsunami refuge building, the tsunami refuge building located at inland, the height of the tsunami refuge building and the capacity of the tsunami refuge building. We analyzed choice behavior models of different attributions by respondents' age or gender. As a result, parameters of these models were different by each attributions. We have quantitatively indicated the characteristics that attract refugees to the tsunami refuge buildings.
This study clarifies the founding background and characteristics of housing rebuilding assistance subsidy programs by local governments after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The motivation and objective to prepare these programs are gap adjustment between survivors, which is based on achievement of fairness supported by government sector in Japan. This exposes the instability of governmental housing rebuilding assistance philosophy that encourages survivors' self-help housing reconstruction. This research offers insight for Japanese society to redesign the housing rebuilding assistance subsidy before next mega disaster.
This article analyzes the time required to arrive at the spot for first aid in recent large-scale urban facilities with skyscrapers in preparation for super aged society of Japan. For the horizontal movement time, a formula was constructed by combining the "weighed Voronoi diagrams in the Manhattan distance". For the vertical movement time, a formula for a bus was applied to fire service elevators. The result on a model skyscraper with three types of building core showed that the travel time varies from 19 seconds to 4 minutes, which suggests the effect of the improvement in the operation of elevators.
From the survey results for townhouses household, some family types are classified. 1. Attached relationship between carpenter-builder and household, trend of intention repair, residence continuation in each family type. 2. Positioned the family type on the two axis, residence continuation intention and growth/reduction of household. 3. Significant difference was not observed in residence continuation intention of household, inside and outside of conservation areas. 4. Several different measures by family type are required to us. The introduction of the support organization is important for the promotion of utilization, conservation on the reduced household. Strengthening the relationship with the carpenter-builder is effective for households that desire to move.
The Shiraoi Village Ainu settlement that Takabeya investigated in 1940 was divided among the villagers such that each Ainu family household was allotted one section of land. Houses belonging to "village chief/equivalent" villagers had elongated floor space and both the main and auxiliary structures were larger in scale than those belonging to the "other people" villagers. Furthermore, "village chief/equivalent" villagers owned structures. "Other people" villagers did not possess such structures and what they did possess was apparently intended only for habitation. It is also possible that gabled roof houses were used both for habitation as well as for auxiliary activities. In addition, there were traits common among the houses of both groups. For example, construction was arranged such that houses had their longer axis parallel to the east-west axis of the settlement.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the establishment and the background in the meiji era on De Forest Hall. On his second visit to Japan in 1896, of the three buildings, De Forest resided in one of the buildings at 6-1 Minamirokken-cho. This is the building that eventually became De Forest Hall. The three cherished buildings were designed in 1887 by an architect of the name of Ueda who also created other public buildings such as the Miyagi prefecture parliamentary building. In keeping with the set of three buildings at Katahira-cho and Minamirokken-cho, De Forest Hall as it exists today continues to stand on the same plot as the former building at 6-1 Minamirokken-cho. As it is the only one of the three buildings still in existence, architecturally speaking it has significant historical value.
The foundation water supply of Tsubame city was authorized on March 31, 1938, the design change was carried out on November 18, 1938 just after that, and the ceremony for the completion was accomplished on November 8, 1941. Tatsujiro Nishide of the advisor, Chiaki Matsumoto of the engineer were invited for construction. The water tank of the water tower at Tsubame extremely resembles the former water tank at Nakatsu placed the drawing on the book in those days. Because the water tower tank at Tsubame was forced to a short-term design change, it was designed using information of Nakatsu.
The focus of this paper is the Keijō toshi kōsōzu (Illustrated Plan for Keijō City), which includes drawings of planned Government-General facilities within Gyeongbokgung Palace. These illustrations offer rich clues about the Government-General's plans to renovate Gyeongbokgung during the period of Japanese colonial rule over Korea. This paper will highlight aspects of the Keijō toshi kōsōzu that show the due consideration had not been given, and suggest that the designs reflect the ideas of their creator.
This paper makes clear Morita Keiichi's intention of translating Formproblem der Gotik by Worringer and its ideological background focusing on aesthetician Otsuka Yasuji and architect Takizawa Mayumi. Otsuka discussed the feeling of force in Gothic architecture referring to the empathy theory of Theodor Lipps and Worringer's statement. About that time, Takizawa, a colleague of Morita published a résumé of a chapter from Worringer's book in advance of Morita's translation and sympathized with Worringer's concept of the Germanic spirit that eager to go up to the transcendental sphere through rationalizing thoroughly. On the other hand, Morita got an idea of synthesis of rational structure with expressive shapes from Worringer's interpretation of Gothic architecture.
This research considered influence of indoor environment about how aged deterioration of panel painting is advancing in the inside of a cultural property building. As a result, it turned out that the panel painting of the Kobuntei-okugoten was subject to strong influence from environment which is high humidity and the ultraviolet rays by sunlight. However, aged deterioration of a panel painting resulted in the conclusion that it was subject to big influence also from maintenance and directions for use. Therefore, containing the other degradation factors is future issues.
The aim of this research is to clarify the architectural characteristics and the regional trend of the Tsunami Evacuation Building, designation of which has been rapidly increasing after Great East Japan Earthquake in the local governments, especially the Great NANKAI Trough Earthquake areas. The type of institutions of the Tsunami Evacuation building can be classified into 14 functions and 59 uses, and the institution of various uses, such as regional institutions and an institution of private enterprise possession and it is different between uses by the facility scale and the performance of institutions. Moreover, while the specification consisting mainly of an apartment house or a school was conspicuous throughout the Nankai Trough area, the uses of institutions which are specializing different between the regions.
The purpose of this study is building the part of hipped roof purlin and end strut generation of the frame element generation system by cooperation of constituents in timber framework construction house. The part of hipped roof purlin and end strut generation is built as a multi agent system that the purlin and end strut modeled in the straight line cooperates with close purlins and end struts, repeats correction and decide the right position based on the positioning rules by analyzing the positioning situation of purlin and end strut in hipped roofs and the information of the circumstances. In this study, the knowledge that is obtained on the building this part is reported.