The purpose of this paper is to observe the difference in hearing ability between normal hearing and impaired hearing for the parameters of AI, and to know the effects of frequency characteristic of masking noise on syllable perception . This study includes the articulation tests and determines AI of the experiment sound fields by varying its parameters. The results of articulation test indicate that the effect of S/N on speech discrimination is different in each octave band noise, and the difference of articulation score between normal hearing and impaired hearing becomes larger in 0.5 or 1 [kHz] band. As a result of considering hearing loss in AI calculation, it is able to reflect hearing ability by optimizing its parameters. And considering syllable appearance in sentences, it is limited to the use of syllables of highest impact.
This study firstly indicates that in order for the simulation of coloring of exterior surfaces of buildings to support color design the relative relationship of colors within the image obtained must be stored. In order to do so, the luminous environment of the building that is the subject of the simulation and the image of the surrounding environment filmed must correspond, as must the color reproduction performance during conversion into image form. In addition, as a concrete color simulation method, firstly simulation with three-dimensional data used within the computer was covered, with concrete examples given of methods of filming background images, methods of measuring the luminous environment and methods of setting the light sources. Next simulation using filmed images of existing buildings were dealt with, and a simple simulation method that does not measure luminance and chromaticity was proposed.
Suitable standard data on daylight and solar radiation are absolutely prepared and offered for the excellent energy saving interior environmental design. The first step of the modification of the data by real measurements into the useful standard data is to classify the sky, conditions when the data were gained. A proposal of a means is stated in this paper in order to divide the sky conditions into ordered categories. The sky conditions when the data were measured are arranged based upon the comparison with the sky, luminance distribution data obtained by sky scanning and the theoretical results on CIE(Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Standard Clear and Overcast Sky and Intermediate Sky by one of the authors. The sky conditions are finally classifred into Clear, Near Clear, Intermediate, Near Overcast and Overcast Sky. This Research work is deeply related to the IDMP(International Daylight Measurement Programme) promoted by CIE. Its result convinces authors of its great contributions to the progress IDMP and development of interior environmental design.
This paper discusses estimation methods of steady state and unsteady state heat output in hot water floor heating systems. It becomes clear that Kollmar-Liese's method which has been popularly used, underestimates steady state heat transfer rate from the floor. The authors propose a new simple estimation method by applying DOE(Design of Experiments) method. On the other hand, there has been no simple estimation method for unsteady state two-dimensional heat transfer in floor heating systems. In this paper, precise responses of heat transfered from the floor obtained by two-dimensional 'calculations are analyzed and classified, and representative responses are expressed by exponential polynomial approximation.
A new energy-efficient air conditioning system in proposed for a computer room with high heat generating equipment where forced air cooling air volume is prescribed. In the proposed air conditioning system, conditioned primary air from the AHU is reduced in accordance with the heat load, while insufficient cooling air volume is compensated by induced secondary room air. Reduction of conditioned air saves fan capacity and consequently improves efficiency of the AHU. This paper describes an on-site survey of a conventional air conditioning system, as well as modeling of air distribution around equipment, and validation of the new air conditioning system based on field experiments.
Box-size small chambers were prepared to develop emission rate data of perceived air pollutants from building products. Three pollution sources, i,e., cork board, rubber-mat and carpet were selected as specimen. Trained panel of eleven judges evaluated the air out of the box chambers. Emission rates of perceived air pollutants were determined us ing the empirical model and the first-order decay model for fitting the mean perceived air quality vs. time data set. In considering the loading factor effect on the emission rate of pollutants, a new model for simulating the perceived air quality versus time is proposed.
For the economical operations of the latent/sensible heating storage system using off-peak electricty equipped in an aged facilty, we predicted the required time to heat the storage material using actual temperatures of the heating storage materials,.floor and setting operation. Next, we analyzed the prediction control system of the required thermal energy of the severe cold period in the room using fuzzy inference. And we obtained the following results. (1) We derived the multi-regressions equation and predicted the required tihre to heat the storage nlaterial with a high accuracy. (2) The next day's indoor mean temperature was approximately estimated by fuzzy set of required thermal energy of the storage material using the possibilty presumption model of outdoor mean telllperature and indoor mean temperature of the previous day.
In these days, design of water supply system need high pressure water works on quality management for receiving tank in building. So it has been necessary for building management to forecast the change of water consumption in building. But, there are very few studies considering life cycle cost for water supply system in buildings. In this paper, at first, the authors have investigated in detail for the loads of cold and hot water supply in apartment houses by using a new technics of measurment, and analyzed the demand fluctuations by specific use considering time span. Finally, time series models were identified and estimated, and then according to time series analysis, the hourly load profile were forecasted in each day.
The experiment in which we presented montage pictures of river landscapes to subjects consists of two stages. In the first stage, using imaginary landscapes, we analyzed the relationships between the subjects' evaluation and elements composing river landscape, and, models for predicting the evaluation of river landscapes were obtained with the multiple regression analysis using the composition ratios of elements as the explanatory variables. In the second stage, subjects evaluated the montage pictures on the basis of the actual landscapes. In order to clarify the applicability of the models, we applied them to the results of the second stage and the experiments reported in the former papers with landscapes, domestic and foreign, and of 22 points selected out of the Ota river.
The main purpose of this research is the study of the building equipment facilities such as the supply of electricity and water in emergency in Tokyo. 1)There are many buildings with a self-generator for electricity supply and extremely few buildings with an own water supply equipment in time of suspension of electricity and water. 2) In normal time the air-conditioning operating rate is high but in time of an emergency the operating rate is low. The watersupply for the extinguish of fire and for sanitary is in an emergence about the same as in normal time. 3)The possession of building equipment and fuel storage, and activation for the rescue as well as the expected operation time in an emergency has been calculated.
This study proposed a new district facility that complements functions of urban facilities and examines these functions and the necessity of the district facility to be newly de veloped in the high integrated field of urban facilities , as follows: 1. By introducing a new district facility, the reduction of load in urban facilities and the maintenance of functions in case of an emergency can be secured. 2. In terms of the necessity of new functions of the district facility, functinos to cope with an emergency is the highest priority, followed by functions to make practical use of unused energies and function to reduce wide area infrastructure load.
The magnetic field generated around high-voltage transmission lines influences nearby buildings. Though the field strength is of the order of a few μ T, it causes the flickering effect on CRT for computers as well as televisions. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to reduce the magnetic field strength within the buildings. The transmission configuration with out-of-phase counter lines, the attenuation due to inverse square law and the installation of magnetic shielding walls are considered and discussed through measurement and numerical simulation to find the way for effective remedy.
The two-storey wooden houses in Naha city played an important role in the urban formation after W. W. II. The concentration of these houses indicates the process of rebuilding of Naha city in early post-war period. As one of the typical urban dwellings, the two-storey wooden houses formed high-density residential communities and were used multifunctionaly. The first floor was usually for shops and the second floor was for residential uses. The renewals of these houses are difficult because of the complication of tenure for the land and for the buildings.
The house, as an environment with which the elderly interact, is discusscd in this paper based an analysis of places (within the house) that the elderly prefer in their daily lives. The analysis focuses on the particular places in a room where daily activities take place and constitutes the study of a smaller scale environment than other previous studies have handled. Preferred places are categorized, by the purpose of activity at a given place, into 'JOUZA': a habitually preferred seating place where the elderly spend most of their time for multiple daily activities, 'KOZA' : a particular seating place for special activities, 'SEWAZA': a place where p]ants, fish, etc., are kept, and other places. Features of the environment that the elderly themselves construct in their housed are clarified by this analysis.
This study Is the investigation on the forms of the windbreak forest and the effects of the protection against wind in OKINAWA folkhouses. We had measured the wind speed in the sites of typical folkhouses for above one year. The results are as follows. (1)The wind speed In the planetype village is less 90-80 % than that at seashore.(2)In the KUSATE type village, the wind speed is about 70-80% of that at Kume air-port, and sometimes, the strong wind blows from mountain.(3)The folkhouses of OKINAWA are destroyed by over 33m/s wind speed, it sometimes occurs over than 60m/s wlnd speed, but in the sites of folkhouse surrounded by FUKUGI-trees which are planted at intervals of one meter, the wind speed is decreased to less than 30m/s by the trees.
This paper studies the statistics on use of medical equipment from the survey of health care providers and facilities administered by the Ministry of Public Welfare. Below are their conclusion: Among medical equipment, the Western Health Care Unit 2 shows the lowest self-dependency rate on the use of CT scanners, fiber-scopes, radiation treatment equipments, and dialyzers. This unit located at the end of the western part of Saitama prefecture has Saitama Medical School Hospital with 1,457 beds, which apparently functions as the center of high-tec health care facilities.
This study aims at evaluating palliative care unit(PCU) planning from the standpoint of nursing activities ail day long. We introduced what is called "man to man survey method" in this survey of 24 hours. The survey was carried out in a palliative care unit in A hospital for 5 days from March 20 through March 25 in 1993. Each nurse was followed by an observer and all of her trips,places visited, time and works done were recorded in order. The results of the analysis are abstracted as follows; 1)The activity of 30% total nurses activities are direct care for patients,e.g eating support, cleaning body, taiking with patient. 2)The frequency of direct care for patients increases at night. 3) The frequency of visits to patients' bedrooms in PCU is as high as serious inpatients' bedrooms in general hospital.
The purpose of this study is to develop a logical method generating floor plans by applying Graph Theory. An outline of the method proposed in this paper is as follows. 1) The problem of generating floor plans is formulated as a bunch of sub-problems, such as a problem of transformation from a non-planar graph to a planar one, a problem of embedding inner vertices into faces of a graph, a problem of assigning feasible orientations to each room in a circular graph. 2) The method is useful to find out all the plane graphs satisfying given adjacency and out-facing requirements by introducing outer Hamilton graph. 3) It is also useful to generate all the floor layout graphs and rectangular dissections efficiently by a searching technique with constraints, that is, feasibility of selecting orientations and of being a rectangular dissection.
The study's aim is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of the exterior composition of contemporary Japanese public institution and their relationship to the building types. First defined are compositional units as mass and non-mass, and syntagmatic operations in their combination. Massive units are analyzed in two levels of exterior composition, constructive articulation and formal articulation. Secondly comparing the whole composition of the buildings, three independent rhetorics are structurized ; contrast in the articulation of elements in the main mass, syntagmatic operations in the main mass and syntagm by the exterior form. In conclusion some compositional types responds to the main function of the public institution, which is thought to be one of the structures differentiating the building types as exterior composition.
The purpose of this study is to visualize the pedestrian crossing with Intersecting Solid Model. In this model, a circle around the location of pedestrian which represents personal area, is connected to other circles along time. The solid which is intersected between the model indicates pedestrian crossing, so we define it "Intersecting Solid". The pedestrian crossing, which is hard to express with 2-dimentional model can be easily expressed with this model. On the computer, we can construct a virtual 3D space and see the model rotating freely and interactively. We can understand the construction of pedestrian crossing.
In previous papers, we have been proposed a concept of schema grammar for analysis on architectural space. The construction of the grammar is not simple. Against this difficulty, we proposed a language system named "Spatial Allocation Language(SAL)" as a simple method for describing architectural plans. Described architectural plan by SAL is a symbol string. We proposed two methods; 1) a parsing algorithm such that when a schema grammar and a string representing a plan are given, we can know whether the grammar generates the plan or not, 2) a schema rule finding algorithm such that when a set of plans are given, we can easily find the schema rules of the grammar which generates all of the plans.
A novel expresses a world as a model with concrete and universal descriptions, which includes expressions of landscapes. In this study, we analyze fifty-five novels which won Akutagawa Literary Prize from 1970 to 1994, to understand images of landscapes in recent years. Landscapes in the text are categorized into nine items and understood with stages of stories and periods. First, they are grasped quantitatively by the level of words. Then, reading stories around the words lead us to understand the meaning of items of the landscapes. As the results, after high economical growth, landscapes and their meanings decrease such as mountains as boundaries, rivers with plays, hills for understanding oneself relatively in the town and fields viewed on one's ways. Landscapes such as flowers, woods and skies which have been still left become to get more meanings.
This paper deals with the method of study used in the Programmed Operation of Improvement of Living Condition(OPAH) in an rural area in France. (1)The aim of a rural OPAH is to restore vacant houses in order to provide them as rented houses. Therefore this operation has an aspect of the demand and the supply for housing. (2)In the realisation study, the numbers and types of houses are examined to estimate the housing supply in the county to which the OPAH is applied. (3)While the housing demand is analysed not only in the county but also in the nearby city whose housing demand influences the county.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the linkage-relationship and the development process of the spatial-environment improvement of shopping streets corresponding to redevelopment projects in urban improvement according to linkage of urban redevelopment project in front of the railway station and related project.As a result,spatial-environment improvement of shopping streets is a way of various kinds of consensus making by the proposal of participants who is related to project. Also,the linkage-relationship of spatial-environment improvement of shopping streets and redevelopment projects can be classified into 4-type.
The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics of building agreement on the initiative of residents and obstructive factors of the conclusion. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Compared with other building agreements, these district areas are small, the terms of validity are short and the control contents are simple. 2. There are six area types in these districts, and at these six types, the motives of conclusion and the control contents are different from each other. 3. There are three big obstructive factors of the agreed conclusion as follows; troublesome procedures, weak community and opposition to the control building act.
In the first part, this study grasp the transition of Historic Environment Conservation System in P.R.China after 1949 and understand background and necessity of establishment of Historic Cultual Cities Conservation System.Focusing on framework of the system, analyzing the concept and the designation of Ming Chen (historic cultual city), establishment of Conservation Plan, financial supporting, and relations between the system and City Planning System, We intend to make clear the peculiarity of the preparation process, and consider the problem at present.
The purpose of this study is to clear up problems in maintenance of urban collective housing in China. In this paper, we investigated those deterioration degree and those repair experience in comparison with the Japanese collective housing. The findings of our research surveys at Shanghai, Beijing and Osaka are as follows; (1)The causes making the maintenance condition of the housing bad are limited repair cost, insufficient design, unsuitable material choice, poor repair technology, and violent building use. (2)Because the repair isn't done skillfully, the building reform by the resident himself is done abundantly.
One of the unique features in the history, of buildings in Japan appearing in and around the latter half of the 17th century is the Koshi, a wooden grille, also called the Monomi, a viewing stand. It was built in the streetfront walls (Tuiji) of the residences of certain high-ranking Imperial Court, aristocrat,s (Kuge) in Kyoto. The Koshi was used as a screened vantage point through which mostly the women of the aristocrats' household could watch the commoners pass by and call on the street performers to display their art. Today, various types of Koshi or Monomi belonging to fourteen residences can be seen in a diary written by Mujohoin, the daughter of (Retired) Emperor Go-Mizuno-o. This paper is an attempt to c1assify their architectural designs in relation to the social syst,ems that prevailed in those days. It also discusses aristocrats' daily life and entertainment in early modern Japan.
A Study on Arrangement process for the construction of the Gangi Arcade in the Edo era. 1.In the 17th century,Gangi Arcade was constructed for the purpose of securing function of passages during the winter in castle towns as Nagaoka,Takada. 2.In the mid 18th century,maintenance of the Gangi Arcade had been conducted by feudal clans in the form such as supplement of Gangi (Nagaoka),and warning against the damage of Gangi due to the damage from snow (Takada). 3.In the beginning of the 19th century, the Gangi Arcade had been systematically arranged after the fire(Hachinohe,Itoigawa).
This study will show how suburban housing was developed before the war, through Kisaburou Shimomura's achievements. When he worked for Kansai Tochi Co. Ltd., He visited countries in Europe to see the "garden city" movement. He designed Ohmino Den-en Toshi. He tried to create a "garden city" worthy of the name by intoroducing the concept of radiating roads and setting limits on the use of land. Moreover, by publishing pamphlets and the KANSAI TOCHI JIHO, he was eager to educate others on European land use and British "garden city" idea at the beginning of the twentieth century. He was transferred to Hanshin Kyuko Dentetsu Co. Ltd., took part in housing management for office workers at Tsukaguchi Estate, and he opened a drafting office. He was active as an architect and housing designer.
This study clarifies the following, about the building work formation belonging to the Public Colliery Company in Hokkaido, Meiji era. This paper consists of two points. (1)Establishment and process of transition as building work formation. (2)As compared with the formation of the Kaitakushi in Sapporo and Hakodate,which have been studied. From study of the documents in Hokkaido-ritu Monjokan and Hokkaido University Library , I found the following. (1)The first formation is Teturo-ka, that was established in 1878(Meiji 11), its system had been existing during the Public Office period. (2)The building work formation of the Public Colliery Company was independence from the Industrial Office of the central government in Sapporo and the Hakodate branch office .The number of technical experts belonging to the Coal Mine Railway Office was much the same as the Industrial Office , in 1886(Meiji 19).
The reutilised ruins of roman amphitheatres for housing in italian cities are studied in this thesis, according to 4 aspects: I) Comparison and consideration of the parts of the reutilised ruins for housing through 22 samples; II) Classification of the reutilised parts through the typology of building and analysis of their formation process; III) Analysis of the relation between building types and architectural character of roman amphitheatres; IV) Consideration of the relationship between the formation process of the borgo in the medieval city, and the reutilised ruins for housing.
This paper aims to elucidate the process of generation of meaning in Le Corbusier's architectural work for La Tourette. Le Corbusier has various concepts concernig this particular site. Through a process of projection, selection, rejections and final selection of various types, Le Corbusier's thinking gradually focuses on the specific meaning, generated by architectural forms which make an architectural work fruitful. Finally he considered the realization of La Tourette as a space beyond language (l'espace indicible), which demonstrates that man has been opened his profound inner horizon. Thus architectural work influenced by place or khora is a creation of forms, a reconstruction of self at the same time.
This paper is an investigation of the spatial composition in Rudolph Schindler's residential buildings focusing on material and modular system. As a result, following points are derived. Schindler kept his composition based on both composition by planes and 4ft modular system. He kept consistency to translates one factor every 5 year. Factors are constituted by material. planning, and sectional composition. This translations of spatial composition were clearly defined by his theory.
This paper aims to elucidate the process of prototype generation in Le Corbusier's architectural work for La Tourette. He projects universal architectural forms on various sites, strategically adapting these general patterns to each particular site. To analyze his viewpoint concerning site-prototype relationship, this research investigates the vault, loggia, roof-terrace and sculptural elements as meaningful prototypes in La Tourette. Visiting the site, Le Corbusier felt a need to orientate the building to the west. The prototype-site adaptation was not an instantaneous solution, but Le Corbusier's process of the realization of an architectural scenery to the west was influenced by the place.
The objective of this study is to understand an effect by the waterfront area, which is adjacent to a residence in high density living environment. For a subject, we conducted a questionnaire survey at 9 districts located close to the sea, rivers and canals in Tokyo and Kanagawa Persecture. As a result of quantification method III and cluster analysis, the avaluation of inhabitants on their living environment was classified to 4 patterns. Furthermore, it was understood that inhabitants who are content with their present living environments tend to take a comfort brought from the next waterfront into their daily life.
In Suzuki's paper the floor plan is restored on the premises that the plan was square and the rooms were embedded in this square plan. But it is clear that these premises are not proper from the interpretations of the descriptions of the diaries.
The floor plan which I have drawn in my paper was based on the following studies; the interpretations of the descriptions of the diaries, the relationships among the rooms next to each other and between the Shinden of Prince Sadafusa's palace and Nanden during the period of its being a temporary Imperial Palace. Mizoguchi's indication that the floor plan is restored on the premises that the plan was square, therefore, is not appropriate.