Previous research papers reported that smoldering odor generated in building fire is most sensitive signal for occupants. In this study, a link between human response to the unusual occasions and the smoldering odor caused in fire was discussed. The odor concentration of smoldering wood was measured using semiconductor type odor sensors installed at the 56 points on the two-dimensional location in a small test room. From the results of the these experiments, the smoldering odor propagated with air flow and diffused over the room. 24 of 30 persons in total were aware of the unusual smell of the odor and the remaining 6 were aware of the smoke itself. It was concluded that most of human was aware of unusual smell at first in the process of the smell of smoke.
A series of wind tunnel experiment has been carried out to investigate the high temperature wind characteristics behind a two-dimensional flame in the turbulent boundary layer. This paper reports the measuring method of the experiment. The simultaneous measurement of the temperature and the wind velocity has been done using the Laser Doppler Velocimeter(LDV) and the high-temperature wire probe. The configuration of the flame was recorded by a video recorder. The temperature distribution on the wall was obtained by an infrared video camera and thermocouples. The performance of the devices and the characteristics of the flow were discussed.
The aim of this study is to propose a sky radiance distribution model for all sky conditions from clear sky to overcast sky. In the previous paper, the indices to estimate sky radiance distributions were examined based on the measurement data in Tokyo and Fukuoka by IDMP of CIE. The normalized global irradiance and cloudless index were selected as indices to estimate sky radiance distributions. This paper proposes a numerical equation named All Sky Model - R to show sky radiance distributions for all sky conditions as functions of these indices. The All Sky Model - R was compared with the measurement values of sky radiance distributions, and its high accuracy was confirmed. Moreover, the vertical global irradiances from the estimation of the All Sky Model - R, Isotropic model and Perez model were compared with the measurement values. It was confirmed that the All Sky Model - R gives smallest RMSE values and reproduces actual phenomenon of the sky accurately.
The purpose of this study is to examine whether cooling load can be decreased and whether simplified cooling system can be used to create a comfortable humidity and temperature conditions in buildings by making good use of thermal storage and thermal insulation. According to the results of measurement on room air temperature changes in well-insulated buildings, the effects by daily swing of outdoor temperature and solar radiation are quite small. Simple calculation method for cooling load based on steady state theories are available for these buildings, the cooling load can also be minimized by using thermal mass of building and by allowing a small swings of room air temperature. As the cooling load is decreased, a floor cooling becomes effective system that is free from the vapor condensation. A floor cooling system is also effective to remove radiant heat gain directly from artificially luminous radiation or solar one through windows before they transmitted to the room air so that the cooling load in a room becomes smaller. The reason is that a main water system is much suitable for continuous cooling, and thus the roles of ventilation system become mainly fresh air supply and humidity control. A simple air conditioning system without re-circulation of air will also be realized by decreasing its cooling load.
The sky radiance distribution changes in accordance with the sky condition, such as solar position, weather, cloud conditions and so on. This paper proposes a method of dividing the global solar irradiance into the direct diffuse irradiance, and this method is based on the data of the sky radiance distribution measured by Sky Scanner. The proposed solar irradiance model : Δζ-based Sky Irradiance Model, is that irradiance from the high-radiant area around the sun is added to the direct solar irradiance value. Δζ is the angle distance from the center of the sun to the end of direct irradiance area. From the results of study on solar irradiance on tilted surfaces, Δζ value is recommended 50 degree. In this paper, we propose the equations that estimate the Δζ-Based Sky Irradiance from the global solar irradiance, and verified its accuracy.
For the purpose of evaluation and improvement of the thermal environment in traditional vernacular houses of the Banke, Bhaktapur, Dhading, Kaski and Solukhumbu districts of Nepal, the summer thermal indoor environment was measured and investigated in regards to : 1) the relationship between indoor and outdoor climate and 2) in comparison with existing studies. The thermal environments of the houses investigated are as followings, 1) residents mitigated the thermal environment by moving in indoor, semi-open and outdoor spaces, 2) daytime indoor air temperature was 0.7 to 4.6K less than the outdoor air temperature, 3) the thermal environment of the semi-open spaces was better than those of the indoor, 4) a cool radiation and air moisture control effect was found in houses with earthen floors, stone walls, brick walls and mud vessels, 5) the thermal environment of traditional houses was better than new type of houses, 6) much heat insulation was found in houses with grass, brick and wooden roofs, 7) a cool radiation effect was found in houses with grass, brick, stone, tile, cement and corrugated iron roofs, 8)the indoor and outdoor temperature difference was small in low altitude locations and large in high altitude locations, and 9) compared with existing studies, Nepalese and Japanese houses had comparable indoor and outdoor temperature differences in summer(1.2K) and in winter (2.2K).
Newly constructed residential houses in Japan are better insulated and more airtight than their predecessors to increase energy conservation. Although reduced energy consumption was expected, the energy performance of these buildings has not yet been measured. Therefore, the indoor environment and energy consumption in three hundred well-insulated and airtight houses newly constructed in the Tohoku District were investigated by a questionnaire survey. This paper firstly describes the buildings' energy consumption. Secondly, the relationship between energy consumption for space heating and the influencing factors on energy consumption is discussed and calculation by a multi-regression analysis method are presented. Thirdly, the influence of these factors on the heating load is estimated using computer simulations. The simulation method takes the multi-zone effects of heat transfer and air flow distribution into consideration. Computer simulation reveal that the well-insulated and airtight houses in the Tohoku District consume more energy for space heating than ordinary existing houses, in which only the living/dining room is heated(take-back effect). The results also show, that it would be possible to keep a comfortable indoor environment with less energy consumption than the ordinary houses, if the houses had an insulation comparable to R2000 houses in Canada.
Evaluation of the ventilation performance of buildings, especially for residential houses, is complicated because many rooms are connected intricately and there are many factors which influence ventilation condition. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relations among ventilation performance, ventilation systems, air tightness of house and other factors, using Supply Rate Fulfillment index and network flow model. SRF index can treat transferred air, which passed through other rooms, as certain potential of fresh air. Following conclusions are obtained for the ventilation performance evaluation of different systems in an apartment house. ・Under the condition of using F_<co>-class plywood and applying ventilation requirement in the Japanese energy conservation standards (1999), the concentration of formaldehyde will be below the WHO standard. ・The range of wind velocity and wind pressure, in which Overall Supply Rate Fulfillment index complying with ventilation requirement for individual rooms in the Japanese energy conservation standards stay lager than 0.8,are shown.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most useful techniques to predict the air distribution in air-conditioned and ventilated rooms. The supply airflow such as free jet, wall jet and combined flow of these jets has a great influence on the air distribution in rooms. Most of supply air diffusers have complex geometry, however, the shape of diffuser is usually oversimplified in CFD with coarse grids system. The results of such simulation may give incorrect prediction due to the poor modeling of diffusers. Even if the complex geometry of air diffuser can be described in detail, huge computer capacity and very long calculation time were required. In this paper, several modeling methods to simplify the boundary condition around air diffusers, such as BOX Method (P.V. Nielsen; 1976,1992) and P.V. Method (Prescribed Velocity Method, P.V. Nielsen et al.; 1980), are compared. These modelings require the distribution of air velocity, turbulence properties, temperature and concentrations around the diffuser beforehand. These data as the boundary condition for CFD with coarse grids can be obtained from the experimental measurement or the unstructured CFD simulation with fine meshes. In this paper, the full scale experiment was carried out at isothermal condition, and the airflow data around complex air diffuser installed at ceiling was obtained. With the basis of the flow data around the diffuser by the measurement, BOX Method and P.V. Method were applied to the air diffuser. The results of coarse grids CFD showed the good agreement not only around diffusers but in other part of rooms with the measurement.
A lot of paints, adhesives and chemical materials which are known to emit gaseous chemical pollutants are being used in buildings. These building materials are potential sources of indoor chemical substances. Bake-out has been as one mitigation method for such elevated formaldehyde concentrations. The bake-out procedure could increase the transfer of indoor chemical substance from sources to the outdoor. The bake-out hypothesis is that this source depletion is sufficient to cause formaldehyde emission rates to be significantly less than they would have been without bake-out. So, this study was conducted 1) to establish the bake-out procedure and evaluation methods used with test pieces and an environmental chamber, 2) to determine the effectiveness of the bake-out on formaldehyde reduction, and 3) to analyze the relationship between specification of building parts and the reduction effectiveness on the sources by the bake-out. From our results, it turned out that the emission rate of formaldehyde was decreased by 6.54〜55.6% after bake-out in a temperature of 38℃ for the period of 72 hours. And, if we wish to determine the effectiveness of bake-out on the VOCs, further experiments used by chambers should be needed.
This paper studies the prediction method of mean air pressure distribution of drainage stack systems, which includes special drainage fittings. The results of the study are as follows : 1) Clearing the phase of the air pressure distribution of special drainage fitting systems. 2) Verifying the prediction method that was reported by part 1 in special drainage fitting systems and making the margin of application clear. 3) In addition to reinvestigating parameters applied in previous prediction method, the study proposes a new method to easily acquire parameters and offers a wide application range. 4) Proposing a 100 meters class prediction method of mean air pressure by using 30 meters class experiment data.
From the findings, following facts are revealed. -Water quality has correlation with the length of the main river and the water flow which are the indexes of the characteristic of rivers, the number of municipalities, total population and population of which do not have sewerage in the small municipalities in the upstream. -When the indexes on a certain river are high, water quality is relatively low. -Water quality of Murasaki River within the City of Kitakyuusyu is better, compared with Onga River. Because the basin area of Onga River has the numerous municipalities which do not have sewerage.
In this paper, urban environment, especially environmental noise in provincial city is described. Target city is Nagano city, Nagano prefecture. At commercial zone in Nagano city, two types areas exist. One is active commercial area, in which new large size commercial buildings are constructed and commercial activity is high. Another one is traditional commercial area, in which shops and residences are mixed, commercial activity is low. Environmental noise were measured in there area four times, and the results shows as follows. 1. Main source of environmental noise is traffic noise. 2. Environmental noise is large at active commercial area, but it is small at traditional commercial area. 3. To compare with residential area data, traditional area is good condition as residential area.
Cross-cultural background represents an influential element in the evaluation of environment and landscape. The purpose of this study was to clarify differences and similarities between Chinese and Japanese students in Hiroshima University regarding visual information processing in landscape evaluation. Eye-movements of subjects were measured during the presentation of regional landscape slides. Each slide comprised three landscape elements. These elements were controlled independently by image processing. Fixation behavior and psychological evaluation were compared between subject groups. The characteristics of fixation behavior were found to be basically the same between groups. With regard to familiar elements, correlations between eye-movements and evaluation were low in each group. However, with regard to unfamiliar elements, different correlations were observed in each group, attributable to differences in visual experience and knowledge.
A numerical model of cold air drainage flow over a finite-length slope was presented and characteristics of airflow and impacts of some parameters (volume of vegetation, shape of slope, anthropogenic waste heat and roughness parameter) were examined. Relating to the influence of land use, a slope covered with vegetation has a large capacity of generating cold air compared with a bare slope. When the cold air flowed out from the area covered with vegetation into the artificial area, roughness parameter has an impact to its velocity and anthropogenic waste heat to its temperature. As a result, the importance of preserving the green tract of land in a hilly area was pointed out.
This report is the first part study which presents an investigation on the thermal pollution, focussed on Asahikawa's city outdoor temperature distribution-a basin city located in Hokkaido. Research has shown the air temperature measurement during the summer concludes that the city display's a normal heat-island intensity compared with other cities around the world. However air temperature measurement during winter reveal a high heat-island intensity which cause a strong urban dome over the city. In mitigating thermal pollution, the city needs to implement a climatic urban design based on regional "klimaatras".
This survey addresses a yearly change in the Pair-House, public-operating residence for parents and their grow-up children, which is based upon observations on the people who has lived over twenty years in Shizuoka City. The people, living in the Pair-House think that separation of entrances and connected space of balcony is very good. The separate kitchen is used frequency as the essence of their self-supporting life. Parents and their row-up children keep communication each other through a bathroom. And it is certainly that the Pair-House is obtained good results, because parents have lived in their own room for long time. In addition, the current spaces and old style involves a badly planned problem, which must be reformed, if so, it can be one of choice in various houses for the old people.
The purpose of this study is to inspect the fitting of the municipal housing for the wheel-chair users from viewpoint of mobilities of the disabled who doesn't use wheel-chair, and to get fundamental knowledges to consider what the housing for them should be in future. As a result, the following circumstances were clarified. (1)The person who doesn't use wheel-chair indoors occupies 33 percent of all. (2)The corridor doesn't fit for the person who doesn't use wheel-chair, especially by trailing. (3)The Japanese-style room floored 45 centimeters height from floor line doesn't fit for the person who doesn't use wheel-chair. And so on.
The Lisbon International Exhibition held in 1998 is an epoch making event aimed at reutilizing the facilitis after the event. This study is, through the Lisbon Exhibition conscious of reutilization, to help us consider the relationship of 1)the function of facilities, 2)the location of facilities, 3)the plan of reutilized facilities, 4)the way of investment and the owner of facilities for reutilization, by investigating and analyzing the facilities after the event.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the expansion of activities and living territory held at each space of elderly inhabitants of "Care House". The results of the analysis are as follows. 1)The place formed by various activities in room were fully understood and classified. 2)Features of living activity related with programs held at common space and other activities were clarified. 3)To act in outer space, inhabitants choose each facility and place. The effects to those acts and territories by environments of location were recognized. 4)Features of expanding territories were differ by each acts, seemed they had four qualities; staginess, selectivity, development and attachment. Points written above classified whole activities.
This paper aims to clarify relationship between behavior of elderly residents and spatial structure of nursing homes, focusing on the quality and meaning of common spaces, especially semi-private and semi-public zone. For this objective, 3 types of nursing home with private rooms were surveyed by means of mapping of activities of the residents/care staffs, behavior observation and deep interviews. The findings are as follows : 1)Each zones of each facilities were used differently. Some places were used in only activity programs, but some places were used frequently by the residents independently, in which diverse activities and behaviors were observed. 2)Use pattern of common spaces or extent of living area in facilities of the residents were influenced by both degree of independence of them and care environments of the facilities (including building environment and care philosophy). 3)Meaning of semi-private and semi-public zones were quite different from each 3 facilities in their characteristics of publicness, then the common spaces could be considered not as mono-hierarchical zones but as various public sphere.
This paper focused on the environmental transfer and terminal care of the resident living in a group living for dementia. The purpose of the study is to clarify the importance of continuity of the residential and care environment from the point of two aspects. It is expected to give some suggestions or hints for what a group living should be in a system of residential facilities for the elderly. Two surveys were practiced for the purpose. One is a longitudinal follow-up observation survey on two cases transferred from group living to institutional nursing home. This result showed how the transfer impacted to the residents and how important the environment of group living for the people with dementia. Another survey is on the attitude and actual conditions of the terminal care for the residents living in a group living using method of questionnaire survey to all the group livings in July 2000. The result showed the difficult condition of group livings for playing a place for terminal care in view of present state of system. On the other hand, many group livings hope to work as a place where residents can live as long as possible. Therefore, the public support system for terminal care in group livings is needed to be prepared without delay.
By investigating and analyzing 14 libraries, of which 9 are in Mie and 5 are in Gifu, this paper discusses the structure of selective behaviors and consciousness of users of libraries, based on planning of libraries in regional areas. We summarize the conclusions as follows : ・It is worthy to note that in regional area, users consider libraries as a place not only to borrow books, but also to conduct continuing education activities such as reading, research or studying something. ・The users' selective behaviors are not entirely concerned with the collection of books, but also influenced by the space and location of libraries. These factors must be considered in planning facilities for continuing education. ・Expectation for a certain library differs from each user and maybe influenced by the functions of neighboring libraries.
This study was conducted in order to improve facilities for the deaf and hard-of-hearing. The subjects were individuals with congenital deafness and those who became deaf or hard-of-hearing after birth. Consideration was made of the differences in the barriers perceived by the two groups. The results were as follows. Both groups of subjects pointed out that medical institutions, transportation facilities, shops, and accommodation facilities lacked consideration for those with deafness or other hearing impairment. The results of the survey suggested that not only human communication but also improvement of facilities and spaces should be considered.
The objective of this research is to show the accomplishment of improvement in efficient use of workplace in a university laboratory for architectural design. The process of the renovation was undertaken : finding problems by taking photographs and brain storming, investigation of the layout of the plan and activity of users, evaluation of the laboratory before renovation, change of layout, and post occupancy evaluation. In the renovation of the laboratory, fixed personal spaces were decreased and free address spaces were added. The post occupancy evaluation of the laboratory was much higher than before which proves this method and process effective.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the reference domains of demonstrative pronouns from reclining postures. In everyday conversation in Japan, we use the three different demonstrative pronouns, "KORE", "SORE", and "ARE". The differences between the usage of these three pronouns indicate that the space surrounding a person can be divided into three reference domains. The experiments were carried out in a large experimental room. Subjects were located lying on one's back on the bed. Subjects were indicated the electric bulb, then were asked to KORE/SORE/ARE. The results are summarized as below; 1)The reference domain of "ARE" encloses the domain of "SORE", which encloses the domain of "KORE". 2)The reference domain of "KORE" encloses from head to knee, and has relation to the motion area of the arm. 3)The reference domains of demonstrative pronouns from reclining postures are different from the reference domains of demonstrative pronouns from standing postures.
Urban Complex (UC), recently is built a lot, is important and up to date spaces that forms community and amenity in urban spaces. Also it is an important element that forms cityscape. The purpose of this study is useful guide for Architectural planning and design by clarifying space composition of UC. In this paper, we clarify 13 psychological factors, correlation of Psychological quantity and Physical quantity, general relation by Consciousness type and Physical composition ratio type.
This paper traces the scheduling scheme back to its foundation, the concept of time. It develops a non-local distribution theory of time resource, which allows one to deal directly with the distributed time resource potentials, to incorporate uncertainty into the scheduling model as well as its dynamic adjustment mechanism of parts and whole. Some appropriate linear transformation over the collective potentials will do reproduce the standard time process, on which time resources are allocated with proper probabilities. This reconstruction scheme of scheduling via the non-locally distributed theory opens up the way to incorporate the decision mechanism onto the model.
In this paper, the cognition process of image about the appearance for Chinese and Japanese traditional architectures was analyzed by the Chinese and the Japanese modern. The appearance that was considered the model of image layer structure from language expression, and use it to analyzed the results of SD into mapping. Than analyzed the causal relation with the mapping results by graphical modeling. According to the results were clarified; by the compare with the Chinese and the Japanese modern, the final "evaluation" was similarity but the process was difference. And about the attribution of the difference, the "space" was important to Japanese and the "decoration" was important to Chinese.
In a rural town, there is an obvious decline in power as people moves away from the center. Although autonomy is measuring the recovery of power by the law such as many promotion law as the correspondence to such a present condition, it needs to grasp the present condition of the town as a fixed quantity in order to correctly measure the effect. This research proposes to develop a fixed quantitative method which analyses the characteristics of a commercial block using the theory of Self-Organized Criticality. This report is combined with a theoretical thought to investigate and analyze both Nakamachi street and Agetsuchi street in Matsumoto city, as an actual block model and suggests the possibility of comparing the model with the simulation of the hypothesized block.
In The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster, open spaces, trees and water resources were used beneficially as urban stock. This study focuses on wells, which played an important role while other lifelines were stopped, for example, extinguishing fires, supplying water for houses after the earthquake and so on. The purpose of this study is clarifying the role of well, using the result of analysis about these points, through a comparison of four neighborhood units. (i)The range of well users. (ii)The term of usage. (iii)The purpose of use. (iv)The way of opening to the public.
In the first half of 1930's, the Society of Civic Art made the epochal proposals to establish the municipal art commission in Tokyo. This paper is to review the process of making the first proposal (1930) and the second proposal (1934). Specifically, this paper is to focus on : 1)contacts with art commissions of cities in the United States and their direct influence, and 2)changes of relation between the Society of Civic Art and Tokyo City Government under the movement, which motivated by Tokyo City Government in this period, for realization of Tokyo metropolitan system.
The purpose of this paper is making countermeasure's significance and role clear investigating the town planning for reconstruction from earthquake disaster and restoration land readjustment program of Western Ashiya Area where residents have taken part in it. 1.The process of changing their first plan which doesn't rely on restoration land readjustment program into final one using land readjustment program. 2.Showing that the process of making town planning is deeply related to the process in which residents enter into an agreement with the town planning. 3.Making it clear how professionals can play their role in the process of town planning.
This study aims to clarify the actual condition of big shopping stores' closing and the tendency of its uses after the closing by the research for 68 cities of Hokuriku-Koshin-Etsu area. The phenomenon of big stores' closing has increased since 1993 and have been observed in all prefectures. Because the depression is prolonged and finding the next commercial users is difficult, municipalities have positively participated in the uses planning after the closing since 1994 and uses have been diversified. Closing buildings or sites, which are located in important places, are thought much of in the central area revitalizing planning.
This study aims to clarify the planning process of "Nagano Toshi-keikaku". In Nagano City general recognition on the need to reform inner roads of the city had been formed in the end of Meiji 20s and through "Nagano Shiku-kaisei" planning of Taisyo 2 year and "City Planning Act" of 1919 public concern to city planning had increased. Under these processes various ideas and plans on Nagano city planning were born. On the other hand, by central government's instructions scientifical and detail researches and measurement had been done and by central government official Hiroyoshi Yamada various ideas and plans within Nagano authorities had been given clear conception "From Buddhist town to sightseeing city".
The purpose of this study is to analyze landscape characteristics by classification of landscape field on Chunchon, Korea. At first, BitCP System was developed to convert from picture by fish-eye lens to panorama picture. And landscape characteristics were analyzed by appearance rate and area distribution rate of landscape elements on panorama picture. The following results were obtained; 1)The urban landscape consists of four essential factors as follow : interdependence factor, nature factor, urban centrality factor and landscape scale factor. 2)Five landscape field types were founded. 3)Each landscape field type was influenced by land use. 4)Ratio of dimensions on landscape element in each type was rated natural factor; 57%, building factor; 34%, street factor; 6% and changeable factor; 3%.
The daily number of work labor is radical changeable in a jobsite when the contractors build a construction project. To improve this situation, various construction-planning methods were studied. But in recent years, because the building become high-rise and large-scale, it is very difficult to plan schedule with effective building production using past planning method, and construction planning included repetitive schedule is frequently planned. There are many past studies about construction planning of repetitive work, but until now, schedule planning is still depended on experience of the manager of construction site. Then, in this paper, the authors build a model of repetitive work, and search the optimization of this schedule planning with theory of constraints.
The purpose of this paper is to define actual conditions of acquisition of ISO9000s and to search how to apply in the building industry. At first, the trend of acquisition in the all fields is defined by JAB's data base. The result is that the great increment is in the building industry and the spreading to local is clear. At second, the questionaire to the members of Fukoka Prefecture Building Industry Association is distributed in order to be clear the local popularization. The result is that the member of the association has strong desire to acquire the standard and needs the correct and easy understaning information.
Both the Shinden and the Tai were used as the meeting place for the initiation ceremony, visiting Kamo Shrine・Kasuga Shrine and for the Rinjikyaku at the time of the ceremonies. When we pay attention to the arrangement of the sitting place of the Kugyou(公卿)and the Tenjobito(殿上人)who take part in these ceremonies mainly, the arrangement is decided flexiblely according to the type of the plan and the size. But these arrangement were not decided at random but decided as the farther place from the gate and the Chumon is higher rank than the nearer place.
Design theory of Kenchikusyokei-Dogu-Hinagata(Japanese Traditional Furniture Reference Book-the concept of architecture)is not by so-called kiwari(a kind of Japanese proportional design method), but by absolute dimensions described in syaku-sun scale. Their means of descriptions are mainly by writings, drawings and dimensions. The dimension system of most furniture design became regular in the middle of Edo era, and some absolute measurements are related to building size of buke houses, body size and courtesy.
This paper provides our analysis and consideration on the Yosida house which was designed by Mokuzaemon Yokota, the master builder of Kumo school. As the result that we analyzed some related materials, for exampl the kiwari book that is like the timber detailed statement in the present time, we could restore the plan, the elevation, the section and the structure at the Yoshida house.