This study focused on share living life in detached housing which is opened for public by homeowner. Homeowner and visitors establish a fifty-fifty relationship both of which share living life such as cooking, having a meal and close family atmosphere in share-space. This research finding implies the possibility of new housing model that go beyond “1 housing unit for 1 household“ for fast-aging society.
The purpose of this study is to investigate from the perspective of social relations how elderly settlers who moved into senior citizen towns formed safe and secure regional communities, namely, residential networks based on both region and family. The authors were able to clarify the following: 1) communities were jointly formed by both the residential system described in part 1 of this study and regional networks; 2) good social relations were seen when residents shared a wide range of communication patterns, from general to intimate; the authors define this as “Flat Communication”; and 3) a key person was essential for the formation of good social relations.
This study aims to examine support strategies for condominium occupants in their attempts to continue their daily life after an earthquake. We conducted a questionnaire survey in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of post-earthquake support strategies in condominiums. We have found the following results: Firstly, safety checks of the building and facilities were carried out in about 70% of the condominiums house surveyed. Support was given to the occupants in about 40% of the condominiums surveyed. Secondly, support for maintaining continuity of residents' daily life came into action on the same day the earthquake occurred. The safety checks of the building and facilities took place on the day after the earthquake. Thirdly, Safety checks of the building and facilities were, more commonly carried out by superintendents of condominium association. Meanwhile, residents' organizations gave support in order to help maintain continuity in the daily life of occupants. Lastly, we analyzed the effectiveness of the support strategies through Quantification Theory2. According to the results, we have found that post-earthquake support strategies are influenced the most by the condominium management system.
The purpose of this study is to reveal use status of shopping facilities by the elder residents in public housing and its change. The results are as follows. 1) The total number of shopping facilities has decreased. Especially decreasing rate of retail stores has declined. Among them, the number of fresh food stores has remarkably decreased. 2) The number of convenience stores are increasing. But they don't function as alternatives to the existed stores in TOYAMA-HAITSU. So elderly have limited choices to shop at. 3) Elderly who rely on home delivery service and who have walking difficulty are increasing. For such elderly, shopping support service is necessary.
The purposes of this study are, first, to come up with indices for the number of users of the different long-term care insurance facilities run by different providers throughout Japan in 2010 through an understanding of the quantitative aspects of demands for facilities for elderly persons requiring support and long-term care throughout the country. Second, the study aims to come up with indices for the target levels for establishment of such facilities presented in the government's 2025 Social Security Reform Model and compare them with the indices for the number of users. Further, the study aims to determine the possibility of applying the 2025 targets for establishment of facilities based on an understanding of the actual situation of the number of users and facilities for particular insurance providers.
This paper considers whether the activity scene of special-needs children with differing developmental characteristics materializes in relation to their environmental construction elements. On this basis, this paper comprised observational research in preschool facilities and special needs schools that differ from the spatial configurations required by children with a variety of disabilities. Regarding the environmental construction elements that influence the formation of children's specific activity scene in stay type and movement type disabilities, we analyzed the features of age stage, spatial composition, place, and activity type. Moreover, we analyzed the features of indirectly environmental construction element.
Large amount of wood is currently available in Japan owing to trees planted after the war. Along with this, the use of wood in building has been actively discussed thanks to the environemtal benefits, the positive psychological effect as well as the physiological effect. Even though different attempts to utilize domestic wood have been conducted, it has not necessarily been used effectively at the moment. To improve this situation, understanding people's perception and evaluation structure regarding wood used for space is significant. In this research, the evaluation structure of Japanese design professional and laymen on interior wood for living space was investigated.
The objective of the research is to analyze the psychological evaluation of the spatial representation in the Western paintings to obtain the insights to the reception of the architectural images. The psychological evaluation experiment based on the SD methods was conducted to quantitatively measure the impression of the spatial representation by the viewers. The factor analysis was conducted in order to capture the psychological evaluation structure, and 7 factors are obtained. The Cluster Analysis was performed to categorize 5 distinctive types of the reception from the psychological evaluations, <Consciousness-Types>. The analysis of the <Consciousness-Types> as well as <Element Composition> and <Focus-Zone> types obtained from the Indication Experiments showed the certain relationship between the psychological evaluations and compositional characteristics.
In the region of Minority nationalities, Guizhou Province of China, houses are built by using traditional technology and local materials with the joint efforts of villagers. By investigating the construction process of G house in Gongna Village, this study has clarified that the participants mainly involved in the construction including house owner, the villagers and the experts such as carpenters, feng shui master, transportation supplier, sawmill and wood processing company. With the modernization of the rural life and the increasing of monetary economy, construction has been split into more divisions. The current result suggested that along with the introduction of electric tools and monetary economy, all of the construction process might tend to be more specific that could only be handled by professional staff. The old tradition of wooden technology and collaboration of villagers that have been inherited for many years might disappear.
This paper aims to clarify housing lay-out analysis through land use and land ownership in Tanekura village. I considered the factor to arrange storehouses by arranged folk houses. The following three points were clarified. 1. Wooden storehouses were arranged on owners' cultivated land 25-200m away from folk houses to check the spread of the fire. 2. In the case of some owners’ land around owners' folk houses, storehouses were constructed on the edge of owners' land within some distance from owners' folk houses. In the case of few owners' land around owners' folk houses, storehouses were constructed on the way to owners' cultivated land or on owners' land near larger cultivated land. 3. Sometimes storehouses were reconstructed. Some storehouses were reconstructed when the rice fields were expanded after 1939. In recent years, two storehouses were reconstructed on useful place because of few anxieties about the fire.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 2005. Focusing on the Spanish colonial urban process and formation in Philippines, authors wrote several papers on Manila, Cebu, and Vigan through the analysis of the colonial maps AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla) and data gained from the field. Binondo is the oldest Chinatown in the world. It is located across the Pasig River from Intramuros in Manila, this district was the center of commerce and trade during by East Asia and Europe during the time of the Manila Galleons. This paper discusses the formation and transformation of house types in Binondo based on the analysis of spatial formation of house. This paper identified three basic building types, ie. accesoria, bahai na bato, camarin, then explains house types as combination of three basic building types.
This study aims to clarify the historical transition of the Public Retail Market in pre-war Osaka city on following 3 aspects. 1. The urban policies and social position of the Public Retail Market were analyzed through papers of Hajime SEKI and Osaka's Council minutes. 2. The historical transition of the Public Retail Market were classified by the analysis of gross floor area, structure, plan, elevation and section drawings of 21 buildings. 3. How the Public Retail Market had played the role as the core of the living environment was shown by the survey of two case.
This paper reviews density control regulations in the city of Tehran, Iran, for private residential developments, meaning those constructed not by public sector but by individuals. The focus here is on the measures which seek to address physical attributes such as Building Coverage Ratio, Floor Area Ratio and provisions for open spaces. Based on statistical data with regards to recent private housing development, this paper argues that, as a result of transitory citywide development laws, most residential zones in Tehran have changed into mainly 5 storey apartment buildings, with limited open and semi-open spaces, in the interests of developers, in turn influenced by high demand and profit in the housing market.
This study focuses on “a temporary place” which is set up in outdoor public spaces routinely to generate a start of interaction among various people. We try to analyze how to put “a temporary place” into practice and what element there are. We make clear that people in this place tend to spend our time on our own. This tendency should arise from a few spatial limitation of outside space. In addition, you want to set up “a temporary place”, you should form relationships with the government and neighborhood associations to get approval for your action from them.
This study clarifies the spatial distribution and characteristics of new constructed building in 9 cities along the coast after the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is demonstrated that aggregation of self-help housing reconstructions with relocation gives significant influence for transformation of urban built environment which is inconsistent with the future spatial planning vision developed by local government's post-disaster recovery planning. It is found that new developments in agricultural and forest area trigger urban sprawl that is physically unsustainable in depopulated region. These phenomenon implies the need for spatial planning technique and policy which gives guidance for individual housing reconstruction by utilizing survivors' resilience.
Asuka village in Nara prefecture is designated as one of the special preservation areas for historic landscape since 1960's and is well-known for its richness in historic remains originated from Asuka period. This paper focuses on rural house compounds from six different village sections. Village sections located within the plain area are classified into three groups in terms of village layout, i.e. group 1: clustered village (Okuyama, Kawahara and Noguchi), group 2: linear village along the street with east-west axis (Asuka), group 3: linear village along the street with north-south axis (Oka and Shimasho). Composition of rural house compounds in Asuka village and Nara basin consists of main building, directly attached to the main building (tsunoya) and further attached buildings (huzokuya, hanare). We firstly set up the hypothetical model for the building layout development pattern of house compounds which includes every possible extendable pattern of main and attached buildings. The model was examined by the result of our field research which revealed the fact that dominant development patterns follow the basic rule of traditional Japanese idea of the divination of the auspices of a house from its position and orientation.
In this study, the following was revealed on the public rental housing complex (PRHC) in Osaka Prefecture. 1. The number of the PRHC that doesn't meet the criteria installation rate of parking, 2. The number of the PRHC with a surplus in the parking lot, 3. Guidance situation of municipalities in the redevelopment. As a result, 87.3% of the PRHC that were built in 1965-1974 doesn't meet the installation criteria, and in addition, there is a surplus of parking lot on 90.0% of them. When the municipality applied the criteria of the current situation to redevelopment of the PRHC that doesn't meet the criteria despite the surplus of parking lot, the wasted space would be generated. Therefore the current parking installation criteria must be revised by placing the guidance for the redevelopment, to not generate a useless space.
This paper, for setting method of a comprehensive historical environment conservation and contribute spatial region to develop, review ideal situation of landscape image, it is intended to obtain the basic knowledge. In the evaluation of district boundary line, spatial region is likely to be ambiguous recognized from the fact that the boundary line is higher in the error rate of a complex part. Image evaluation of the building, evaluation of the streets in the major point, through verification, on the boundary line of the area, it was shown the possibility of the existence and expansion of the image area of historic amenity.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government enforced an "Ordinance for Comprehensively Promoting Measures for Stranded Persons" on April 1st, 2013. In this paper, we investigate people's behavior after a large earthquake, which varies according to their personal attributes and various conditions, through a questionnaire survey. Next, we construct a model describing the people's decision-making to return home or stay at their work places, by a nested logit model. Finally we estimate the number of people returning home on foot after a large earthquake, and evaluate whether the ordinance can reduce the number of such people in the Tokyo metropolitan area.
This paper examines the use characteristics of childcare facilities in middle and mountainous area. The difficulty of facility management is pointed out in the area with few children, so putting the childcare facility in public facility as a broad-based facility over two or more school divisions is the effective method. In school divisions with many infants of city surrounding area, the rate of utilization is low and many potential demand is expected, by using a civic center or existing facilities such as vacant house more positively, the setup of autonomous improvement plan and target is important. It is useful methodology to aim at practical use of public facilities in the public facility reorganization plan in addition to nursery schools.
The organization of the Postal Architecture changes its style from public to private since 1886 as the starting point of the ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. The Postal Architecture has also the history that they have designed post offices, training facility for employee, employee's accommodation, hospitals, etc., and supervised their construction projects for 140 years over. This Study makes clear why Postal architects' project management has been established as architect's leading organization in the former ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (1886-1949) in the Meiji, Taisho, and early Showa era by study of related research books and thesis.
This paper discusses the Zousakukata, an organization at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine in charge of the judgment on architectural applications in the Kamigamo district. Based on diaries kept at the shrine, the following four points became clear: 1. The Zousakukata was established in 1736. 2, At first, the Zousakukata consists of four priests and by 1742, it was reduced to three priests. 3. The Zousakukata was established because it was needed to deal with a request by a magistrate's office. 4. The Zousakukata examined the site location, made an architectural application to a magistrate's office, submitted it to the office and stood by during the investigation by the office.
This study was undertaken in order to reveal the historical process and technical characters of the joint technology in timber frame structures in Japanese traditional house. These joint technologies called shikuchi in Japanese. This study puts in focus on horizontal member used in Japanese traditional house, called sashimono, and analyzes these shikuchi joint to pillars of framework in Early Modern houses, it reveals these historical changes and some local characteristics. In this study, defined 13 joint elements, we analyzed the sashimono joint that has been described in the restoration report on early modern house in western Japan.
The purpose of this study is to examine the activity of architectural publisher KOYOSHA (1912-1944) from the characteristic of the publication and the persons involved with and is to locate its achievement within the framework of the history of modern architecture in Japan.As the result, below mentioned three points become clear; 1. Its activity is distinguished into three periods. 2. Those change is caused by relationship among the publisher and the authors. 3. Such process also indicates a role of architectural books, in response not only to theoretical promotion of the modernist architecture but also to social needs.
This paper interprets the aspect meaning the representational medium in architectural planning of the pictura in Alberti's architectural theory. This interpretation was made on the basis of our interpretation of the lineamentum and by analyzing the use of the pictura among the theories of his. The result is as the following; the aspect means, essentially, the two-dimensional representational medium that represents a body as the signum (figure) on a certain picture-plane, as it were, the drawing, more exactly, the plan. But in this case, the main is as it were, the set of ground plan, elevation, and section, in a word, the ground plan-elevation-section rather than the solid-figure plan of interior, exterior, background, landscape, etc..
The present paper aims to show on possible interpretations of the medieval construction process of the chapter house at the Sénanque abbey. Describing the irregularities found in this chapter house, and then analyzing them to consider their reasons, the authors tend to give rational and coherent explanations to these irregularities. To achieve this goal, a metrological analysis concerning the medieval measures will be introduced in this paper. Principally caused by the change of the initial plan of the chapter house, these irregularities also explain well the compromising attitude corresponding to each construction step already finished.
This research investigates modernization process in architecture and urban planning in Catalonia, led by G.A.T.C.P.A.C. (1930-39). Focusing on actual circumstances of the movement, main driving forces would be unveiled in the point of view - how G.A.T.C.P.A.C. comprehended those national issues and took action. Lastly, authors reach a conclusion, which illustrates how G.A.T.C.P.A.C. regarded population excess in Barcelona as national issues as well as unawareness of it in public including architects. G.A.T.C.P.A.C. was organized in order to solve such problems by not only proposing urban architectural projects but introducing national situations and case studies from abroad through various media.
Isamu Noguchi (1904-88) started to design many gardens from the 50s, and might give grate influences to architects as collaborator. The purpose of this study is to make clear the meaning of garden design concept by quantitative analysis of sentences in A Sculptor's World, which is known as autobiography and work theories during a period from the 50s to the 60s. The followings are 4 subjects as meaning of garden we revealed: 1. Garden as a relationship between objects 2. Garden as imaginative dimension of infinite 3. Garden as experience of human being 4. Garden as a whole
This study's purpose is to reveal the mechanism of conservation management of the Sydney Opera House by analyzing the five major renovations work which affects its state of completions. This study consists of the following steps; 1. To divide the period of conservation management by identifying “the long-term renovation programme”, 2. To set the type of renovation work by creating its renovation history, 3. To consider entirely mechanism of conservation management by analysis of transition of required performance, 4. To consider the influence of the five major renovations on mechanism of conservation management by reveal positioning of five major renovations on the mechanism of conservation management.