Calculations of STI for several modeled sound fields show that the values of STI for the field consist of direct sound and single reflection, which is higher or lower by a dB than the former, are same, the sound reflections at any delay time raise up the value of STI and even the high level early sound reduces the value of STI under certain condition. The early sound energy might be useful for high speech intelligibility, whereas the concept of STI contradicts with that. There are problems to consider STI to be an adequate measure of speech intelligibility.
Vibration response of a finite plate makes up with two factors, namely a resonance and restraining effect by plate ends. In a preceding paper, an evaluation method of the resonance based on the diffuse index was presented. In a present paper, the restraining effect by plate ends was examined using numerical calculation method. As the results of this study, the followings are revealed. The restraining effect depends on the ratio of a distance from an excitation point to plate end and a wavelength of bending wave in excitation frequency. The restraining effect can be represented as a single regression function regardless of various conditions of the plate by separating the effect of resonance from vibration response. The restraining effect by two sides of the plate is approximated by the theorem of three squares. Vibration damping does not affect on the restraining effect.
The purpose of the paper is to analyze passive-smoking in a room with 3-dimensional CFD analysis. We examine how much the breathing/inhalation air region is polluted by the smoke blown from a smoker's mouth or by the smoke arising from a lit cigarette. We evaluate the degree of pollution around the nose and mouth considering the indices of ventilation effectiveness. Displacement ventilation and mixing ventilation are tested as a ventilation system of the room. In the case of displacement ventilation, we examine two cases with the different speed of exhalation velocity. We observe that the thermal plume caused by the metabolic heat generation of the smoking person effectively transports both the cigarette smoke and blown smoke from the mouth upward and thereby the opposite-side person (passive smoking person) is not affected so much by the smoke. High-exposure case occurs only for the case with the high speed exhalation velocity and with the close distance between smoking and passive smoking person. On the other hand, in the case of mixing ventilation, the smoke tends to diffuse uniformly within the room regardless of the distance of the two persons.
Buildings are designed, constructed and operated to provide a safe and healty environments that are conductive to well-being of occupants. However, many buildings fail to perform adequately and cause illness. In recent years, the interests for indoor air quality in residence have been increased. There is a wide variety of sources of contaminants in indoor air, including outdoor air, combustion, smoking and building materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the indoor air quality by measuring gaseous and particle contaminants in residences. The results are as follows; 1) Concentrations of VOCs in residences were measured by GC and GC-MS. TVOC concentrations were less than 100 μg/m^3 in outdoor air and about 200 μg/m^3 and over in indoor air. 2) Elemental compositions of airborne particles were measured by particle analyzer system. Particle counts of compositions and relations of emission intensity were analyzed.
In recent years, indoor formaldehyde (HCHO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from interior finishing material are recognized as one of serious potential risks against human health. Authors carried out experiment to quantify the emission rates of HCHO and total VOCs (TVOC) from main interior finishing materials of multi-family houses on various conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The acquired data shows the tendency that higher the temperature and humidity are, higher emission rates are obtained'except those of HCHO from vinyl-wall finishing. And predictive calculation of concentration of HCHO and TVOC in a house that has been already measured was carried out using these data. As a result, the tendencies are shown that calculated values are about 4 times as much as measured ones in HCHO concentration, and that calculated values are approximation of measured ones in TVOC concentration compared with HCHO. It seems that this was caused by the re-adsorption mechanism. Therefore, the re-adsorption mechanism must be indispensable to the prediction of the concentration of especially HCHO.
To obtain the information for the planning techniques of improvement of river environment, we carried out the questionnaire surveys around the Seno River in the east area of Hiroshima City. Based on the comparison between results of the surveys before (1985) and after (1994) improvement, we investigated the changes of inhabitant's evaluation for the river environment and their recreational behaviors in the river space. After improvement, people coming to river for walk and rest increased, but people for fishing and playing with water decreased. Also, in 1994, it was pointed out the destruction of nature and water pollution. However, holistic evaluation of the river environment was nearly same between two surveys, and the inhabitants had the opinions that such the improvements were desirable. To clarify the effects of opinions, evaluation and behaviors on satisfaction of the river environment, we analyzed by the Quantity Theory Cluster II. In 1985, inhabitants judged based on the quantity of nature, quality of water, etc. However, in 1994, the scenery effected judgement strongly.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of thermal environment on the human physiological and psychological responses based on the human heat balance and a proposed new effective temperature for outdoors in urban spaces including a street canyon and an open space in each season. In summer the human heat balance was not necessarily kept at constant, because excess evaporative cooling by sweating occurred in severe hot environment. However, there was strong correlation between the modified new effective temperature for outdoors and thermal sensation/mean skin temperature. Comfort condition in this experiment agreed with the previous ASHRAE and Shimura's comfort envelopes. Consequently, the thermal environment index can indicate the effect of sensational climate on the human responses in urban spaces.
Environmental burdens through building life cycle are induced by almost all industries such as raw material manufacturers, fabricators, traders and other service industries. Better way to carry out LCA of building practically is to develop LCI data based on the 1990 input-output table and other statistical data. This paper describes LCCO_2, LCSOx LCNOx, LCE and LCC data on electrical and mechanical facilities for 12 kinds of buildings such as offices, hotels, hospitals, stores, schools, universities, complex buildings, halls, logistics, factories, dormitories and apartments.
The purpose of this study is to clarify evaluation between life environment of the elderly and housing environment. This is based on the results of the questionnaire given to the elderly in A-City and rehabilitation hospital The results of analysis are as follows. 1) A feeling of satisfaction of the life environment of the elderly and the housing environment is more sufficiently than the non-elderly. 2) A feeling of satisfaction of the housing environment of the elderly of residential home is more sufficiently than the elderly of home. 3) A feeling of satisfaction of the life environment of the handicapped elderly and the housing environment is more insufficiently than the elderly. 4) Evaluation of life environment has a connection with evaluation of housing environment.
The floor plans published on housing magazines in past 35 years have categorized as a view point of parent-child communication, and examined along the time line. In the earlier period, each child had exclusive room, and set importance on independent private rooms. In the middle period, the clear separation of private and common rooms was major. Therefore the trouble caused by family separation. In recent years, the floor plans were paied attention to connect private and common area using high ceilings and it set importance on the family communication by integration.
The aim of this study is to make the actual condition of independent productions for appreciation clear through the third questionnaire survey conducted with 1995 as the target year. In this research, we have introduced two specific values about the attendance and the price of each production, and analyzed the relations between the population of municipalities and the number of seats and so on. Independent productions for appreciation have obtained the results in a way to utilize multipurpose halls effectively, which various types of performance can be done. In designing public facilities for performing arts in the area of municipalities with small population, it is important to plan such facilities as with the small number of seats.
In recent years, management of forest has been hovering and so many experiments have been done for sound management of forest in Japan. But in the present circumstances, the economical problems of existing in management of forest have not solved yet. In 1962, Loblolly Pine originally comes from North America and Japanese Cedar were planted in Mt. Amagi and production cost and capacity of the two have been calculated. As a result, it is cleared that planting of Loblolly Pine is effect to sound management of forest in Japan.
◇This study deals with old and new activities in a community and shows "the formation and development of residents' community activities" through in the community with content, attribution and relation of residents, the way of grouping and the structure of activities' sphere by comparing rural area with urban area. ◇This purpose is to suggest a plan to make activities with own pleasure and association in the community. ◇For materializing of extensive social participation, it is necessary to make activities in which people can enjoy and get relationships and to support a leader in the community.
In this study, the relation between building exterior materials and mode of appearance of color in townscape were discussed based on the study on mode of appearance of color in commercial and business district in Osaka. It is important for creating attractive and comfortable townscape to clarify the relation between building exterior materials and mode of appearance of color. Building exterior materials were classified into groups; tile, coating with spraying, stone, metal, paint, concrete, glass and the rest. The groups were analyzed based on the mode of appearance of color and the characteristic of building exterior materials were clarified in four townscaps of commercial and business districts.
The purpose of this paper is to develop an urban growth model by cellular automata (CA). First, we tried to analyze the behavior of Batty and Xie's CA model, and understood its characteristics. Next, we modeled urban growth process based on their concept, and then developed a CA model. Our model is applied to Toyohashi-Toyokawa area and Mokpo city in Korea. The estimated urban area is compared with the actual urban area by Cramer's coefficient of contingency, Yule's coefficient of association and fractal dimension. From the results of simulation, we confirmed the reproductivity of urban growth for past about 100 years.
In this paper, we tried to clarity the type and quantity of street furniture, and the situation of street furniture in the around of BBISUBASH1as one of commercial areas. As a result, it was found that in an open space the most of street furniture is to has to do with safety, in the other in two streets the most street furniture is to has to do with culture. And furthermore, commercial area has two dimension of space as Street and Plaza. This two dimension has to do with crowd density. And congestions in open space are three pattern, they are a state of a dot, a line, and a semicircle.
How to utilize the open space is one of the important problems of local small city, because agricultural or forestry use of it has been decreased recently. This study tried to find the existing daily visit of open space and the reason which prevents people from visiting open space in the city of Tsuyama, Okayama. As the result, the main reasons of the existing visits of open space are accompanying younger children's play and daily walk by elder-aged people for enjoying being close to nature. The result also shows the necessity of certain maintenance to promote the visit.
The purpose of this paper is to examine proper principles of granting special permits regarding the Lot-frontage requirement of the Building Standard Law, through examining the realities of nonconforming lots in urban congested areas. Ourjesults show that: 1) the prevalent standardized policy of granting the special permits does not seem to be always effective to the varieties of nonconforming lots observed in urban sprawled or congested areas. 2) in granting the permits, it is required to consider additional restrictions such as use, structure and size of the buildings, according to the different situations of the nonconforming lots.
In the case that citizens participate in making plans of their own towns, there are two possibilities. One is participation in town planning conference and work shops which are prepared by local government, and the other is petition to local assembly. Especially song of city, citizen charter and city declaration are the important variation of citizen participation on the latter case. The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of Wago, the words which have their origins in the ancient Japanese, as a premise of citizen participation about the case of citizen charters of Tokyo.
The purpose of this study is to identify the role of rented houses in housing market. From that viewpoint, this paper tries to calculate the number and the ratio of vacant house which caused by the residential mobility. The main conclusions are as follows, 1) On whole housing in the country, the figures of the ratio of vacant houses caused by the residential mobility (which index named "υm" here) transform from 1.58% to 1.88%, 2.11% and 1.80% every 5 years from 1978 to 1993. 2) On private rented housing except detached houses, the ratio of vacant houses caused by the residential mobility is calculated as 3.45% in 1993. 3) There is significant correlation between υm and the ratio of the residential mobility.
The aim of this paper is to analyze statistically a relationship between the first & second child birth rate and Housing condition, using log-linear model. Used data are 1993 Housing Census and the object of analysis is nuclear household living in Tokyo metropolitan area. Conclusion is as follows: 1. The main factors to have influence on birth rate are elapse time after marriage and family income form (one-income or two-income). But as age of household head becomes older, the influence of housing of factor increases.; 2. In housing factor, housing tenure, house size and rent have comparatively strong influence on birth rate. 3. Compared with in case of the first child, influence of housing factor on second child birth rate is rather weak.
The boundary between housing sub-markets doesn't agree with the boundary between municipalities, so it is necessary to study the structure of housing sub-markets to examine the optimum scale of housing policy. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between municipalities for the joint housing policy. First, we analyze the relocation of dwelling in Osaka prefecture using network analysis method, and grasp the structure of the relation between municipalities. Secondly, we analyze municipal reciprocal relation from two points of view, equivalence and constraint. Then we indicate that municipalities having such reciprocal relation should cooperate on the housing policy.
1.序論 Introduction: タイ国ではかつて特にアユタヤ王朝期からラタナコシン王朝期にかけて筏住居のライフスタイルは最も一般的なものであったが、現在ではその数は非常に少なく、1995年時点では8の州で確認されているのみである。しかしUthaithani、Kanchanaburi、Noggbualampoon、Lampoonでは筏住居が現在も利用され、さらに観光目的のリゾートやレストランとしても活用されている。これらの事実を鑑み、本論文は、300年前から始まるタイ国の水生居住を再評価し筏住居の新たな活用方法を模索するための基礎的資料を得る事を目的としている。具体的には、1995〜97年のフィールド調査、Phitsanulok州75世帯、Uthaithani州120世帯へのアンケート調査および詳細なインタビュー調査、建物・集落の観察調査等に基づき、水辺居住における筏住居の特徴と役割を明らかにするため経験的定義と類型化を行い、水上居住と陸上居住両方に存在する典型的なライフスタイルを見出し、タイ近代化によるそれらの変容を明らかにする。2.筏住居の類型的分析 Typologil Analysis of Raft Houses: 既存文献とフィールド調査に基づき筏住居を「伝統的タイ建築様式で水上の筏構造の上に建てられた建物」と定義する。また筏住居の屋根、壁、床、基礎に着目し、筏住居の建築的類型化を行った結果、屋根で6つ、壁で3つ、床で1つ、基礎で5つの建築的パターンに要約することができた。3.筏住居の機能的類型化 Typology of the Functions of Raft Houses: 次に筏住居という建物の役割に着目し、フィールド調査の結果から機能的類型化を行い、そして住居用、店舗付注居用、漁業用、商用&レクレーション用という機能的類型を見出すと共に、その分布状況、建築的特徴などについて明らかにした。4.筏住居の現状〜ウツタイタニとピサヌロークでのケーススタディ Current Status of Raft House Settlements-Case Study in Uthaithani and Phitsanulok: ケーススタディとしてウツタイタニとピサヌロークを取り上げ、アンケート調査およびインタビュー調査、現地観察の調査結果に基づき、筏住居の分布状況、居住者の社会経済属性、ライフスタイルおよび意識を明らかにした。特に、ウツタイタニにおける農業・漁業ベースのライフスタイル、ピサヌロークの商業ベースのライフスタイルという性格の差異、それに伴う筏居住や水汚染に対する考え方の違い等について明らかにした。5.人・水・土地の共存 Coexistence of Mankind, Water and Land: 先述のアンケート・インタビュー調査、現地観察調査、さらに筏住居が現存する他の地域での観察調査等の結果から、筏住居を媒介とする人・水・土地の共存関係が見出せる。ここではウツタイタニ、ピサヌローク、カンチャナブリでの筏住居の現状分折から、各地域ごとに人と水・土地の関係を示すとともに、近代化が進み陸上交通が普及しつつある中で、タイの伝統的ライフスタイルである商業・農業・漁業、炊事・トイレ・入浴等の生活の仕方、娯楽等が、筏居住と水上・陸上の共存に依存している関係にあり、それらが継承されている事を示した。6.結論 Conclusion: 筏居住の物理的類型とライフスタイル、周辺環境との間には密接な関係がある。特に、近代化の中で住居が陸上化した後も、筏居住との間に共通点があり、タイの伝続的ライフスタイルが継承されている事が推測される。また水環境との共存関係、都市化の程度などにより、地域ごとに筏住居の状況が異なる事も明らかにした。
The reconstruction of condominiums is positively affected by favorable conditions such as the high land price and the low floor area ratio in Korea. In addition, regardless, of the short history of condominium, reconstruction could start as soon as a condominium is 20 years old. This fact holds in itself the problem of the premature reconstruction. The reconstruction of condominiums built in the 1980's is already about to start in Korea. It is an enormous waste of economical resources. Moreover, it is thought that the tightening of the floor area ratio policy in the residential areas of Seoul city and the metropolitan area makes a large number of condominiums existing non-conforming to the regulations. The regulations and policies make the reconstruction of condominiums more difficult. Therefore, to solve such a problem fundamentally, it is thought necessary to make possible the readjustment of zone and the joint utilization of sites through revision of the law.
In the middle 14th century, Yuban achieved the revival of the garan of Zentsuji-temple. Yuban had political power and know-how of construction, so after making Tanjoin-temple his home ground, he succeeded in getting out from under the control by Zuishinin-temple. And he approached the Hosokawa family, who governed Sanuki and wanted to control the temples, and got economical support for the construction in exchange for his cooperation in their control. That's why Yuban succeeded in the construction. We can regard this case as one of the typical method of construction among the kenmitsu(顕密) temples in this period.
As a result of the Ako-incident in 1701, the Ako Castle was confiscated. Based on the manuscripts, this paper clarifies the relation between the social position (Karokudaka) and the rooms' arrangement of Samurai (Daimyo Kachu) House. As the result of analysing, the physical area of the classified rooms (Genkanbu, Omote, Oku, Daidokorobu) is in proportions to the social position (Karokudaka), while their ratios in the main building are almost invariable. This is considered to derive from the role of the social position of Samurai (Daimyo Kachu).
Of the housings designed for Hojo during Kamakura era, history of two types of housings are studyed. They are located facing each other in the upper edge of Komachi-Street. In the east side of the street a housing called Okura is located and it was found that the house was inherited from Yoshitoki to Tokifusa, then to Tokimune, Sadatoki and Takatoki of Hojo. In the west, a house called Komachi is located and it was inherited from Yoshitoki to Yasutoki, Tsunetoki, Shigetoki, Nagatoki and Masamura of Hojo.
This paper deals with second Dresden Hoftheater by Gottfried Semper. The purpose of this paper is to show Semper's architectural manner which he acquires in response to the main theme of Theater Reform. Therefore this paper clarifies the architectural composition of this theater on the basis of analyzing the relation between blocks and surface. Semper disconnects the outside from the inside, packaging each block with a surface that is given meaning by iconographical elements and keeping the theatrical elements in separate blocks. And this theater narrates theatrical character by means of iconographical elements free from the contents of blocks.
This paper is a study on materials that were used for elements of polychromatic religious architecture in Tuscany in the late medieval period. This study concentrates on distinguishing types of colors used for polychromy and examining the relationship with the distribution of quarry areas. Since materials used for polychromatic architecture were from neighboring quarry areas, the selection of materials was limited and color in polychromy was determined according to this selection. Serpentine was an exception because it was not taken from neighboring quarry areas but used because of its necessity.
Stowe is one of the most representative .English landscape gardens in 18th century. The purpose of this paper is to make it clear how this garden was developed. In respect of the exploited sites, the process of development can be divided into 8 periods. The following were made clear: so far as composition of the plan is concerned, there are phases of axis, expanse, circular paths, and irregularity. So far as composition of scenery is concerned, there are phases of vista, panorama, seen and hidden, representation of ideal landscape, naturalization, and use of surrounding landscape.
This study attempts to clarify the description method of the Drawings of stone cutting using a manuscript written by Gines Martinez de Aranda around the 1600 in Spain. The text consists of three components: Introduction, Difmitiones and Problems of Drawings. In the Problems of Drawings Martinez treats a considerable number of constructional types which derive from the archetype defined in the Introduction, and explains their process of drawings referring to a few basic operations introduced in the Difmitiones. He seemed to apply the approach of "numerous matters are involved in a few limited things" to his description method.
The competitions of the facade of Florence and Milan Cathedral were very important examples for "restauro stilistico" in the second half of 19th century. This dispute indicates the development and the limits of Italian Medievalism. C. Boito, an influential medievalist in Italy, could assert rationally that the facade of Florence Cathedral should come from the structure of the cathedral. But, in the facade of Milan Cathedral, Boito's attitude reached an approve of the foreign element, which would endanger his Medievalism based on the nationalism. Furthermore the consideration toward the design in the 16-17th century exposed the limits of Medievalism.
The task of this paper is to make an analysis of Frank Lloyd Wright's concept of the "within." It is related to three concepts: man, nature and architecture. Therefore in this paper, sentences including the word "within" are picked out from his latter three books and analyzed through considering the structure of these three concepts. In conclusion, it is made clear that Wright's concept of the "within" is the basic principle of his architectural thought.
This research is a trial to make formality clear in design code system. The correlation of formal features is one of important aspect of designs. Therefore this paper explores to define the differences in correlation of formal features (called series of design codes) between sets of building. The definition is made in general form, and it is possible to apply this definition to some sets of buildings. And contradiction of formality in series of design codes is shown by analyzing sets of buildings by the definition.
In the second half of the 18th century, theatres have gradually began to play an increasingly important role in town-planning in France. In this research I have chosen to analyze one example, the theatre of the Palais Royal in Paris designed by Victor Louis, focusing on the relation between the redevelopment of the Palais Royal as a whole and the construction of the new theatre. From the study of various plans by Louis, it becomes obvious that his primary interest was to create a new garden, enclosed by new apartment buildings. The theatre was treated as a point of contact with its surrounding urban spaces. This case study compares this with a contemporary theatre, "l'Odeon", which was also a nucleus for the elaboration of its neighbouring area.
In this study, we analyzed the improvement of newly built customer service office buildings compared to the old one. First, we surveyed new and old customer service offices on items of Satisfaction and Relation by POE. Then, we grouped the questioned items by using the cluster analysis with the Satisfaction and Relation of new office building and their differences between old and new one as indicator. As the results, improved items and not so improved items are clarified. These find outs will be feedback to the office standard.
Recently, the concern of the World Trade Organization have shifted to the promotion of the professional service's trade via the bilateral and reciprocal agreement of its professional laws. In the construction industry, this policy have intended to advance the standardization of the architects' profession in the world. The purpose of this paper is 1) first to define the general model of professions in the U.S. and Europe, 2) then to declare the architects' model of the profession in them to apply the general model of professions, and 3) finally to analysis the identity of Japanese architects and the implementation of its registered architects law comparing with the architects' model of the profession in the U.S. and Europe.