We developed the noise source identification system with multi-microphone sound signal processing enhanced by visual image process. We have done the simulation calculation and the experiment. As a result, we confirmed a much error was included in the estimated elevation angle by the reflection influence of the ground when the sound source position was high. It is thought that the solution of this problem is difficult. In this paper, we show that the de-convolution can decrease that error by the expression. We confirmed the possibility to decrease the error caused for the reflection influence of ground by re-analyzing the wave data.
This paper reports the results of the field survey on the indoor thermal environment in low and middle income detached houses and an apartment house in Surabaya, Indonesia. The thermal condition in the houses and the thermal sensation of the residents are analyzed, and the three types of the houses are compared from a thermal point of view. The inferior room condition in low income houses, is due to the poor roof insulation and the lack of the ventilation. In middle income houses, although the residents think the room condition is warm or even hot, most people answer that is comfortable or neutral. The condition in the apartment house is slightly better than in the other houses during daytime. In all houses the night condition is evaluated worse than the day condition. It is necessary to reduce the room temperature at night using some kinds of ventilation. In the middle income houses, 70% of the interviewees answered that air-conditioning is necessary. Therefore the cooling energy is expected to increase in this region in the future.
In order to clarify the effects of low humidity caused by the use of different types of contact lenses, the subjective experiments were carried out during the summer season. Total of 37 college-aged subjects, namely 10 ones with naked eyes, 7 with hard contact lenses, 10 with soft contact lenses and 10 with glasses, were exposed to 4 different conditions for 180 minutes. In all conditions, SET^* was kept constant at 25.2℃. As the results of experiments, the sensations of eye dryness and discomfort caused by wearing contact lenses were observed. Break up time of hard contact lenses wearers tended to be shorter than that with naked eyes, while the environmental humidity did not affect on their break up time. It was concluded that the effects of wearing contact lenses on subjects' eyes were stronger than that of environmental humidity.
This paper describes characteristics of natural ventilation in the case that wind pressure and buoyancy powers effect simultaneously. Measurements of natural ventilation were performed in the building with hybrid ventilation system, and the ventilation characteristic was clarified. The measurement results were verified by the ventilation model. This basic ventilation model is characterized by simultaneous calculation of ventilation and indoor temperature. Experiment results of the ventilation characteristics were inspected by this model. By using the static analysis of measurements and the result from the ventilation model, we examined the weather conditions suitable for natural ventilation and the number of annual available time to use natural ventilation.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the accuracy of SRF (Supply Rate Fulfillment) value using tracer gas methods, which are constant concentration method and constant injection method, on the test house. The test house is established in an artificial climatic chamber, its air tightness can be varied and airflow rate can be known by ΔP method which uses the differential of pressure between outside and rooms. Using SRF as a ventilation performance index, properties given by tracer gas are compared to their values given by network model or ΔP method. The following are conclusions on the experiment in nearly steady conditions. 1. The ways to calculate and to treat SRF and other properties are shown. 2. The SRF values, which indicate less than 1.0, are shown by using the tracer gas method. 3. SRF, α and other properties using tracer gas method can be indicated moderate value compare to other method. 4. The tracer gas method is useful to presume SRF value from practical standpoint.
In this paper, a room model experiment is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the numerical analysis based on the physical model which includes emission, adsorption/desorption and diffusion of the chemical pollutants. The analyzed room model has one supply inlet and one exhaust outlet, and its cavity is composed of 1.5m (x) : 0.3m (y) : 1.0m (z) in which a two-dimensional mean flow field is developed. A clear re-circulating flow is observed in a room generated by the forced ventilation. In this experiment, the activated carbon and Tenax TA are used as an adsorbent and liquid decane is used as the evaporative diffusion type emission material. Especially, to assume the adsorption characteristic to be clear for the activated carbon, as the amount of the chemical material adsorbed and adsorption isotherm are measured by weight method. Moreover, CFD analysis, which corresponds to the experimental conditions, are carried out and the results are in good agreement with the results of the room model experiment.
Indoor air pollution by chemical substances from construction materials has caused a health hazard. It is necessary to take countermeasures for the prevention of health hazard. Bake-out is one of the measures for indoor air pollution. However, reports on a relation between chemical substance quantity of construction materials and effects of the bake-out are little. The purpose of this study is to examine a reduction effect of bake-out against chemical substances contained in construction materials. In this study, we experimented with the test peaces of construction materials. In the case of the construction materials short after the manufacture, TVOC concentrations were reduced about 30%-40%. On the other hand, in the case of the longer ones, there are poor reduction effects. Moreover, in the case of high-concentrations of Alkanes and Archols, their are reduced easy. However about the concentration of terpenes, it increased a little soon after bake-out.
In recently, universities are required to improve the quality of research environment and facilities. At this time, Kyushu University has been planned the moving of its major two campuses to a western part of Fukuoka city. The purpose of this study is to propose an optimal energy conservation system and to make a comfortable educational environment. The results are as follows : 1) The ratio of energy consumption being used in current campuses is electric power 90% and gas 10%. In the future, there are urged energy consumption balance and leveling the electric load profile. 2) The investigation in winter, we defined that education buildings are in need of ventilation with old equipment. There are deliberately required ventilating for indoor air quality. 3) On the comparison of the value of PAL through the changing the materials of building, we obtained that the numerical date of PAL are 244MJ/(m^2・year) on lecture buildings and 219MJ/(m^2・year) on research buildings. 4) The several techniques of HVAC system are effectively displayed within energy source (electric power), energy transportation (pump and fans). The result of CEC/AC is satisfied with next generation standard by the control of inverter with VAV and VWV.
Co-generation systems (CGS) are currently increasing more and more because of its high efficiency of energy and those systems are also introduced in air-conditioning systems for telecommunication sites. Reliability evaluation method for simple air-conditioning systems had been investigated. The previous method is not applicable for air-conditioning systems with CGS, because of the system complexity. This paper reports on the following studies that established new reliability evaluation method and investigated the reliability characteristics of air-conditioning systems. 1) A calculating method of the reliability of air-conditioning system taking into account the probability that room temperature will exceed allowed temperature after a shutdown in air-conditioning units is presented. 2) Some configurations of air-conditioning systems with CGS are analyzed by this method, the reliability characteristics of the systems are investigated. 3) Evaluation errors of this method are considered.
This study is for the purpose of clarifying which conditions the behavior of avoiding strangers is influenced by, by taking up the case of pedestrians passing unfamiliar stranger as issues concerning safety and amenity on the streets at night. We have first of all carried out the experiment of presenting video images. As a result, there was the tendency of avoiding strangers earlier in bright streets with high visibility compared to dark streets toward oncoming strangers approaching head-on on the same axis without avoiding. There was also the tendency of starting avoidance at a point when the vertical illuminance of the oncoming stranger's face has become high. Secondly, we have conducted an observation and experiment on an actual street. As a result, there were tendencies for more female than male pedestrians to start avoidance of oncoming strangers earlier, and male oncoming strangers being avoided earlier.
Today, the ozone depletion in the stratosphere is recognized as a major environmental problem, because which results in a significant increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth. The CFC utilized as a refrigerant of air conditioner causes the ozone layer depletion. The purpose of this study is to clarify the change with the time in the clear sky day on DUV, which is one index of the biologically weighted ultraviolet solar radiation, in order to make the ultraviolet radiation defense effective at the individual action level. Through analysis of observed spectral ultraviolet irradiances, UV-B, UV-A and global solar radiation at Kanazawa Institute of Technology, the followings were shown : (1) The distinctive feature of DUV change by the time in a day compared to global solar radiation. (2) The difference of DUV values per unit flux of global solar radiation by the season. (3) The existence of the size of DUV value between morning and afternoon.
A refrigeration warehouse is an important facility which supports eating habits of the citizens as an important point of a cold chain. Since its energy demand is also high, it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of an energy consumption. In this paper, it is illustrated through a field investigation of refrigeration warehouses in Tokyo. As a result, these refrigeration warehouses were classilied into six groups according to the energy intensity. Moreover, the present data of energy intensity is compared to the data of 30 years ago about the same institution. Although most of these groups have increased annual energy consumption, they have decreased annual energy intensity. Meanwhile, the energy intensity of these refrigeration warehouses is on the decline compared to other facilities.
There are many opinions of "It is desirable with the rest room vessel to install it independently." However, a proper rest room dimension to install a rest room vessel independently isnt being investigated fully. So, it was cleared about a rest room dimension to install a rest room vessel independently by this research based on two evaluation of a feeling of the use area and a feeling of the cleaning area. The results of the experiments were summarized as Mows : 1) It is B2 booth (950mm×1400mm) that a rate to feel "It is wide." exceeds 50%. 2) The space, which can be looked over when it sits down, is influenced only by the expansion of width dimensioa It can be said that more than the space quantity=0.75m^3 of B2 or more than width 1000 mm is desirable. 3) More than 1000 mm is desirable as for the width dimension when a distance to the rest room vessel from the toilet stool is taken into consideratioa 4) When cleaning is taken into consideration, an influence is taken in the width dimensioa Evaluation lowers when the width dimension is 900 mm. Therefore, as for the width dimension, 1000 mm is desirable.
In this study, the VOCs emission was investigated during the interior finish work in two apartment houses under construction. To confirm the results of the VOCs emission, the concentrations of the VOCs were measured for a week in other apartment houses. The concentration of methyl alcohol emitted from wood-based panels was the highest of all the concentrations of the VOCs detected in the houses. The emission rates of VVOCs such as pentane, hexane became g/hr order in the process of fixing interior panels to the walls, but after construction, these compounds did not remain indoors. Compared with the guideline values of indoor air quality in Japan, the levels of toluene and xylene were higher both under and after construction.
In this study, we showed the spatial structure in multi-story housing emages as independent individual and the relationship between individuals. We defined "the spatial unit" with be based on the notion of "control" and examined "the spatial structure in multi-story housing" by "the mutual relation of the spatial units ". Then we found the 12 patterns of relationship between independent individuals and defined "the topological structure of space"in multi-story housing emages as independent individual and the relationship between individuals.
The aim of this study is to consider the relation between estates and waterways in YANAGAWA. The premises and the use of waterways in MIYANAGA-machi, TOKIWA-machi, and ONIDOU-machi, which are districts built as the estates for SAMURAI in the Edo era, were examined. As a result, it is revealed that the forms and the systems are different with districts which reflect classes and locations. Further, the new dwelling styles corresponding to the site characteristics appear.
The author defines "Special Space" as a space that influences a living room's domain, space uses or space held in common, selected from arbitrary housing spaces reflecting the life styles of modern Japanese people. Previous reports have presented the distribution of Special Space" in houses shown in "Jutaku Tokushu" published by Shin-Kenchiku sha and its characteristic analogs, which were investigated and searched by the authors. This report investigates architects' views on houses that have influenced the results shown in the previous reports. The investigation method was to analyze the concepts and design processes, referred to in architects' discourses about houses. Based on the current results, the authors have clarified the mechanism of social changes from 1990 to 2000, views on houses of architects and inhabitants and "Special Space" settings that mutually influence them.
the facility use method is seen how changing from the beginning of using several years after. This is finding out the relation nature of the usage of a facility plan and a hospital, and it is meaningful when performing a facility plan. It carries out also by combining finding out the change of the environment which surrounds medical treatment and a hospital simultaneously. This paper estimates 1st term portion which began to use and passed through about nine years. This contains sections, such as a ward, Palliative Care Unit, and Intensive Care Unit. A formation of an acute term is one of the direct word which shows the tendency of the latest hospital.
This survey focuses on credit-based upper secondary school whose architectural planning is required to consider about the space in which student are staying daily and a transmission of information in the school. Conducting a tracing survey of students' behavior in three schools during school hour, the survey reveal a situation of groups and a students' usage of residential place in such space as library, study room, and common space. As a conclusion, this study propose some points that should be considered in Architectural planning of credit-based upper secondary school, as below. 1) Each residential places in a school should be determined with its function and location according to whole planing of the school. 2) There is a possibility that residential place is designed to have expected function by considering a scale and. a staying hour of groups using the residential place. 3) In order to realize the situation that individual student and groups of students coexist in same room, it is important to keep a distance between each spaces they prefer.
The purpose of this study is to know how the elderlys recognize the community and human relationships in the context of their daily life. We define such relations between the elderly and the community as a term 'CHIEN'. This paper is intended to consider the structure of CHIEN of the elderlys in an urban area. We conducted interview surveys to 16 people over 65 in Suginami ward, Tokyo. Analysis of the results of interviews about their daily life and human relations lead some outcomes which make sense in consideration of the social system and building design in the urban community.
The purpose of this study is to make a design guideline of the outdoor space in public elementary school site, as the play environment and the teaching materials. Through the research on mutual relationship between the way to use a space, the specific characteristic of the place to stay, and the environmental factors, We concluded as follows ; 1) The using patterns of space and the place to stay by using time, school year and sex of users 2) The details and function of environmental factors demanded by using time and users 3) Renovation to make variety which kind of environmental factors is implication to enliven using space 4) Additional environmental factors, such as living things and various surfaces of land, enhance the flexibility and variety of space
This study aims to clarify the structure of community life of the group home based elderly with dementia through investigation and analyses of their outgoing activities. The results are as follows : 1) Following items in regard with the GH residents' outgoing activities were categorized : the places to go, the contents of outgoing activities and the reasons. 2) The subject GH puts a high value on variety and identity of the residents' behaviors. In this case, the residents' outgoing activities were conducted in the limited area around the GH entrance and in the community. Also, their outgoing acitivities were often conducted spontaneously in the context of everyday life , not in the plans fixed beforehand. 3) In the case of the subject GH, the residents' outgoing activities could be patterned in accordance with their levels of dementia, and ADL. The outgoing activities by the residents with the slight or mid level of dementia and with the high level of ADL were conducted scatteringly in the community. For the ones with the severe level of dementia and the low level of ADL, they were conducted in the limited area. 4)The places for those activities by the residents and by the local inhabitants who show high level of recognition of the residents and of interrelation with the residents overlapped each other in great deal. At the overlapping places, it seems possible to develop association among the local inhabitants and the residents.
I pursued the survey of recent emotionally handicapped children's class education and space in March 2000. There are various educational methods now, so fixed partitions or movable partitions are used for zoning, it becomes clear that classroom space is separated. Compared to the survey of 20 years ago TEACCH program has been spread now as an educational method. In those days the program was unknown. An individual study room sometimes needs a partition. Because an autistic child can feel easy in a room with a partition. I describe the importance of space planning which include structuring. In a classroom most of the children may be autistic children. But there are psychogenic socially disadaptable handicapped children or developmental disability children caused by brain damage such as learning disability children. Space planning should be considered to each handicap characteristic. Especially autistic children have the problem of space perception, so visual sign planning (way finding) is needed to help understanding.
The purpose of this study is to verify the importance of wayfinding performance as an evaluation criteria for the design of large-scale shopping center, and to examine the effectiveness of Space Syntax as the tool to evaluate the adequacy of floor plans. The result is as follows ; 1. The variables in relation to the easiness of wayfinding were classified as the most important factors among the variables that customers consider to select the store for shopping. 2. The 'easiness of wayfinding' is positively correlated to the 'sales profit', and other intervening variables.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatial composition of proposed plans in internet housing competition from a viewpoint of "spatial connection" between not only interior spaces but also exterior spaces. The results are as follows ; 1) Through transforming proposed plans into spatial connecting graphs, their characteristics of spatial composition are clarified visually, and it turns out that the techniques of an individual design are expressed as the characteristic graph form. 2) The strength of relation between interior rooms and the contribution of exterior spaces to the rooms were described with the quantitative index of the spatial-connection-ratio and the window-opening-ratio calculated from spatial connecting graphs. 3) In comparison with typical plans by house makers, the diversity of proposed plans and the uniformity of standard plans are grasped.
This study aims to clarify actual use conditions of a common washing pool in a local community and to discuss the structure of its sustainable common usage as people's lifestyles. Behaviors of users are observed and video-recorded in the winter and summer seasons respectively, and some of users and several commu nity leaders as well are interviewed. The results are as follows : 1) The washing pool does work not only as a functional space but also as a social place for users. 2) Most of users often use as they have other users in their minds, such as adjusting the space each other, showing rules to new-comers, and so on. 3) Users themselves gradually renew the rules of use of washing pool in long time.
This paper clarifies the present conditions of Pinelands(Cape Town, South Africa), which was initiated by Richard Stuttaford and designed by A. J. Thompson, following the Ebenezer Howard's idea of Garden City, and discusses the significance of the planning idea and method concerning the evaluation of Garden City Movement. A. J. Thompson is known as an architect who had worked in the office of B. Parker and R. Unwin. The major objective of this article is to review the idea and method of the planning of Pinelands for the contemporary development of Japanese town planning. Firstly, we, summarizing R. Stuttaford's idea of Pinelands and A. J. Thompson's site planning, analyze the process of its development. Then, we will reveal the present layout of Pinelands based on the field survey. Comparing the original layout with the present one, we can evaluate the validity and possibility of the planning idea and method of Garden City idea. It is surprising that "Garden Cities" continue to act until now. Pinelands is one of few successful garden cities built on the E. Howard's idea, but it was implemented under the very special system called apartheid.
Many studies on land use conversion have been carried out to provide fundamental information for the general plan of the future. Land use transition probabilities were usually estimated by calculating the areas of land in which land use categories were changed. However, it should be noted that the spatial unit of land use transition is a lot. This study describes a land use conversion model based on transition probability of lots. Change of land categories, division of lots, demolishing of buildings and reconstruction of buildings are described in this model. As an application of the model, we discuss the effect of land use policy by simulating the land use transition in the future.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the relationship of the area constitution and the population circulating. Firstly, we practiced the quantitative analysis of the cooperation relation by the commutation and attend school. And, we grasped a configuration and the state of local city spheres in Oita Prefecture. Next, we classified the pattern of the local city sphere into three basic series. Each basic series have several modified patterns. As a result of these analyses, we made clear the constitution and change of the local city sphere and the outskirts of these city spheres.
The Bijlmermeer housing project in Amsterdam which was built during the sixties and seventies has been a "problematic estate" soon after the opening of the town because of an increase of vacancy of flats, vandalism, criminality and so on. And now the regeneration project is being taken place from the beginning of nineties. The method of regeneration consists of three pillars of spatial, socio-economic and management renewal. The purpose of this study is to assess the results of the renewal achieved and explore how these three pillars of renewal work accompanying synergy effects.
We have been tried to practice the action called "Teine-Natuakari" and give dream and excitement to children lived in Teine for these ten years. This is the action that students and children cooperate with making "cyouchin (Japanese Lanterns)", exhibit these lanterns on square in Teine, and built new culture of Teine.This report is to evaluate the action for these ten years and consider the new development of this action in future. We make clear through some researches how this action affect children, students, education system and so on.
The purpose of this study is to consider synthetically principles of space formation of urban spatial structure in Venezia, fixing eyes upon spatial characteristic of streets and squares, building uses, wayfinding, nightscape. On this paper, I examined street network, connecting patterns and distance to blind corners. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) The street network is composed by narrow streets. 2) T-shaped and Lrshaped streets account for 70% of connecting pattern of streets. 3) The distance from intersecting points of streets to the eyestops are short and monotonous. These results gave pedestrians unintelligibility and impressed as being very mazy.
In Shin-Nagata station south area, big redevelopment project covering 20ha was decided after the earthquake : According to the project, 40 buildings including skyscrapers will be built. Because of depression and damages from the earthquake, success of this project seems difficult. In this study, these were found out through the inquiry for shop managers and investigation of typical block. 1. Analysis of the real state of shop management and their wishes for the redevelopment project. 2. Grasp of tendency of moving in or moving out of the redevelopment buildings in the typical block. 3. Consideration about problems of this project. The ideal method of caning out this project.
Interviews were conducted to clarify the correlation between needs and adjustment of self-supported elderly who relocated to the senior house or economical life care facility. They have relocated to fulfill the physiological and the safety /stability needs. It's seemed that higher functions in the facilities are required for satisfying their higher needs. Since the new type elderly having higher needs are increasing in the city, detailed research is necessary for corresponding to the needs on the view of architecture.
The improvement project by the chain reaction is one of the urban renewal methods. It has two basic Elements ; the self-renewal projects and the inducement systems. After Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, the comprehensive project for urban residential area was applied widely for the urban reconstruction. We think this institution is one of the improvement project by the chain reaction. This paper examines the comprehensive project for urban residential area at surrounding areas of Kobe station and considers the urban reconstruction proceeded with the improvement project by the chain reaction.
In the construction industry, many individual trades have to work concurrently. This creates many potential difficulties on the construction site, primarily in relation to efficiency loss and construction period extension. We conducted process analysis in the observation of medium sized apartment house interior finishing works. By analyzing the work process we made a process chart of interior finishing and building services works that can be used for work improving job. In the paper we measured the man-hours of each process. We categorized the man- hours into four : main work, adjective work, extrinsic work, and allowance. By using these data we clarify the job characteristics, and carried out further analysis.
The purpose of the present study is to clarify the consumption patterns of a family in a network residence. First, according to the respective life stages based on their family life cycle, we categorized households into several network residence types. Then, we investigated the living costs of the family members, and estimated how much it would cost to start out their network residence and to maintain it. From the results of our investigation, we found that the monthly remittance to a child living alone constitutes a big burden for the parent household. When parent households own their houses, we also found that households with housing loans cut down on their living expenses more than those without housing loans.
Housing and living information is important to support resident's proper housing choice. The purpose of this paper is to examine a future subject with grasping the present condition of the housing and living information in the scene of the housing choice and the evaluation. Study results in the scene of the housing acquisition are as follows. 1) In this paper, effect and problem of present various housing and living information were arranged from the viewpoint of the resident's. 2) In the examination of housing and living information, the analysis based on housing demand and supply structure such as the difference between the housing acquisition type is important.
The purpose of this study is to explore the transformation process of traditional rural houses in Tamugimata colony. The main conclusions are as follows. 1. Since it corresponded to natural conditions, such as the sericultural industry, narrow site conditions, and heavy snowfall, the multi-storied houses had spread in the early Meiji period. 2. For the decline of sericultural industry occured in the early Showa period and the need for more living space, "a framework raising " had advanced. 3. The newly built houses of completely 2 or 3-storied house "ZUBO-DATE" have been appeared from the latter half of 1960s. The features, such as a middle corridor and disappearance of "KAGI-ZASIKI", were seen. 4. Workshop space was cut down by subsidiary business and the spread of private cars from 1970s. In the newly built houses of Tamugimata colony, multi-stories spaces disappeared completely, and completely 2-storied house with garages has been appeared.
This paper discussed on the estimation of building works with 6-DOF motion sensors. The 6-DOF (Degree-of-freedom) sensor captures 3-axis acceleration and 3-axis angle. The actual data on the sensors is computed to the feature parameters in each time-unit for the recognition of the work motions. The neural network is applied for the method of the recognition. The neural network model is designed in the three layers Back-propagation network with the standard connections. The neural network outputs show guidelines to select the work motions. The authors collected the 6-DOF motion data in partition works, and estimated work motions based on those data. The differences between the actual and the estimated motions were evaluated, and it was clarified that the method is applicable to estimate work motions in building works.
For newly built condominium supply, it is crucial to uncover characteristics of the potential buyers' behavior as "rules" or "patterns" from historical data. A new approach is applied to extract informative and unexpected rules or patterns from a database with relatively few transactions but a huge number of attributes using data mining methodology. For the val idity of the proposed method, the real data of 798 condominium purchasers in Tokyo metropolitan area are analyzed. Results include that if access time to the nearest railway station to be over 10 minutes, then "accessibility" as a resigned factor increases, which implies that potential accessibility in mind would be around 10 minutes on walk or within about 350 meters from nearest railway station.
In edo era, the caracteristic pattern was seen in the reconstruction of community structures. After dismantling, the old members were not simply abandoned but reused by some process, such as disposal of members, reuse at the original structures and reuse at others. I analized these reconstruction process by old documents concerning to two case-studies of community structures in Takayama, reconstruction of Kajibashi-bridge in 1845 and Machi-kaisyo in 1862.
This paper is on tetsudai and Bakufu crew on the reconstruction of the Edo castle in the early days of the 18th century. The sense of this paper is as follows ; 1. This paper treats of the 18th century, which is rarely treated of in the former papers. 2. This paper treats of tetsudai, especially the relationship between tetsudai and Bakufu crew. 3. This paper treats of Bakufu crew, especially the relationship between Sakujikata, Kobushinkata and Fushinkata, which I myself have treated of several times in my former papers.