The pressurization smoke control system has become a standard for smoke control systems in high-rise buildings. Pressurization smoke control systems can incorporate features to deal with pressure fluctuations due to the opening and closing of doors. These features include pressure-relief vent and variable-supply air fans. In this study, ratio of supply air volume to leakage area of a pressurized room was defined as an evaluation value for the pressure control. Relations between the defined values and pressure control characterization as setting time and maximum pressure difference were examined by experiments using an mock-up model and field measurements in actual buildings. A design method of the pressure control system was proposed from the experimental results.
The purpose of this study is to do the quantitative explanation of the effect of the surface color and roughness on the evaluation of roughness(ROUGHNESS). By the relationship between ROUGHNESS and its color, the following was clarified. ROUGHNESS was most effected by its value. The lower the value was, the higher ROUGHNESS point was. Next, with the relationship that had been clarified previously between the surface roughness of sand-papers and its ROUGHNESS, some formulas which estimate ROUGHNESS of simple texture were derived from the relationship among ROUGHNESS, its surface roughness and its color.
The purpose of this study is to make it possible to predict the probability distribution of occupants' dissatisfaction with the indoor thermal environment as one of the information for the building management. The distribution of the PMV in the room shoud be taken into account for the prediction. For this purpose, the individual differences in PMV preferred and that of the relation between the PMV and the probability to vote the dissatisfaction is expressed as the individual difference model. Using this model, the expression of the probability distribution of occupants' dissatisfaction is introduced.
An interruption of the water supply system caused by an earthquake will disturb an efficient use of building functions. Especially, the center of the administrations must keep these functions. This study deals with the Kasumigaseki district and investigates the following 4 issues. 1) Research and analysis of the water supply system of the government institutional buildings located in the Kasumigaseki district. 2) Case study on the possibility of keeping building functions of when the water supply is interrupted. 3) Investigates the method for keeping building functions, for example, renewal the water supply system in the buildings, introduction of a water supply system against earthquake disasters, etc. 4) Investigates the possibility of the practical use of the canal water around the Imperial Palace as water supply for refugees around the Kasumigaseki district.
Heat dissipation from urban surfaces to upper atmosphere is needed to be accelerated because of mitigating temperature rise in urban areas. Air turbulent measurements at three different heights above a flat roof of building were carried out, aiming to grasp the vertical heat flux in the urban canopy layer. In this paper, characteristics of air flow are discussed, because they are largely related to the vertical heat flux. The results show that upwind air flow without influence of a building configuration could be measured at a point of 5.4m distant from the windward edge and 6m high above the roof.
Daily variations of sensible heat fluxes and vertical eddy diffusivities were obtained in summer and autumn in Tokyo. Observing sites were at 17m and 46m in hight above the surface in center of Tokyo and at 6m and 14m in hight above the surface in residential area. Vertical eddy diffusivities, Dz were measured with two different methods, which are the measurement with autocorrelation function and the measurement derived with relationship between heat flux and temperature difference between z1 and z2 in hight. The values of Dz at higher places and lower places are equal. Daily variations of Dz in urban area are 1.0〜2.0 (m^2/s) and in rural area are 0.1〜1.0 (m^2/s).
Thermal environment inside an enclosed arcade located in the area with mild and sunny climat was investigated on field observations both in summer 1995 and in winter 1996, and evaluated by calculating MRT, SET and subjective response of human. Physically and psychologically, solar radiation influenced thermal environment inside the arcade. Third fourth of the value of equivalent temperature of radiation was caused directly and indirectly by solar radiation. In daytime of summer, SET^* inside the arcade was lower than outside, however in nighttime the situation was reversed. In daytime of winter, SET^* outside the arcade was higher than inside.
This paper focuses on the prediction of affects of openings on shielding effectiveness in the high impedance electric field. Where there are more than one opening, cases arise that the center of the openings is not on the central axis of the transmission/reception antenna. A calculation expression was also developed to combine plural shielding effectiveness as corrected based on the former equation. Prediction equations developed in my previous paper, "RESARCH REGARD TO THE SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF RECTANGULAR OPENINGS INN ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING ENCLOSURE(NO1)1993.10" and the prediction equation developed in this paper were combined and compared against data obtained in experiment. The result showed almost indentical values. By use of this prediction equation, the optimum position and direction of the antenna for measuring at site can be studied in advance.
In this paper, an approximate equation to represent the relationship between the size of an opening in a far field and shielding effectiveness and an equation to represent the relationship between frequency and shielding effectiveness were developed using the theoretical equation of an evenly distributed opening surface antenna. The insertion loss method was used as a prerequisite for this approximate equation. The formula of an approximate equation is based on the far field, but comparison with the experiment data obtained on a nearfield (electric field and magnetic field) basis revealed that the equation is also applicable to the near field. The following equation that generalizes the coefficients of the approximate expression was therefore obtained. I propose that this equation be used as prediction standard equation. S = A long(a)+B log(b)+C a: height of an opening (m) b: width of an opening (m) A, B, C: constant at each electromagnetic field; but in the case of a far field they are frequency logarithmic functions.
This paper aims to clarify the changes in desire of owners who have new house in local cities. Most of them have had the house with Tsuzukimazashiki in this areas. We have examined following 4 themes. 1) the position of this desire in many other desires. 2) the relationship between this desire and owner's characteristics. 3) the house-plan of their owners. 4) the changes in desires for about the past 10 years.
The aim of this article is to verify the modernization of family and dwellig in postwar Japan through the life history method. The data for the investigation is gathered from the interviews with twelve persons and a member of their family who have been living in Senri New Town. The life histories are observed as follows; 1)the detached houses are embodiment of the modernization of housing supply and moreover dwelling style, but on other hand the narrow apartments are temporary, and their residents didn't have the choices of housing chain. 2)the families are not only standard model which consists of husband(breadwinner), wife(homemaker), and two children, but also various types, and nuclear family had experienced diverse dwelling styles with elderly parents for care support in one stage of life course.
The object of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of small-scale units in caring for people with dementia through a comparison between a psychiatric ward and a group home. One survey subject is a group home as an example of small-scale facilities with a capacity of 6 residents, the other is a psychiatric ward with a capacity of 50 inpatients as a large-scale example, both affiliated to K Hospital in Akita Prefecture in Japan. We carried out long-term observation survey of daily activities of each patient/resident and each caring staff, from 1993 to 1994, total amount to 62 days. Some conclusions were shown as follows: (1)Frequency contacted by care staffs is higher in the group home. (2)Residents in the group home could to keep better a daily living, which they used to have. (3)Residents in the group home could to collaborate better in each other. (4)Walking distance of care staff in the group home is shorter than in the psychiatric ward.
This is an experimental study with eye-camera to investigate visual search in 28 elderly persons with dementia (17 Alzheimer's type of dementia, 11 cerebrovascular type of dementia), 7 normal elderly persons, and 11 young normal persons, while their walking on setting routes for wayfinding cues as continuous abstract signs. The results are summarized as follows. We find eye fixations on continuous stimuli in dementia group increase more those on non-continuous visual stimuli, and that eye fixations in cerebrovascular's type tend to be more biased than those in Alzheimer's type to the floor and lower portions. We infer that it raises visual perception level for dementia group to arrange continuous visual stimuli as a wayfinding cue on floor portions.
Aichi Art Theater is the first facility in Japan that was specifically designed to present full-scale operas. A purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge which is useful to plan similar theater hereafter by analyzing the way of uasges of the theater. In this paper we deal with the usages of fly facilities. We grasp and analize the quantity of their movement.
The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the dwelling conditions and livelihood of day laborers, looking for a job or living in Airin area, and to understand fundamental data for the planning of this area. The investigation method adopted is directly questioning to such day laborers based on questonaires. The items included in the questionaires are mainly about their detailed accommodation conditions in the previous month, and the present meal, sanitary and laundry situation, something to live for, gambling, drinking and so on, in the previous week.
What is most important concerning housing at present is how to repair and rehabilitate many of the buildings constructed in the Mass-Housing Period, especially the multi-family dwellings. This research was carried out with the purpose of gaining a perspective on the rehabilitation activities of the housing stock in Japan. In addition, this research is going to provide useful information for developing countries experiencing rapid population increase in cities and mass-housing by organizing a systematic classification of techniques, systems and backgrounds of rehabilitation methods in Denmark, France, Germany, Japan and the U.S., focusing on detailed case studies and comparative analyses. This study led to the following fruits. 1.The purposes, subjects and methods for renovating multi-family dwellings constructed during the mass-housing period were picked up and sorted out. 2.The described methodologies can be adopted into the rehabilitation of multi-family dwelling stock in Japan. 3.The proposed classification is useful for planning renovation projects.
The purpose of this study is to suggest to comfortable lighting environment design for the elderly persons. We conducted the following experiment to collect the data. The testee were three groups, they are young, manhood, and elderly persons. We present 14 lighting scene to the experimental. An evaluation presents some factors, which are named Comfort, Activity, Cleanness, Stillness. The young people feel comfortable only the scene of Comfort, but elderly persons feel Activity in mainly. My interprets this result as difference of comfortable lighting environment between young people and elderly persons are affected a mental process rather than difference of visual function.
The purpose of this study is to compare perceived room volume and personal area around oneself from reclining postures to actual room dimensions. The perceptions of subjects are reported for survey in a full-scale room with adjustable wall and ceiling-surfaces. The Method of Comparative Judgment was used; each subject was asked to estimate using either the Rating Method or Magnitude Estimation. Subjects judged which room volume was larger or personal area around oneself was wider than others. It is concluded that : 1. In case two rooms were equal in volume, small floor with high ceiling room volume was perceived larger than large floor with low ceiling room volume by the conditions of bed position. 2. Room volume was compared more accurately from reclining postures than standing postures. 3. The judgments factor of personal area around oneself could be classified into "the interval dimension between beds" and "the field surrounding oneself. 4. Perception of room volume was influenced by perception of personal area around oneself. 5. The tendency to perception of room volume and personal area around oneself changed as the interval dimension between beds had become wider.
This research clarifies the relationship between behavior during the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake and descriptions of feelings which are obtained from open answers in the questionnaire survey. The descriptions were summarized in terms of "key word", and which were grouped by Hayashi Theory III. And, the relationship between the behavior and the key word groups were analyzed by using correspondence analysis. The group having previous earthquake experience took the most active behavior during the shake. However, the group who was not able to acknowledge an earthquake took the passive behavior.
In architectural design and urban design, by reason of the complexity of calculation to evaluate the technological goodness of the building form, it has been decided according to the experiences in the past. We propose a method for searching the building form whose evaluation is best on a technological efficiency. By using genetic algorithm (GA) we can search the optimum building form more efficiently than a method of assessing all the feasible ones. Furthermore, to make the amount of evaluation calculation less by presuming the evaluations, we make GA have the learning process of the evaluation criterion by neural network.
In the eighteenth century, in Glasgow, the merchants who run trade business with colonial America proceeded the new town development. This new town was planned with the concept of "point-de-vue", and became known as "Merchant City". After this Merchant City development, the new town was extended to the west, and planned with the concept of grid plan by James Barry. After Barry's plan, the varieties of the new town developments were carried out, and consequently the industrial area north of Clyde River, Trade Town south side of the river, and the new town in Blythwood came into existence. Now the area to the north east of Merchant City is being developed as a residential area. This paper aims to clarify difference of the concept in the grid planning process in so-called Glasgow New Town, particularly for thirty years since Merchant City had been planned at the end of the eighteenth century. The author proposes that this thirty year new town development can be divided into six phases, each of which were planned with different concepts. The main purpose of this study is to analyze these different concepts and the contexts which necessitated the different planning only for thirty years.
This paper discusses space formation of Newari settlements called Hadigaon in Kathmandu valley focusing on the distribution of holy places(temples) and their related ceremonies. Some scholars insist that there existed palace city around the Hadigaon area in Licchavi period. We basically follow that hypothesis and propose the range of the palace city and block pattern. The point of this paper is that the ancient Hadigaon palace city was constructed based on the Hindu concept of city planning. We are also interested in space formation of Cakranegara(Lombok, Indonesia) and Jaipur(India) which are thought be constructed following the idea of Hindu city. The purpose of this study is to compare the principles of space formation(block pattern, house form). Our field survey clarify the locations of the sacred places and the process of ceremonies called Tudal-devi Jatra and Narayan Jatra. Based on our findings, we reconstructed the formation of the ancient Hadigaon.
Purpose of this paper is to abstract historical small cities and to clarify the actual feature of space changes in historical core of these cities. We carried out several survey on 4 cities -Ono, Tono, Gosen and Nagai - concerning of building site use in three points through these 30 years. Conclusion are as follows, 1) Space character of historical city core is rapidly changing for the past ten years. 2) Open space and parking space are increasing in most of all districts. 3) There are 4 types of districts according to their real state. They are commerce prior district type, commerce declining district type, residentializing district type and potentially residential district type.
It is ideal that cities can deal with the emergent land utilization with public open spaces. This study is about the parks of public open spaces from the view-point of temporary housings construction. It contains the arrangement of temporary housings in parks, the simulation of the number of refugees accomodated in the housings and the comparison with needed temporary housings based on the estimation of damage. It also refers to the comparison between the target area of long term plan for the Tokyo metropolis and the standard area of city parks act for parks area for needed temporary housings.
Housing sub-market doesn't agree with boundary between local governments, and we need multi-scale housing policy by some cities, towns and villages. The purpose of this study is to advance the theory of "Joint Housing Policy" by local governments and to consider its merits and feasibility. The purpose of housing policy is to improve efficiency and fairness of housing market, and each policy has appropriate scale for practice in relation to three functions of housing policy. "Joint Housing Policy" can fit its scale at the case may be. But it is difficult to realize "joint housing policy" under existing administrative system.
In the census, cross tables for cities are rarely reported for more than two-ways. TO estimate such tables, proportional fitting method is frequently used. The statistical accuracy of this method is analyzed for housing related data. Two or more two-way tables or prefectural three-way table are necessary for estimating a three-way table. The average relative error is about 20% even in ideal cases.
On this study, by picking up the old Nagaino village in the Aizu district, I investigated the formation processes of shop-houses. The summary of this study can be given below: ・The commercial activities which had mainly permanent stores were formed by extending some stores or building new town-houses with stores after the early of 19th century. ・After that, the stores and town-houses has became larger according as the active commerce. ・The formation processes of shop-houses in the rural districts had progressed at the same time when the commercial activities developed with the permanent-stores.
The purpose of this sturdy is to clarify the formation process of an amusement quarter, Shinkyogoku, in the modernization of a traditional city, Kyoto. This paper attempts to examine the space composition of some temples and shrines grounds in Teramachi as the matrix of the amusement quarter. This examination was advanced by menans of the restoration grounds plan that was made from the document stored in Konrenji temple and so on. As a result, it became clear that a places of amusement had already been formed in the late Edo period. And its spatial composition had adapted itself to the traffic line of the people who visited the grounds, and its existence had been temporary to correspond with the condition of the formation process.
By the study some knowledge was acquired as follows. 1. Sixty-six municipal elementary schools were built of reinforced-concrete in Kobe between 1920 and 1939. At 1923, the Architectural Section was founded in Kobe Municipal Office and placed in charge of its design. 2. The building of those schools resulted from not only the abolition of school district system at 1919, but also a promotion of a memeber of municipal assembly. 3. In elementary schools in Kobe-city, the size of classrooms, the span of columns and the height of story were standardized. 4. Characteristics in Kobe schools were mentioned as follows, an auditorium on the 3rd floor, double-loaded corridor type under the 2nd floor. 5. At first the design was influenced under that of wooden schools but new patterns were created one after another and settled at last.
The purpose of this paper is to explicate the design process of Japanese Pavilion, Paris International Exposition 1937, from the phase of proposal to completion of the building, refering to the documents of [Diplomatic record Office-Ministry of Foreign Affairs], in addition to the details previously known. Through this study, it became clear on following points: 1. the design and displaying concept of the pavillion. 2. preliminary drawings of Kunio Maekawa, Kenjiro Maeda and preparatory design of Junzo Sakakura. 3. Sakakura's contribution in the management of the project.
This paper studies the history of the Building and Repairs Organization affiliated with the Ministry of the Imperial Japanese Navy (MIJN) from 1872 through 1920, and the building engineers of MIJN. This paper shows the process of the Building and Repairs Organization expanding according to the Naval armament expanding plan since 1883. It shows the engineers' names, service period at the department, and personal histories. And it highlights the middle-ranked engineers who had come from the Building and Repairs Organization in each office, such as the Ministry of the Public Works, which assisted the architectural activities of MIJN.
T.MATSUGASAKI, an architect, had studied in Germany for 12 years in the beginning of Meiji Era. Meanwhile, he had learned the theory of the architecture and practical technique. After returning home, he played an important role as an establish member of the architectural institute of JAPAN as well as engaged in the construction of the government office town. After that, he designed the structures in German style here in Japan and Taiwan. This study is on the career and the works of TSUMUNAGA MATSUGASAKI, from the beginning as an architect to the times as a public servant. In the study, special consideration was given to "Nasu villa of SHUZOU AOKI", which is only one existing building he designed.
In these days we see the fact that the floor sitting style and the chair sitting style coexist both in South Korea and Japan. Considering this current situation, this study aims at shedding light on historical changes and development of these two types of sitting style. Comparing several types of sitting style and its historical changes in China, Korea and Japan along with research into their historical interchange, the author probed into resemblance in sitting style among these three countries. As one of the characteristics, for example, sitting with the left knee drawn up was first observed from the Zhou to Han period in China. Later in the periods of the Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it was seen on various scenes such as people in the middle ruling class holding ceremonies, retainers raising up lamps, warriors standing by, bird hunting, fishing, praying, and such. In Korea, in the period of the Three Kingdoms, this type of sitting style was found where people were drawing characters, and in Japan, in the Jomon period, where men were holding ceremonies. All in the three countries, however, there were also tools to sit down on, and even stools and chairs to show authority were found. From this study, it is assumed that sitting cross-legged as well as seated style were characteristic of people of high standing and were commonly seen in the three countries. Also in China, however, there was a period of sitting on the floor as seen in Korea and Japan. And in the time range given in this study the shift from floor sitting to chair sitting had started there.
The Yami have two important directions named "teylaod" (sea quarter) and "teyrala" (mountain quarter) which regulate their houses and action. In this report we discuss about the meaning of to "dwell" between sea and mountain topo-logically through their myth. We observe particularly the flood myth, because on the flood sea and mountain present themselves. Sea swallows up the people, and mountain remains as the last place to survive. At that time we can make clear the meaning of place to "dwell" between sea and mountain.
We define "Ro-space" as a general term to represent subsidiary spaces such as "Ro", "Watadono", "En" and so on. Ro-space is regarded as the origin of "Roka". Japanese classical literature illustrates Ro-space as multi-functional space. Ro-space was a place for communication, life, play, path, gathering, observation, ceremony and so on. In particular, informal and private acts took place at En, which opened to a garden. Though En was more simple and more incidental than Ro and Watadono, it was significant space for the daily life. Roka after the Middle ages might inherite such characteristics of the Ro-space.