This is Part 1 of our basic study of “the Home-Environment of Peruvian Immigrants of Japanese Descent in Japan.” The study objective is determination of the trends and characteristics of Peruvian immigrants' adaptation to their new home environment in Japan. It investigates how these recent immigrants have organized their own lives to build for themselves a new place to call home. This paper specifically aggregates and analyzes personal changes that occur when an immigrant moves to a new environment. Since amendment of the Japanese Immigration Act in 1991, more than 50,000 Peruvians of Japanese Descent (Nikkeijin) have relocated to Japan. Now that more than 15 years have passed, we can evaluate the degree to which and the manner in which these immigrants have adjusted to conditions in Japan, and which courses this process can take. Based on a questionnaire survey and a survey of private living spaces, we have established correlations between immigrants' adaptation to Japanese society and their relation to their respective home environments. We found correlations between immigrants' attitudes and their residential and living environments.
This study aims to clarify the background and the process of transformation of the Inari-yamashita accomodation housing built for the victims of the Great Kanto Earthquake built in Yokohama City in 1925, which was a 1st-floor wooden tenement house. We found that this housing was one of the two facilities for accommodating the victims evicted from temporary shanties, under the strong intention of social welfare by Yokohama City. And the planning of this accommodation was quite similar to that of the Dojunkwai Foundaation, but this accommodation has used the old materials like king-post-truss from the roof of the former shanties, so in a structural way, this was a big condition of construction of this accommodation. Through measuring this building, we investigated many activities of the dwellers to transform the housing.
This staudy aims to analyze continuation of community activities before and after the housing reconstruction project at Dojunwai Yanagishima Apartment House. In particular, this study focuses on changes of the community activities and the space. Findings are as follows: During time of the construction for the project some community activities have remained, this has caused good effect for the continuity of community activities after the reconstruction. After the reconstruction, all of the community activities have remained in the new scheme, and even several new activities have occured. Before the reconstruction some activities had been taken place outside of the apartments, and after the reconstruction the new building designed with some new facilities so that some activities could be able to be taken place in the site of the new building.
By examining the changes of the utilization and spatial allocation of the living space in Japanese-style houses, the analysis indicates that the houses were extended or remodeled by Taiwanese residents to adapt them to not only the effect of modernization but also to the Taiwanese lifestyle. In addition, since the style of Taiwanese houses have some differences from the Japanese's, some places are likely to be extended or remodeled, but others are actually preserved. Thus it means some Taiwanese residents decide to preserve the characteristics of Japanese-style houses and adjust their lifestyle in compatibility with the spatial allocation. Furthermore, analysis results also indicate that the contents of the transformation of the living space in Japanese-style houses changed according to the length of the duration that new Taiwanese residents lived in the houses.
Tokyo Metropolitan Government certifies specific day nurseries based on its independent criteria, because of rapidly increasing demand of nursery services. Most of certified day nurseries have no playgrounds; they use parks in neighborhood instead. The purpose of this research is to examine the outdoor environments for child care on these day nurseries. There are some differences between the behavior of children at the playground of their day nurseries and at the park. At the playgrounds we can see much creative behavior than at the parks. In a multistory, high density housing complexes constructed in the 1960-70's have good outdoor environment for child care. It is necessary to consider about child care at environmental planning of town.
The aim of this study is to clarify the selection characteristic of places for the residents in Mie prefecture. For this objective,we performed the questionnaire survey to the residents in four feature regions. The results of this study are summarized as follows: The regional facilities are the main places where the residents spend free time excluding home. The elderly persons hardly select the places,but they mainly select public facilities. The selection of the place is different due to the attribute and the lifestyle of the residents. As for public facilities, consciousness as a social place is high, and consciousness as the place that can be relaxed is low. Regional characteristics of the degree of fullness of facilities and natural environment, etc. influence the resident's place selection.
This paper discusses formation of community and street system of Hui's residential district in Xi'an Old Castle District based on a field survey. The major objective of this study is to compare the Muslim cities and the Chinese cities focusing on the urban tissues. Xi'an Old Castle located in the historical core of the city is only example that preserves the city wall since Min dynasty dated back to an imperial palace of Tang Chang'an Castle. Hui's people in China who believe in Islam lives in Residential district around Chinese mosques (Qingzhensi). We, firstly, clarify relations of a community organization and distribution of mosques, institutions and Hui's shops. We classify levels of streets by measuring their dimensions and identifying names, and a divisional process of the block division by tracing the change of street. This paper shows clear differences between the Hui's residential district and general blocks in Xi'an Old Castle District.
This report aims to reveal the actual situation and characteristic tendency of leisure activities in neighboring districts in differing communities. For this, the authors traced the changes in trends and characteristics of leisure activities of the community residents based on the time-sequential investigations and analyses conducted regarding leisure activities in 1975, 1990, and 2005. With a particular focus on neighboring district, analysis is performed from both the viewpoints of the time spent on leisure activity and number of leisure activity items, and its relation with facility use distance. The result has revealed matters including the following: 1) It was proven from the time-sequential changes of leisure activities that the neighboring districts serve as a major activity space in which a number of leisure activities take place daily. 2) Different age brackets show remarkably different activity characteristics and in addition, the two communities have distinct activity characteristics. 3) It was demonstrated that a particular relationship can be found between leisure activities and facility use distances in neighboring districts. 4) The two communities exhibit separate tendencies in characteristics of leisure activities and facility use distances.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the specification and evaluation of a factor which affects presumption of an exterior wall refurbishment cycle by using a proportional hazard model. Covariates affecting exterior wall refurbishment were “Lath-mortar” and an “Area”. A Congested area of wooden built-up area has a long refurbishment cycle, and lath-mortar tends to shorten a refurbishment cycle. Moreover, an exterior wall refurbishment cycle will tend to become short if the number of times of repair increases, and it became clear that there is no difference of the refurbishment cycle by a construction age.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the spatial cognition of the visually impaired in model courses. Experimental courses were a straight course without any obstructions, and 6 kinds of bent course. Subjects were 5 totally blind pedestrians, 5 eye-masked pedestrians, and 5 normal sighted pedestrians. The results are as follows. (1) In the case of the blind subjects, the wider the angle of the corner is, the lower the rate of the independent walk is. (2) The behavior of losing the way of the eye-masked is 2 times as much as that of the blind. The incidence of losing the way at the corner is 85 %. (3) In the correct answer for sketch map, the score of the blind is 90 points, while that of the eye-masked is 50 points. Even if the angle of the corner changes, the blind can draw the sketch map correctly. (4) At the destination, the difference of the direction angle of the blind is 19° and that of the eye-masked is 51°.
Declining birthrate and growing proportion of elderly people is advanced at the speed more than the past forecast, and various measures are executed from respect of the living environment and welfare in Japan now. Moreover, Heart Building Law was enforced in 1994, Accessible and Usable Transportation Law was enforced in 2000, and Barrier-Free New Law was enforced in 2006, as a result, facilities and equipment that considers the elderly and the physically handicapped have increased. However, in other words, it means the main people of these measures in the present stage is the elderly and the physically handicapped. On the other hand, the action barrier in building/city space to people before and after childbirth is not recognized so much because of transitory. On this research, we clarify the factor of the action barrier of pregnant woman and parent with baby for these 20 years in building/city space and propose the reduction of these factors.
In Tama NT, there are a large number of apartment, well-planned traffic networks and social facilities. This paper aimed to study children's outdoor activities and examine the relation between their activities and the outdoor environment through questionnaire, observation and GPS research: The following outcomes were obtained: 1) Home and parks are common places for children to play. 2) Local public facilities provide places for children to spend their time indoor. 3) Network shaping of pedestrian-space seems to provide ease of access for children to parks, playlots and local public facilities, and play a significant role for children's outdoor activities on the whole. 4) All day activities of several individuals were successfully recorded by GPS research, and some distinctive patterns in those activities were found.
In this research, we focused attention on the mixture use of public and private in urban area that includes the private use of public area and the public use of private area. We defined personal effects on public area as the private object and defined estates that we can enter all of the time as the public area. This research aims to consider urban space with setting the private object and the public area as subjects of research. We chose the central city of Nagoya in Aichi as a research zone. After a field work, we could classify functions of the private object into six types, and classify installation sites of the private object into three types. And we could also classify figures of the public area into six types. Through this research, we could say that the private object and the public area are common elements that configure urban space.And we could also say that urban space is differentiated by the spatial public sense.
To understand the influence of the school travel pattern on children's acquisition of spatial knowledge and its correlation to children's mobility within the neighborhood in general, three typical contexts were surveyed: a home-zone district, a recently developed district, and a traditional district developed organically. The results show that age is significantly influential on children's spatial knowledge as well as on their mobility within the school journey and other travel in the neighborhood. In this study, the influence of gender on spatial knowledge and mobility in the school journey was partially offset respectively by the longer home-school distance for boys and the propinquity of the girls' schools with the neighborhood center. Travel mode had a significant influence on spatial knowledge: those children who were driven had the weakest representation of their itinerary. Additionally, they had less licensed mobility within the neighborhood and were more car dependent for travel other than the school journey. The level of car dependency and licensed mobility were influenced by neighborhood context and parental fear of traffic and social dangers.
The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the shape and allocation of buildings and the performance of daylighting environment in urban building districts, to verify quantitatively the effect of the Height and Bulk Controls in the Zoning Code under the Building Standard Law. First, we simulated exterior wall illuminance on several urban building district models. Then, we got some technical findings about the relationship between the shape and allocation of buildings and exterior wall illuminance. Secondly, we analyzed the performance standard of exterior wall illuminance by daylighting to satisfy the needs of interior horizontal illuminance. Finally, we examined how the Height and Bulk Controls actually provide daylighting environment in urban building districts.
This study aims to specify the result of addressing Scenic District in a Built-up Residential Area and how the Land and Buildings effects the Ratio of Green Coverage by using passing year transition, Use District, Aerial Photograph, and the housing map. 1)Ratio of Green Coverage, inside and outside of Scenic District, is both decreasing. There is no specific effect of Scenic District that can be seen from the amount of green in the area. 2)The decline in Ratio of Green Coverage is thought to be influenced by causes such as housing. Securing unoccupied land to be greened may be the possible cause of the increse in the Green coverage ratio. 3)It should be ascertained whether Scenic District can be maintained with government ordinance of Scenic District that is a numeric standard of the uniform whole country.
This paper aims to examine the relationship between characteristics of city size,shape and situation of commutation, attending school. The results are as follows, 1)In proportion to independence ratio of built-up area of the city,the ratio of using car is decreasing,the ratio of using public transportation is increasing, but the ratio of both using bicycle and pedestrian is identical. 2)Concerned to the core city which has autonomous independent built-up area, in proportion to the population ratio of DID population, the ratio of using car is decreasing,the ratio of using public transportation and ratio of both using bicycle and pedestrian is increasing.
The purpose of the study is to understand the influences of relocation on well-being of elderly people from the view point of the degree of satisfaction towards housing and living environment in order to promote reside in the central area of town. It is found that influences of relocation on well-being is expressed strongly (mainly) as solidarity. Also, well-being is influenced strongly by the individual attributes such as income level and ability of walk, and secondly by the degree of satisfaction towards communication and participation in the community.
This paper looks at transformations in urban temple graveyards. There has been a tacit image that temples are concerned with maintaining the conventional system of graveyard management. However, it is not necessarily appropriate to emphasize the traditional nature of temple graveyards. The paper, drawing on a field survey on temples in the Tokyo metropolitan area, demonstrates that urban temples have undertaken to address contemporary graveyard issues caused by a decline in traditional-style families, an increase in deaths of single people and diversified needs for graveyard design.
This study has done following (1)-(3). (1).Getting the data of investment to tax offices of Tokyo Metropolitan. (2).Analysis of work intervals for repair and reconstruction of these tax offices. (3).Analysis of characteristics of repair and reconstruction works. Main results of analysis are following (4)-(5). (4).Many of large scale repair works have done at 20-25 years after newly built them. (5).After large scale repair works, the ratio of equipments repair works in whole repair works grow larger.
This study aims to clarify the role of kidomon (town gate) in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. This paper deal with the instance of withdraws kidomon. Kyoto-machibugyosho (office of magistrate) obligated town people to found a couple of kidomon at both ends of town. By the way, Kankohokocho was permitted to withdraw kidomons by machibugyosho at the chance of Gion festival, because this town's kidomons were often damaged by collision with other town's “hoko” (portable shrine).
Prasat Sour Prat tower N1 is masonry structure and the main material was used by Laterite blocks. The inclination and deteriorations are appeared on this ruin. However, N1 tower is keeping standing condition until now. On the previous report was focused at the foundation and platform of N1 tower. Then, continuously, on this report is studying of architectural techniques in upper structure which are based on knowledge from conservation and restoration works. Especially, the main material; Laterite block and those masonry techniques are paid attention. The durability of this building has been supported by these techniques. And the study of laterite block mason is not so many cases. That is why the architectural technique of N1 tower should be studied.
This paper examines the rebuilt Noh Theater at the Peers' Club. This Noh Theater first was built at 1915 in Imperial Court, and then was rebuilt at the Peers' Club at 1917. When the Peers' Club was moved from Uchiyamasitamachi to Sannenmachi at 1927, only the Noh Theater was moved to new site and was rebuilt, designed by Sonechuujou Kenchiku Jimusho. There are three characteristics in the rebuilt Noh Theater. The first, Noh stage was layout just in front of main building, and Goranjo was put in the center of main building. The second, the plan of Kenjo was symmetry of the axis of stage and main building. The third, top light was set up at the roof of Kenjo. I analyze these characteristics by using the new source design plans which I found. At last, I analyze how the Shouwa Emperor used the Noh Theater, in order to declare the relation of royal activities with the Noh Theater design.
The Meiji Jingu Treasure Museum building, built in 1921 to commemorate Emperor Meiji and Empress Shoken, is known to architectural historians as the first example to try to express “Japanese-style” with the then modern technology of reinforced concrete. In this paper, however, delving into its original 87 structural working drawings in the shrine, the authors show its importance in technological history pointing out the reasonable structural modeling and adroit setting of the structural elements in it to make the design feasible with a long-spanned exhibition space (14.5 meters by 29 meters) poised by pilotis. The building can exemplify the highest level of the reinforced concrete technology in its early stage in Japan.
The Japanese Government-control Yawata Iron Works started the operation in 1901. The factory which the U.K. and American company designed was built after the German engineers who had taught Japanese how to build the factory went back to their own country in 1904. Furthermore, in 1909, the factory which ranges from the design to the building was built by a Japanese engineers. The designer was an engineer of The Japanese Government-control Yawata Iron Works named “Hitoshi KAGEYAMA.”. The name of the first factory built by Japanese engineers was “Rool-senban factory”, which was the first domestic production. We discuss the background and architectural characteristics of the steel structure that the first domestic factory was built.
Many architecturally valuable old buildings in the world have been downgrading or being torn down for new constructions. Among them, while public buildings are somehow concerned for conservation, private houses are mostly abandoned. When these houses eventually collapse, it will be too late to preserve and difficult to restore due to lack of historical documentations. In this case, the common survey method is to mainly examine physical relics or traces at site. This kind of resource is usually limited and sometimes impossible due to no excavation authorized. In some of these houses, however, there may be original senior residents still living here for long. They can be an invaluable (or even the only) information resource of the house in the past. The question is how to help them recall memory most effectively by claimed scientific methods, not just by ordinary interviews. This paper aims to propose an implemental framework for tracing that particular sort of houses. Then it takes the No.47 Hang Bac Street house (Hanoi, Vietnam) as the case study and publishes the results here. The framework is expected applicable anywhere for that sort of houses.
Prasat Sambor is one of the main temple complex in the Khmer ancient city, Isanapura. Two different periods of inscriptions that indicate 7th and 10th century have been confirmed in this temple up to now. In addition, previous studies on the style of stone sculptures, architectural decorative elements and excavated artifacts also interpreted the various date from 7th century when it was constructed at earliest stage to late Angkor period. By the recent archaeological excavation survey, many alteration traces of the buildings were recognized. Especially, there are double structures were found under the east gate of middle enclosure, and original temple design was conjectured different from final phase. This paper discussed on the transition of the alteration of this temple complex.
This paper analyzes the four projects proposed for the design competition for the building of the Wiener Hofmuseen. This museum was initially planned as an element of the large-scale urban project, Ringstrasse, and realized as one of the largest museum architectures in the 19th century in Germany and Austria. In the competition (1867), two different positions were presented; one gave priority to the usefulness of the architecture, while the other preceded the entire concept to the usefulness. The former stance, which lost the competition, tried to present a new image of the museum architecture in the relationship to city planning.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the composition of the Shugakuin Imperial Villa. This paper will analyze the poetry of the villa. The composition will be considered by two ways. One way is to look through the meaning of the places the emperor appeared on and its relations. And another way is to deal with the construction of its composition. The paper considers the positional relations of the views composed in poetry and the places of the villa. Furthermore, the paper clarifies the places on the field as the villa.
The purpose of this paper is to study how the idea of “mobile equilibrium” is expressed in building design of Louis Sullivan, following our former papers. In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between the idea and the contrasting composition on the facade of his buildings. In many of his facades, “the mass” which is static, rigid and massive and “the detail” which is dynamic, organic and delicate are clearly contrasted. By this contrasting composition, Sullivan expressed in his facade the idea of “mobile equilibrium”, both “emotional and intellectual”, both “subjective and objective”.
Considering the appearance and the change process of the postwar black market in front of Hiroshima station, we are going to give new information about a station square adjustment, redevelopment and revitalization project. Right after World War II, black markets were appeared in many urban cities in Japan, as well as Hiroshima, especially in front of the Hiroshima station there was a bustling big scale black market. Even though Hiroshima was atomic bombed, people were doing business in the black market and it effected very much to revitalization of Hiroshima. Although this hasn't mentioned so much until now, it is indispensable to talk about the restoration process of Hiroshima. Considering the station square black market in Hiroshima is not only important to thinking about the restoration process of war damage in atomic bombed city Hiroshima but also it can give you the important information to having a grasp of the history of Japanese war damage restoration more in general.
The system of preservation district for groups of historic buildings is important for preserving the cultural values of historic cities. In order to promote the conservation of these values, this paper analyses the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) and Building Core Ratio (BCR) in each block and lot of Imai cho preservation district. As conclusion, it is important to know the relation of the FAR and BCR with the historic buildings in 3 terms: historical architectural function, plot plan structure, and historic development of the urban structure. Both indicators help to understand the historic development of Imai-cho, and may be used as an important tool for the conservation of urban historic area.
"The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)" is the first of the UNESCO conventions in the field of the protection of the cultural properties. Japan signed the convention in 1954, and prepared National Acts in 1955 and 1958. The basic principle of the convention was introduced into these bills. Japanese specialists proposed original method about special protection and simulated Horyuji-temple as a special protection area. But Japan could not ratify the convention because there was no international common agreement about "adequate distance" of the special protection.