The purpose of this study is to clarify the necessary supports for the elderly to staying at home as long as they want. We think that home modifications are one of the most important factors to continue at home, and we research the subsidy for home modifications of Sweden. We can find many differences in the system of home modifications between Sweden and Japan. Both countries have same problems such as high rate of aging and large fiscal burden of the elderly care. To solve that, Sweden promote home care with great caring services and appropriately home modifications , which is much more advanced than Japan.
The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the combined environment of room air temperature and color on one's evaluation and gazing behavior. Temperature conditions were set as three steps (23℃, 27℃, 30℃), and the housing indoor picture which consists of warm color and cold color was shown. Eye camera was used for gazing point measurement. As a result, the following findings were clarified. 1) When thermal sensation vote was at a little colder side than thermal neutrality, thermal comfort vote was the maximum. 2) When temperature was hot, subjects frequently gazed at cool color more. On the other hand, when it was cold, they frequently gazed at warm color more. 3) Color affected fixation frequency and fixation time significantly under a little higher or a little lower temperature than neutral.
The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of non-residential use buildings appeared under the condition of subsidy system of Soul City for the conservation of historic resources in Bukchon Area. The result is as follows: (1) application of subsidy system result in increase of non-residential use of traditional buildings that are scattered in the Area, (2) the residents evaluate positive impact of those for regeneration and conservation of traditional townscape but has negative feeling for the increase of visitors and strangers, (3) the residents consider that non-residential use are possible to coexist in the residential environment, thus the program for coexistence is necessary to be discussed for the sustainability of future residential environment of Bukchon.
This paper aims to clarify spatial formation of the previous Japanese residential district and transformation of railroad tied residence in the Samrangjin village of Milyang city (KOREA). Samrangjin Railroad tied Residence area was shaped on the grid lines along the railroad. In this research, we clarify formation process and spatial pattern of Samrangjin Railroad tied Residence. As the result of this study, we found that the characteristics of street construction and arrangement of Samrangjin Railroad tied Residence and transformation of living space by Korean living style. Transformation of living space is caused firstly by change of the position of entrance. An appearance of 'MADANG' and living room are affected by the positional at change of entrance, and linked also with transformation of cireulation. 'TATAMI room' is converted into 'ONDOL BANG' in general. And then, toilet, kitchen and living room are newly attached in succession. We can explain the process of expansion of interior and exterior space according to the main axis of three core spaces (Entrance-MADANG-Living Room). In this study we found out the composite formation of Japanese living style and Korean living style.
Recently regional community facilities are settled in the same complex buildings with the other kinds of regional facilities, shopping centers, super markets, offices, housings, and etc. when urban areas near the railroad stations are redeveloped. The purpose of this study is to grasp the features of sectional proposition of complex buildings and the mutual utilizations between regional community facilities and other facilities. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The basic features of facility compositions in the section of complex buildings are that commercial facilities are on the lower floors, regional facilities are on the middle or upper floors, housings and offices are on the upper floors than regional facilities. 2) The regional facilities have noise problem and food smell problem from the lower commercial establishments. The outside advertising displays of commercial establishments are big and stand out, so in many cases people do not notice the existence of regional facilities. 3) Especially if the lobby space of regional community facilities is relatively large and has multiple functions for users, it has the important role to bring the increase of mutual utilization in the same complex buildings.
The aim of this study is to analyze and find out the relationships among learning activities, pupils sitting configurations, pupils' numbers and learning space. We collected the analysis data from photographs during classes. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) We grasped the relative position between teacher as a subject and pupils as object. 2) In the subject-object relationship learning teachers use learning materials and tools for explanation, demonstrative presentation, reading to pupils and so on. And then teachers think the height of learning materials and tools for pupils as audiences. 3) We grasped the characteristics of the relationships among learning activities, pupils' sitting configurations and number, the height of learning materials and tools which teachers use.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the service providing regions of home help offices and their activities in the areas with fewer offices, and to find the solution for improvement with the understanding of their community care environment. Conclusions are, a) Home help offices showed effort to reduce the moving-loss by limiting the service regions or by dividing the regions of services, for example. In spite of these efforts, some offices went into deficit, and some couldn't provide enough visiting services. To overcome these situations, organizing extended associations or cooperations with other services could be effective. b) By observing the community care environment, it was clear that only the home services and nursing homes were provided, and the elderly housings were rare. The elderly housing with out-care services must be introduced more frequently in the region to meet aged people's early relocation needs and to strengthen home services in the local area.
This report is to illustrate how contemporary Japanese architects make a framework of concept in their design theory with using words of geometrical figures, for example circle, rectangle, cylinder, and so on. This domain of geometry is one of the most spread and important general idea to explain the shape of architecture. Firstly, the content of each article was considered and classified into four categories based on its background context for architecture. Secondly, two types of the form about geometrical operations was considered from their texts. One is the form of spacial recognition of geometrical figures; [plane] or [solid]. Another is the form of simplicity in the number and the variety of geometrical figures; [single], [repetition], and [mixture]. Finally, the relationship between the content of background context for architecture and two types of the form was considered and analyzed totally.
The function of external walls has big effects on the disaster prevention and the scenery of built-up area. It is necessary to maintain these functions by suitable refurbishment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the refurbishment cycles of built-up areas in Tokyo, and clarify the differences among regions. The most prominent difference among built-up areas has been seen in the first cycle of refurbishment act. As refurbishment act has been done many times, differences among the areas were decreasing. This is considered that the vicinity conditions of a built-up area has influenced.
The purpose of this study is to research on behavior of children during fire escape under the influence of stress and evacuation guidance. We experiment with "stress given by time limit", "stress given by passage stop" and "evacuation guidance given by the warning announcement through Public Announcement system to school children" by the evacuation simulator. The results are summarized as follows; ・ "Stress given by time limit" is effective execution to make stress for children. ・ When the sense of urgency increases, it comes difficult to do safe evacuation. ・ Evacuation guidance influences on children's evacuation action. Specific evacuation guidance especially effects on the rise of children's escape rate. ・ If the expression of the evacuation guidance is vague, it come dangerous situation for evacuees.
The subject of this paper is to clarify users' evaluation related with spatial components of resting space in shopping street. The conclusions are as follows: 1) As for shrubbery, the front building window ratio and space type, the relation with the users' evaluation is high, the ashtray, automatic vending machine etc. the relation with the users' evaluation is low. 2) Three viewpoints of design nature, opening nature, and activity nature were able to find out it as the rest space evaluation viewpoint of the user. 3) In design nature, when there are the spatial component elements such as shrubbery and fountain evaluation becomes high. In opening nature and activity nature, the space type and building window ratio etc. evaluation becomes high.
The study has conducted a questionnaire with observational researches on two prefectures, Hokkaido and Aomori, to find out required utilizations of "Gangi", which was built in the public housing project, during winter and summer. From the analysis, functions of Gangi are arranged as follows: 1) Gangi has variously embraced several living environments throughout the year. 2) Gangi has positively improved healthy living environments of dwellers. Besides, it has shown the meaning of its existence. 3) Gangi has clearly introduced practical meanings of social common spaces with continuous approaches and secured movements.
The purpose of this study is to clarify tendency of the future image described "Citizen-made Master Plan", and to extract possibility of influence of it as to Machi-zukuri. As a method, compare with "Urban Planning Master Plan" and analyze sentence viewed "a tendency of plan system""a theme citizen interest""do any theme go forward realization how process" As a result, there is tendency for the future image to suggest about non-material item and material item to intertwine with non-matenal item in the "Urban Planning Master Plan" frame. Themes citizen have high interest are "water""residential area" in the discipline of "natural environment and park". And extract that possibility themes influence Machi-zukuri, for example improvement priority of plan element, is comparatively high.
In Italy the architectural regulation on rehabilitation has important effect to conserve architectures and historic center on the respect of form. The purpose of this study is to clarify the decision factor of two architectural regulations for historic center of Urbino and consider the effect of architectural regulation. We found below: The regulation of 1964 is elaborated on the respect of buildings' quality and using. The "ripristino" is the main type for utilizing the buildings and rivitalize the historic center. The regulation of 1983 is elaborated on the buildings' history. The "restuaro" is chosen as the main type for conserving the Renaissance buildings and the form of historic center. Two architectural regulations has different decision factor and indicate different image of historic center. The first is the life place for. The second is the historical heritage. An architectural regulation shows the way of using buildings and the way of revitalizing the historic center.
This paper analyzes the transformation of the residence forms and the house improvement at "UONOTANA Shopping St." by comparing 1960 and the present. The residence forms are classified into "All family members remain", "Part of family members moved out", and "All family members moved out" in this paper. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) It is "All family members moved out" many of the types of the transformation of the residence forms. It occupies about the entire half. As for "Part of family members moved out" a little over 20%, "All family members remain" become a little less than 20%. 2) Most of the households of "All family members remain" and "Part of family members moved out" improve their residence environment by rebuilding. The enlargements of their residence scale enable them to continue living, and the enlarged scale of "All family members remain" is bigger that "Part of family members moved out". 3) The households of "Part of family members moved out" improve their residence environment by move out of child generation while continuing their store through parent generation continue living in house with store. 4) Most of the households of "All family members moved out" rent their land, and most of them move out to where adjacent to the central city area.
We have constructed the evaluation theory to post-earthquake performance of road network on district scale based on Percolation Theory. In this paper, we will apply this theory to the actual urban improvement planning of municipalities. Firstly, we discuss what is suitable to be used as a road network performance index. Secondly, we clarify what kinds of factor in urbanized area explain the performance. Finally, we structurally show the relation between the performance index and the explanatory factors of urbanized area. The derived knowledge will contribute to realize performance-based urban planning.
This research proposes an analysis streetscape near how to see the pedestrian, and analyzes the streetscape in urban space. The research method is as follows. First, the actual image in the direction of facade of street in which it paid attention to visual structure is expressed by computational graphic. Secondarily, the mesh is set to the image, three elements that construct the streetscape of "color", "material" and "function" are extracted, this analysis technique is evaluated, in addition, the case study is done on an actual street. The result is as follows. The composition ratio of three elements showed the characteristic of the street, and these showed the relation to a city function of the street well. It has been understood that ups and downs and the projection of the "color" show the diversity. of the walking space from color distribution of facade.
This paper aims to clarify the urban structure of Macao focusing on the open spaces in relation to the stages of the city's developments. Analyzing old maps and archives, the development of urban area was classified into three stages. It is clarified that the distributions and characteristics of their open spaces form the urban structures. In the old district the hierarchical streets form the basic urban structure. In the areas outside of the old district and the reclamation area, basic urban structures are formed with non-hierarchical urban blocks. In the reclamation area, different types of pedestrian spaces are included within the urban blocks by town planning guidelines.
The purpose of this study is to identify regional planning issues, and measures implemented to resolve such issues, by surveying government officials and examining master plans and city planning area master plan. We carried out that Municipal governments are dealing with regional issues such as sprawl, waning city centers, traffic congestion, environmental conservation, and post-reversion usage of military land. The following three measures can be implemented to minimize problems: 1) Coordination among municipalities to deal with problems in the process of making master plan or each enterprise process especially, 2) Include measures for regional green preservation, etc. in regional master plans, and 3) Ensure that all regional plans are designed in accordance with the city planning area master plan such as regional commercial issues.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the point of the design technique by a rehabilitation-oriented redevelopment corporation in U.S. downtown. The conclusions are as follows: - To be designated as a rehabilitation-oriented redevelopment district by municipal govemment. - To make a plan that features a physical setting and urban stocks of the district. - To connect a financing program which promotes the redevelopment project to the design activities. - To design from the viewpoint of a cost reduction and a compatibility of an existing environment. - To make a comprehensive solution against the various problems which happens with the redevelopment project.
This study aims to clarify actual conditions and planning problems of new roadside retail areas where large stores stands on the first and the 2nd blocks from arterial roads. As for those retail types, 7 areas exist in Hokuriku-Koshin-Etsu regions. 6 of 7 areas have been formed after 1995 and lands of all cases were built by land readjushment projects. Those new roadside retail areas are 2-10 times larger than usual roadside retail areas. From zoning control methods I classify 7 areas into 3 types (limited type to commerce uses, mixed type of commercial and industrial uses, and mixed type of commercial and residential uses), and consider planning problems of each type.
This paper aims at clarifying the activity of NPOs that support house owners in housing management and maintenance. The main way for date collection is Interview surveys with NPOs. The following results were obtained: 1) NPOs may function in different way from private sector and government, such as carpentry and barrier-free housing design for elderly or disability people, investigation, and help to find professionals. 2) Some consideration points for promoting the faculty of NPOs are pointed out, such as keeping a neutral attitude and a sense of morality, glowing social network between NPOs as well as with other sectors.
As medical technology has made rapid progress, there is a great demand for medical facilities that can provide the medical services corresponding to the progress. The purpose of my research is to have a clear grasp of the present situation of medical facilities and their building maintenance. I studied the transition of the investment in the metropolitan hospitals. The number of hospitals in Japan has decreased by 10% within 15 years, whereas the number of hospitals that have recuperation beds has been increasing. Tokyo metropolitan government has increased the investment in plant and equipment of hospitals. My study showed that there was an average interval of 3.72 years between initial construction and reconstruction of hospital site ("campus type"), and 7.11 years in case there was a single building at the site. It turned out that there was an average interval of 27.4 years between initial construction and reconstruction of medical institutions (including an interval between two reconstructions.)
The client's task in a construction project for business differs from the client's task for self-use. The purpose of this paper is to check the client's support task in construction projects for business In "Self-Project Management" and "Commissioned-Project Management", the client's support task corresponded to the client's task model for business is confirmed by the analysis of the client's support task.
Hashimoto, Wakayama, retains 35 construction documents and 21 construction drawings of modern era. According to the materials, relations between building constructions and workers were indicated as follows; (1) Each building was constructed in approximately 1 tol.5 years. (2) Buildings in a site were commonly built by a work group. (3)In consideration of the demand and the quality of building constructions, the number of skillful workers must had been limited in the region. Since the limited workers had continuously constructed buildings by their styles, they might have characterized the townscape and established the traditional architectural style of the town.
The purpose of this paper is to consider on the flat type dwelling remains during the Ainu Culture stage (13c-midl8c). So, we carried forward this study by following steps. At first, we collected the excavation reports concerning the flat type dwelling remains during the Ainu Culture stage (13c-midl8c). Next, we extracted the materials which were trustworthy. At last, we analyzed the arrangement patterns of the pillar holes and mutual relation between the plane and the span of piller holes. We made it clear that there were various forms and basics floor plane in the flat type dwelling remains during the Ainu Culture stage (13c-mid18c).
In the Meiji Era Japan tried to modernize herself adopting advanced industrial technologies of Europe and America. Thus, many cotton spinning mills were built as one of the main industries. However, it has been an open question how these mills were planned actually. The author discussed construction of the cotton spinning mill of Kumamoto Boseki Co. Ltd. in Kumamoto, which has been supposed to be built in 1896, transformed as a shoe factory later and then finally demolished in 2003. He made his own measurements and drawings and researched the original export documents at Lancashire Record Office in UK. Comparing the drawings, English documents, and the other information, he cleared the followings; 1) the mill was originally built in 1894 and extended 1896, 2) the machinery was imported from an English maker of cotton spinning machinery, Dobson & Barlow Ltd., and 3) the plan of the mill was evidently based on the drawings which the company made.
Dajokwan had gathered the list of foreign books purchased by the ministries of the Japanse Imperial Government, and had supervised those books since 1881. I investigated the process of editing the catalogue of the books, and examined when the foreign architectural books owned by the National Archive of Japan had been purchased, by the ownership stamps and labels on them. The books former owned by the Ministry of Finance consist of techinical series books published in UK and the patternbooks published in USA. This library is similar to Kaitakushi's collection. It is to be said, the Japanese Imperial Government would learn the western-style architecture not only from the foreign engineer but also from the foreign architectural books.
The Barcelona Pavilion built in 1929 is one of the masterpieces by Mies van der Rohe in his European days. The composition in the plan, elevation and section is analyzed by geometric theory. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Column position in the fourth scheme, in north-south direction, is on the intersection of floor joints, two grids inside from the eave. In west-east direction: eastern and western columns are laid out symmetrically across the centre line CLy. 2) Eastern surface of onyx wall divides ly, distance between the eastern wall and the western wall of the Pavilion by the ratio of 7:5, based on the second scheme's grid system. 3) The height of the platform, z1(1.3m), to the height from the platform top to the roof eave top, Z'(3.28m), is in integral ratio of 2:5, whereas the dimension of Z' is three times the module(1.09m) in the plan. 4) Each elevation of the building is composed by the integral multiplication of squares with Z(4.58 m) on a side where Z is height from GL to the roof eave top. 5) The height of the wall z2 is 3.03m and approximately one fourth of ly, distance between the east wall and the west wall. Integral multiplication of squares with z2 on a side composes walls on the elevation in many cases. 6) The ratio of the length to the height of the green marble wall at the eastern entrance is almost 3:1, that is triple square. Onyx wall is double square in the third scheme but the length is shorten in the fourth scheme, which distorts the simple integral multiplication. 7) It is said that the height of the ceiling is determined by the dimension of the onyx block, but the geometric composition of elevation may account for the height.
Tohgo Murano is one of the most important architects in modernization of Japan. Nissay Hibrya Building is his masterpiece by the expresslon with a free architectural style. The classicism appearance finished with the granite and the visionary interior space using a pearl oyster received criticism "it is reactionary" In the criticism announced in the past, Murano is said to have advanced the design by a method like a craftsman. By analysis of his architectural drawings, this research checks his design process along a progress chart, and clarifies that actual situation. It is a part of research which clarifies his design intension by verifying design process of Murano.
Today's urban axis of the inner Hiroshima city "Rijou-Dori" street is the transformation from the canal "Seitou-Gawa" in the Edo Era. This study has reconstructed the allotment of the street in the Meiji Era and at the beginning of Showa Era, and also the site for the tramway in Taishou Era. It has clarified that the site of tramway was not simply the transformation of the former canal because the reclamation has begun long before the beginning of Meiji Era. At first the site for the tramway was settled and the entire rest of the allotment has remained as it was, which has gradually changed through annexation and subdivision. As the allotment was so inconvenient that the tramway has become a street of modern buildings at the east side, and a raw of small wooden houses at the west side. The unbalance was removed only through the reconstruction planning after WWII.
The resources left in Onoda Cement Company, such as its history, documents, and letters, were examined in order to explore the transition of the cement production management between 1883 and 1925. The study specifically focuses on the company's manufacturing as well as quality control items for a variety of firing kilns. The findings are as follows: 1) The process control items initially included only "the amount of both fuel and raw materials" and "the cement production volume." A few years later, "the operating time of the main manufacturing devices" were added to the original process control items. Furthermore, while the measurement of the pressure in the kilns began to be conducted by the end of the Taisho era, the firing condition of the cement was only being discerned. 2) The outline of the quality control items was formed between 1898 and 1899 and it was completed in the Taisho era. The completed list of the items is similar to the one adopted today. 3) For the chemical analysis (one of the quality control items), the existence of CaCO_3 in both the limestone and the raw materials was measured and confirmed first, and then the analysis of the cement powder was followed. 4) The diameter of the raw materials and the cement powder became smaller as the time proceeded. By the beginning of the Taisho era, the size of the mesh of the sieve used for measuring the diameter became almost the same as the one used today. 5) When the cement production originally started in the early Meiji era, the physical test of the cement included only "the verification of possible cracks and the strength test on the cement paste" and the stiffness of the cement was being measured only roughly. Approximately ten years later, "the tensile and compressive strength of the cement mortar" were included in the physical test. In another ten years, morever, "the specific gravity of the cement powder" became one of the items and started to be measured. By the end of Thaisho era, after the careful consideration the completed list of control items was refined and became almost the same as the one employed today.