The direct sunlight entering a room through a window produces high luminance areas on the floor or walls, which makes us uncomfortable. We conducted an experiment to make subjects experience a series of illumination using actual daylight in an experimental chamber. As the result, when the prime luminance ratio of an area to the surroundings is more than 1.2 to 1, subjects perceived it as a high luminance area. Subjective glare sensation caused by a high luminance area could be explained with the area luminance, the solid angle of the area and the prime luminance ratio of the area to the surroundings.
As an observatory of the International Daylight Measurement Programme (IDMP) of the Commission Internationale de 1'EcIairage (CIE), one of the authors started measurement in January 1993. Based on minutely data gathered over the past nine years on solar radiation and illuminance, this paper has sought luminous efficacy of each of direct, diffuse and global illuminance of daylight. An estimated equation, which regarded luminous efficacy of daylight as the constant and involution of the corresponding solar radiation volume and coefficient of the involution as the function of solar altitude, was employed. Then, estimated gaps were made clear quantitatively by repeatedly examining luminous efficacy of daylight according to solar altitude and cloud ratio. This paper shows that it is proper to make use of luminous efficacy of daylight in accordance with necessary estimated accuracy.
The capture efficiencies of standard exhaust hood for exhaust gas and contaminant generated by cooking on the commercial cooking stove and fryer were measured in case that there is horizontal airflow from the outside of hood. Two kinds of heat sources of natural gas and induction heater are selected. Through the experiments, it is turned out that the capture efficiencies for the electromagnetic cookers are less than those for gas-fired cookers under the side airflow of 0.25 or 0.5 m/s. This is because the plume above electromagnetic cookers are weaker than the plume above gas-fired cookers due to less of heat generation rate.
Though the exploration of ground is required for the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System (ATES) planning, no appropriate exploration method has been proposed. To ensure the reliability of the ATES, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the exploration. This paper gives a proposal of the exploration procedure suitable for the ATES planning and discusses the reliabilities of the procedure by the basis of accurate experimental data.
The objective of this paper is to verify the fundamental theory of estimating the optimum number of fixtures when constructing lavatories in multi-purpose stadium and to show that it can be adapted effectively for multi-purpose stadium by calculating the appropriate number based on the past result of the investigation. Then the following conclusion was obtained. 1. In order to use a result of survey as a fundamental data, we have added men and women ratio of mother group and arrival rate to the statistics. 2. Using arrival rate, we have estimated the number of the fixtures by models. We have used arribal rate at 95% and 99.5% of a coefficient of trust. By using 99.5% estimation, there were too many fixtures needed. In this paper, we have used the 95% as the standard value. 3. After estimating the number of the fixtures with consideration of the moved range of the men and women ratio of the mother group, we could estimate then more accurately. From the above, we have concluded that adapting neural network model enabled the estimation of the optimum number of the fixtures for lavatories in multi-purpose stadium.
The purpose of this basic research was to produce well-grounded data concerning the feed water conditions required for ensuring the carrying performance of the horizontal drain pipe when waste water containing food waste, which has been disposed of using a food waste grinder, runs down the horizontal drainage pipe and subsequently to acquire basic knowledge with the intention of formulating an evaluation method of such carrying performance in the near future. In this initial report, firstly, the form of the horizontal fixture pipe used for existing apartments was analyzed and models of pipe layers of various types were set up for the drainage experiment. Next, different effects were created on the pipe layer models, which related to the flow rate of the water supply, the amount of food waste, the pipe's gradient etc. and which affected the carrying performance of the pipe layer models. The distribution of the remnants of ground food waste in each pipe was observed during the experiment and results were classified into several patterns. Finally, the relationship of each distribution pattern with the minimum requirement for the flow speed and the proportions of food waste and water in the waste water, both of which determine the distribution pattern, were evaluated quantitatively. The basic data was produced based on the results of the experiment mentioned above to be used for evaluating the carrying performance of the horizontal drain pipe.
In a primarily objective to grasp real solar reflectance of various surfaces consisting urban canopy that is quite important in case of urban climatology analysis, a set of filed investigations was conducted. Wall reflectance, proportion of glazing area and convexo-concave degree were mainly measured in the first noted filed investigation that was done in totally four urban areas. Acquired data for the wall reflectance were summarized. The second investigation concerned on the reflectance of roads did reach to a proportional relation between entire reflectance of the road and traffic density varying 0.1 to 0.3. The third investigation was with respect to the reflectance of building roof. Data show the fact that the reflectance varies depending on the use of building and the influence of machinery related to HVAC occupying the roof area is significant.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the diversity of ordinary people's image about townscape, using "Caption Evaluation Method". By this method, we can get the data about evaluation of townscape as verbal data described by free term. In this paper, it has tried to apply multivariable analysis on this verbal data. Specifically, it is as follows : 1) By combined use of the KJ-method and multivariable analysis, the categories which classify the words and phrases which constitute the contents of description have been determined. 2) MDS and correspondence analysis have been applied on the cross-tabulation using this categories.
In conjunction with the analysis of the distribution and characteristics of unlawful graffiti drawn in the streets of the city, this study examines the measures for preventing graffiti damages. The distribution range and presence of graffiti on building shutters were examined in the vicinities of Shibuya Station where there is the most frequent occurrence of graffiti in the Tokyo metropolitan area. As a result, there was more graffiti on busy streets, and there was a tendency for graffiti being drawn more easily on shutters of such small scale buildings as a multi-tenant building compared to such large scale buildings as a department store. Moreover, there was a tendency for unmanaged shutters of vacant shops being easily damaged by graffiti, and well looked after shutters being less easily damaged by graffiti. Furthermore, there was also a tendency for a similar type of graffiti grouping around an elaborate piece of graffiti.
Energy recovery potential from municipal waste in Osaka City is estimated. Using field survey result, total municipal waste discarded in Osaka city is classified into household waste and business waste, and also classified into several components such as paper, food waste, plastics etc. Heat values of each component are estimated by experiment result. Using these results, change of amount and heat value of whole municipal waste due to progress of material recycling is estimated. Total amounts of primary energy saving by energy recovery from municipal waste under variou's recycling status and various energy recovery systems such as high-pressure steam recovery or combined heat and power are also estimated.
"A Coupled Simulation of Heat and Air Flow" is expected to be the computer aided design tool in outdoor space. Compared with the existing available prediction methods, this method herein described places greater emphasis on its ability to make it possible to evaluate thermal radiant environments, air temperature and wind distribution that are given to the timely prediction in design process as well as to various other factor including both variety of external materials and variety of exterior shapes. This method was developed based on sensible heat balance simulation for all the exterior surface and standard k-ε turbulent Model. And sensible heat balance simulation is also combined with 3D-CAD system that makes it easily to input the complicated exterior shape and also make it possible to evaluate the 3-D distribution of surface temperature at any view points.
This study intended to clear the planning methods of 'Housing for the Elderly' from 1987 in Denmark. On analysis of dwelling plans of 'Housing for the Elderly' that were located in Greater Copenhagen area, following three points were cleared. 1) The design criteria of 'Housing for the Elderly' was capable of adapting to conditions of the Elderly, so various kind of dwelling plan types were made. Gathered dwelling plans were divided into 11 types. 2) The area of each dwelling was distributed from 30m^2 to 65m^2. This range of area is necessary for the Elderly. 3) Kitchen space was placed near the entrance in most dwelling plans to keep the connection between inside and outside of the dwelling. This organization was effective to secure safety life of the Elderly.
The aim of this research is to grasp the physical characteristics and the evaluation of the built environment on the national university campus, and to clarify the relations between the physical characteristics and the evaluations. The results are as follows ; 1) The Built Environment of the campus is characterized by three groups of indexes, building density, campus size and size per building. The national university campuses are classified by using the index of the physical characteristics in 10 types. 2) The evaluation structure of the degree of satisfaction about these evaluation items is composed by 9 factors. 3) As for most of the evaluation items of a degree of satisfaction, a correlation with the index of the building density is high. 4) The evaluation characteristics of satisfaction are grasped by the campus type classified by the physical characteristics.
In this paper, we aim to show the trend of conversion from buildings to theatres and halls for people who are planning to convert buildings in Japan. To study our theme, we investigate things about conversion from buildings to theatres and halls in U.K and process data to draw graphs. Our study is made on 1165 venues in British Performing Arts Yearbook 2000/2001 and based on the book, websites of venues, questionnaire via e-mails, interviews to venues in London and former study. At the result, 35% venues are converted and those most audience capacity is less than 400. Especially, venues converted with change of their use are 22.4% and it is the most in conversion.
As globalization proceeds, proper planning of airports has become increasingly important in Japan. This study aims to provide data for the planning process of airport terminals. To this end, we selected four representative airports in Japan and made questionnaire surveys to collect the visitors' opinions about the environment,of the terminals. Analyzing the opinions, we obtained the following results: (1) Comfort, thermal condition, design quality and the politeness of the staff at the terminals were felt fine. (2) Improvement of waiting time, mobility, variety of shops and sufficiency of furniture was demanded.
This study aims to point out future problems on planning of nursing homes by understanding characteristics of living activity of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through following up surveys. The findings are as follows. 1. In factor analysis, there were distinctions between AD and VD on characteristics of activity-inactivity. 2. In cluster analysis, the elderly with dementia were classified into five groups. 3. An activity area spread to the whole home in case of AD, and as against it, its area was limited to the hall and semi-hall in the home in case of VD.
Children's socio-spatial behavior in classrooms and a shared open-space of an elementary school was studied, viewing these spaces as a setting for social interaction. 5/6th graders were observed for three 3-day periods over six months. By examining spatial choices (where they chose to work, play, and gather) of each individual separately, a social structure consisting of groups of children tied together with frequent direct social interaction was found and clarified using cluster analysis. Some types of children/groups characterized by their interactions with others - 'isolated groups', 'keypersons', and 'loners'- were distinguishable, which were associated also with preferences in spatial choices. These patterns gave particular places special social characteristics, revealing a social map. The findings emphasize children positioning themselves among others as a form of indirect interaction and a social act of identifying themselves in school situations.
Following the findings about the adaptability of workshops to the de-institutionalization of nursing home, this study inspects how the results of dialogue methods in design through workshops were reflected on the physical design. Necessary conditions to create the 'Place' for the elderly are extracted from the examination of the real project, which will empower 'Spirit' and produce 'Form' as well. Philosophical concept of'Coupling' between 'Living' and 'Space' applied to research on the person-environment relation as a new viewpoint of architectural design theory.
In this IEC (Interactive Evolutionary Computation) model, designer's implicit preference in making window pattern was acquired as explicit rules of figure pattern, and the possibility of emergent 2-D figure design was shown. In the model, "design world" was made of "primitive" and "design operator", and this "design world" is translated to "critical language" made of first-order logic by using tree structure. The rules of rhythm, proportion and symmetry were composed as dominant pattern in the tree structure, and under this pattern, diverse individuals were acquired.
Many kinds of components, materials and building systems are turning according to the changes of building systems by several reasons. However, the changes of ordinary components are rarely recorded in detail. As fundamental data for development of building systems, it is important to record the changes of components and materials. In this study, we grasped the outline of development of integrated ceiling. The appearance of integrated ceiling in Japan is the same period as skyscraper. It was adopted in the Kasumigaseki building which is the fist skyscraper in Japan, and developed into adoption of the full-scale integrated ceiling in W. T. C. building.
In ROJI, people have to walk according to TOBIISHI, which are stepping stones creating the pathway. TOBIISHI have influences on both pedestrian movements and fixation behaviors. To illustrate the influence, the experiment was conducted such that subjects wearing an eye camera walked in the ROJI under two stages, before informing and after informing the specific way of walking on the TOBIISHI. Characteristics of subjects' fixation behaviors of the "after informed" stage were found. The characteristics show the possibility that subjects in the "after informed" stage saw artistic aspects of ROJI, which they did not in the "before informed" stage.
In design action, we can see remarkable conduct as a client and as a specialist. Such conduct is quite different from the other daily communication, and is characteristic in comparison between the client' and the specialist situated actions. Ethno-design-method can be found as the sequential construction of conversations, and has a close relation to the contents and results of housing environment design. This paper aims to describe the ethno-design-methods which are found in the relationship between "being the orderer" and "being the designer" in design action by analysis of conversations between the orderer and the designer. The ethno-design-methods as collaborative practice consist of (a) collecting and arranging information (b) interrupting except the end of utterance and (c) suggesting the idea like a question and evaluating the reply to the idea.
The purpose of this study is to obtain basic data for disaster prevention. We investigated the effects of snow on evacuation facilities and evacuation activities. The results of the field surveys showed that the steps leading to the outdoor evacuation sites could not be used due to the snow. The doors at the emergency exits could not be used either they opened outwards and were blocked by snow. Estimations of evacuation time under the conditions of snow on the ground showed that appropriate maintenance of the evacuation route is needed to ensure that an adequate walking speed can be maintained to the evacuation site. Snowfall regions must take their own countermeasures, such as establishing the different evacuation sites in summer and winter.
This study examines how the kinesthetic experience of walking a route affects the memory of places along the route. Each of thirty-one subjects was asked to walk three routes, which are differ in road configuration, and asked to memorize six places on each route. After this experience, the subject was asked to identify the places using three kinds of visual stimuli : a set of randomized snapshots of the scenes, CG animation of the road configurations, and a series of photos taken along the route. The result indicates that the memory of a place with the kinesthetic experience is recalled easier and is kept longer than the one without it.
The purpose of this study is to clarify structural changes of living sphere in rural regions in order to improve the living environment of broader living areas. Oguni Town was chosen for investigation. Questionnaire survey was made in the town, compared with the same investigation of 1978 and 1998. The living sphere of the residents was grasped from viewpoint of usual behavioral expanse such as shopping, commuting, attending schools and leisure. As the result, living sphere has tendency to extend especially under the changes of commerce and traffic system as well as motorization and part-time farming in these twenty years. Discussions should be focussed on the traffic disabled in depopulated rural areas.
In order to continuous development of a community, it is important to bring up "Community Successors" towards the future. The purpose of this study is to find the method of that with analyzing the relation between generations in the management and succession ways of community events. As the method of bringing up community successors, the following is needed. 1) The role assignment by which the youth can also play an active part 2) The succession and its check of the skills and roles to the youth 3) Practical use of functions of public halls and cooperation with educational facilities
Since 1882 foundation, one of the biggest university students street has been formed in the neighborhoods of Nishi-Waseda campus of Waseda university. But the relationship between campus and its neighborhoods has vveakend nowadays. In the meantime, Waseda University Co-op has accomplished the development steadily since 1951 establishment. However, it has been driven into the situation which must consider the way of survival in the future also. Under the situation like this, it is worthwhile to find the methods of the vitalization of the university town from the viewpoint of the university co-op and the university neighborhoods stores. In this study, it is clarified that the critical consciousness of the university neighborhoods storekeepers for the university co-op originates from the recognition unlike present state of the university co-op. And then, the future assignments of the university town are clarified.
Land use change in built-up areas is often observed after demolishing of buildings. Life time of buildings is therefore one of the most important subjects which should be considered in land use transition models. In this paper, we propose a model to analyse environmental factors that affect life time of buildings. As numerical examples, the proposed model is applied to actual data of life time of building, and examine a variety of factors causing of demolishing. The results show that life time of buildings deeply depends on their structure, functions and the land use zoning in which they are located. Subsistence probability functions estimated by the model can be combined into the existing land use models.
This study aims to make clear the successive change condition of joint management of the common space by the residents at detached housing areas. The objective households are classified by the presence of dependents as the children or the aged into 6 lifestages, and their housewife's acts and the consciousness are analyzed The results are as follows : 1) The housewives of the 1st and 2nd lifestage of the households which foster their children participate in management well,but feel it a burden. 2) The power of the community to manage the common space is falling with the lapse of time as for the resident's spontaneous acts as cleaning and weeding. 3) As for the common management, it differs between the homeovvners association and the small mamagement group by ownership unit, the latter system is giving way with the lapse of time.
This thesis examines Dutch planning system in terms of land use regulation based on the local land use plan ("bestemmingsplan"). The plan covers most of the area of a local government and regulates the land use very precisely. But there are various kinds of exemptions, and, as a result, the regulation is rather flexible. The local land use plan is the only plan that is binding to public, and it is drafted and decided by a local government. But there are various opportunities through which the national government and provincial governments can intervene in the planning at the local level.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness and role of urban planning agreements in local cities and investigate the method of their partnership community planning. The conclusions are : 1. Prompted by the public enterprise to renew urban area, the agreements aimed at designing townscapes in accordance with them. 2. The agreements fill the role of a facilitator to establish a tri-lateral partnership between residents, experts and local authorities, and promote various community-building projects. 3. To hold conference chaired by experts with the assistance photos, perspectives and models could be a method of partnership community planning.
Clarifying the block formation and transformation of townhouses in Galle Fort, this paper discusses typology of townhouses and block formation. One of the points is the influence and modification of Dutch colonial city planning and Dutch architecture in Sri Lanka. Galle is one of the well preserved Dutch colonial towns in Sri Lanka. Galle, Fort was registered as UNESCO World Heritage in 1988. The research project of this paper is based on launched under the title Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities, the major target of which are the Dutch colonial cities. To compare the colonial cities of all over the world in terms of space formation is ambitious objective of the project. The Dutch is well known as a creator of prototype of townhouse in high densed urban area. One of major focuses of this paper is what and how the Dutch designed the townhouse in Sri Lanka. The paper is composed of clarifications of the process of establishment and development of Galle Fort and considerations on block formation and typology of townhouses. Analyzing the block formation and transformation of the house plans, this paper gives the typical divisional process of townhouses as a model.
This study clarifies the actual conditions of adventure playgrounds and the role of play-leaders through a questionnaire to the management groups of adventure playgrounds. The results are as follows ; 1) Most adventure playgrounds with professional play-leaders are permanent. 2) Flat playgrounds, trees, water and storages are important factors for adventure playgrounds. 3) Wasted woods, craft tools, mud play tools, water play tools and rope are provided while adventure playgrounds are opened, so children can experience multiple play. 4) The popular play at adventure playgrounds uses water, rope, wasted woods and fires. 5) The management groups of adventure playgrounds highly evaluate originative play offered by play-leaders, and many management groups need skilled play-leaders for their activities.
The Companies' headquarter locations are selected by weighting financial merits and the work efficiency merits. Financial merits and the work efficiency merits are trade off situation ; thus the companies make their relocation decision based on their strategies. Same strategies can be observed in the 4 Major Office Centers in Tokyo. The relocation objectives showed characteristics of the each office center. The Office centers can be positioned in the matrix of financial merit and work efficiency merit.
This research deals with the economical advantage and the capital energy quantity of detached residential houses, which permit resources circulation for a better sustainable society. First, we se,t up a model of renewal cost, which we had obtained through trial of its model house, and calculated the life cycle cost for 180 years using the present value method. Second, using the life cycle cost we calculated the capital energy quantity, which we compared with that of the conventional houses. The result of this study has convinced us that the resource circulation house is to disadvantage at an initial stage but prove to be advantageous for the life cycle term.
To clarify changes in housing expenses in household budgets after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, and evaluate policies concerning housing expenses enacted in the recovery process from the quake, We conducted 4 investigations during the recovery process (those living in temporary housing, in public housing for recovery from the quake, in their own houses rebuilt after the quake, and in collective houses), concerning family budgets, housing conditions, and management of expenses for housing after the quake in households that suffered damage from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995. Results are followings. 1. The extents of damage from the quake and recovery among earthquake victims were clarified separately for those wishing to rent houses and those wishing to own houses. 2. The lifestyle of the victims and their ability to adapt to the quake-related emergency were evaluated. 3. Problems with policies related to housing expenses revealed by this study and persisting to data were discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the formation and the development process of the function of the Ogakumon-jo in the imperial palace. In this study, I tried to indicate the formation in the period of emperor Gohanazono and the importance as a private space for the reading rites. A summary will be given as follows : 1. The Ogakumon-jo as a private space for the reading rites was formed at the Oeido-Dairi in the period of emperor Gohanazono. 2. After the Onin Civil War, the Ogakumon-jo was used as a space for the various studies and exercises. 3. The Ogakumon-jo came into use as one of the space for the private reception from the second half of the 15th century. 4. A size of the room where was used for the Ogakumon-jo was unchangeable from the period of emperor Gohanazono till the period of emperor Gokasiwabara.
This study aims to clarify the architectural regulations for buildings of temple and shrine at the Higo Clan in the late Edo period. This paper clarified following facts. 1. As the objects of the examination at the Higo Clan in Bunsei era, all of the temples and shrines were taken up. 2. The purpose of this examination was to investigate the increased of total building area, and the illegal ones was removed. 3. It can be considered that, Span-Control was used as an essential rule in the examination in the Horeki and Kansei era.
Three independent houses are preserved at the Palace of Amenhotep III in Malqata, locating to the west bank of Thebes. In the rectangular plan, a square hall is located at the center of each house with an entrance to the northeast side and a master's bedchamber is located at the southwest corner, similar to the standard Amarna-type houses. As it is evident that these houses were built before the Amarna period, they can be regarded as forerunners of the high-ranked houses in Amarna city. A study on these buildings would further contribute to the research on the origins of this house-type.
This study re-composes the collective architectural criticisms of Jeffrey Kipnis, who sees deconstruction neither as a new formal vocabulary nor "the re-value of all things" but force that re-formulate the relationship between the discourse and design in architecture. The issue of "undecidability" is proliferated from re-composing the very first critical essay of Kipnis. From this issue of "undecidability", this study, by using metaphors appear in the essays of Kipnis such as "chora" and "the separatrix", explores further towards the possibility of articulating "boundary as a decision making frame" which is the condition of recognizing object. At last, one last metaphor, "the fetish," as a mechanism of boundary articulation is unfolded. Throughout the dis-couse of this study, two main issues are proliferated. First, the relationship between the discourse and design in architecture is re-formulated. Second, the relationship between architecture and the notion of boundary is suspended.
The differences of spatial images between male and female were pointed out in the investigation of sand-play-constructions by about 300 Japanese ranging from kindergarten to university. So far we concluded that the basic spatial characteristics of two sexes were based on the innate nature in human. If this conclusion is true, it must appear the same basic characteristics in the sand-play-constructions by male and female of any country. To verify this problem, the experiments on 49 foreign students from 22 countries were done. In this paper, we discuss on the female spatial characteristics common to the human race.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the "Jofu" system of Mito-han, which means settlement in Edo. The main contents of this paper are as follows. a) From the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, lord usually lived in the Edo estate, and then, in the eighteenth century, vassals of Mito-han began to immigrate to Edo. At first, immigration was encouraged by lord. b) However, the advance of immigration was too rapid to be controlled, and the system of the castle city and the Edo estate had to be transformed critically.