Application of the boundary element method, to the floor impact sound was studied. In this paper (Part 1), the accuracy of the numerical integration was investigated for the influence coefficients of non-dimensional elements. In the model for analysis, we assumed one boundary element to excite a sound field with piston-vibration and the others to be rigid. The accuracy of the numerical method was verified by experimentalresults of a full-scale model and a loud-speaker sound source.
The distributions of light incident upon the windows of classrooms and offices were measured by a spatial illuminance meter designed by the authors. An experiment was also carried out to evaluate the modelling of human face at the window which simulated the typical pattern of vertical illuminance distribution. The relation between the vertical illuminance ratio and the subjective scale value is systematically separated by the window size and luminance, and is rather different with that proposed by Tabuchi. The relation between the semi-cylindrical illuminance ratio and the subjective scale value is separated mainly by the window luminance, and the ratio may be an index suitable for the modelling at a window.
In order to obtain fundamental information on thermal performance of a semi-underground room with areaway, long-term measurement for a twin-type test house on the campus of Tohoku University was made under the situation without auxiliary heating during 18 months from Dec., 1990 to May, 1992. This paper reports the measurement results and discusses thermal effect of the area wayby comparison with results conducted from previous measurement for the test house without the areaway. Results of computersimulations using a two-dimensional finite element program are also discussed. Main findings obtained by the measurement and the simulations are summarized as follows: 1) From viewpoints of stability of room air temperature and energy conservation for heating and cooling, the thermal performance of a semi-underground room with south-facing large window and areaway is not so regardful because of greater heat gain and loss through it. 2) However, if the areaway is covered with glass during heating season, it is estimated that the performance becomes better.
There are many sources of odors which are main causes of the deterioration of the odor environment in kitchen.They are cooking odors emitted at cooking, seasoning odors emitted from some special kind of spices both used incooking and just in store, and moreover the most offensive odor-garbage odor. We studied how the residents felt about the odor emitted in the kitchen through a self administered questionnaire,and the way how to expel these bad odors. The evaluation gaps of these odors under each category of ages were studied and also the gaps between evaluation values of questionneire survey and those obtained from sensory test are discussed.
The first purpose of this paper is to verify a new method of the post-occupancy evaluation in an office by field survey. The second purpose is to find the effects of building moving and a time lapsed on occupants' evaluation of their working environment. The environmental variables(thermal, sound, light, air quality, color and space conditions) were measured and the questionnaire with 39 questions was conducted on the occupants at the same time. The office occupants' evaluated that the new office environment was better than the previous one at building moving, but there wasn't a significant difference between the previous and new buildings in the factory occupants evaluation. The effect of the time lapsed was found in the evaluation of spaciousness, color coordination, neatness etc.. These occupants' evaluations fairly coincided with physical environmental conditions. Consequently, the effect of working environment on the occupants evaluation can be found by this study's method.
A physiopsychological evaluation of high-rise elevator transportation effects on humans,especially those suffering from Eustachian tube obstruction and weak tympanic membranes.We determined that the number of people suffering from Eustachian tube obstruction was greater than previously expected. The leaning direction of tympanic membrane may cause increased ear pressure when riding down. Eustachian tube obstruction disturbs tympanic pressure adjustment, causes low baroreception and dizziness leaving a bad impression of the elevator. Electro-physiological measurements show that elevator transportation stimulates and tenses the subjects, especially when going down and duringperiods of rapid transport. Elevator interior also affects the subjects feelings.
District cooling by water source heat pump system is more effectual than by air source one, and also heat release to the air in utilizing area disappears. But the other hand, it's feared to decrease "cool island" effect of river that the river water temperature changes. In this study, at first, difference of artificial exhaust heat by cooling between cooling systems was discussed and exhaust air conditions through cooling tower or air to air heatexchanger were discussed. At last, thermal effects on atmosphere caused by district cooling utilizing river water at Tokyo area were estimated.
This study aims to make clear the distinctive feature of living in dwelling at the old age period. In order to that, we are paying attention to the base in dwelling, where the aged are able to have basic behaviors comfortably. Since today the dwelling life of the aged is different in rural areas and in urban, we researched in Mie town as rural area and in Oita city as urban. As the result, almost of the aged recognized to need and secure the base in dwelling. As in the rural area about 80% of the aged are fanners yet, spending hours in the house of the rural aged are not longer than the urban aged. Elderlies with the base are not so many in the rural area. According to conditions that the aged is doing main behaviors in rooms spending for long hours, we judged where the base formed. The number of the formed base is one or two, and three is few. In case of public rooms with the base is mainly living room and partially dinning room, and private rooms with the base is mainly bed room and partially room for the hobby. The single position is formed in public room generally, and the double positions in public room and private room. In rural areas the single position type holds the first place. Because in rural areas is close between family relation. In urban areas the single position hold as same ratio as the double position.
The purpose of this paper is to examine a developmental process concerning living room of a detached house in HOKKAIDO, and to make dear a principle of the developmental process for recent 30 years. This paper discusses the following problems; 1. A developmental process concerning a size and a form of a living room, 2. A principle of the developmental process concerning the spaces-adaptability and orderliness.
Japanese houses are surrounded by an open space. In the traditional house, this space used to be wide, with a very important role in the performance of the daily life and its thermal environment which is reflected in the architecture of the house that creates a soft spatial relation; Indoors-outdoors called Ambit space. Even though the terrain area of the houses has become reduced nowadays, detached houses are still built like the traditional house. The surrounding open space has become a "Narrow Space" between neighbouring houses. This research analysed the Ambit space in an old farm house in Fukuoka; through 3-dimensions; i) space by observation survey, ii) thermal environment by measurement, iii) human living life by observation survey in order to interpret Ambit as an environmental design concept, for the spatial reconstruction of the "Narrow Space" between neighbouring buildings in detached houses.
The advanced planning philosophy of British school has exerted great influences on Japanese school building design. This article reports in detail the prevailing circumstances of British primaryschool planning and design and provides useful comparison with the Japanese 'open-planned' schools which have been increasing innumbers recently. This article follows up a previous report,containing an analysis of the learning activities, the learning groups, and the physical disposition of learning space and corners.
This report is composed of the following. (1) The measurements of overhead clearance formed between a walker's vertex and the soffit of the lintel. (2) Two cases for walking conditions are as follows. I) One of the cases is that walkers do not care about the height of lintels for their natural walking, ii) The other case is that the height of lintels is the same as each walker's static statures. (3) The comparison of static and dynamic body dimensions is looked at for the characteristics of overhead clearance.
For the planning of urban greening it's useful to clarify the relationship between the green coverage areas and the total site area at large scale facilities in the city, and also between the length of roadside green and the length of roadside of various facilities. On the study of urban greening we inquired into site area, green coverage area, length of roadside green with many other factors related to the greening of facilities, at 546 sites in Kumamoto city. With this data, the ratio of green coverage and the ratio of green length at roadside, compared with each type and size of the large scale facilities, are analyzed and interpreted.
With the results of 31 applications of the "Fuseau" regulations [building height control system of POS. (Land Occupation Plan)] in Paris, especially 'View-point' and 'Protection line' of viewing object, the controling systems of the townscape were analysed in the following respects;With four 'View-point' settlement types and four types of 'Protection Line', five abstracted regulation types were classified. In each of these cases, the selection of View-point and its type, and the type, place and heights of Protection lines were determined according to townscape characteristics. Regulation of "chinning curve" on hilly places, and the ZAC regulation are control systems also refered to.
This study aims to analyze the path choice procedure of automobile driver. First,a path that is legible for drivers to choose is made into a model as a legible path. Then,the legible path on Tokyo's road network is studied. Second,the automobiles' actual paths are surveyed by asking the drivers. In this paper,the study's background,intention and object is mentioned, in addition to the legible path's modeling method. Also,three factors of path choice are established. The features of these three kinds of legible path are analyzed,then compared with Tokyo's original road network Thus efficiency of the model is considered.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the relation between architecture and Shinto-ceremonies in the Hinokuma-Kunikakasu-jingu main shrine, according to an old manuscript written in 1399,the "Hinokumagu-Nenju-Shinjiki". But with respect to many ceremonies,this manuscript does not mention the place and the movement of Shinto-priests,and so one can not understand the definite significance of some ceremonies.For the reasons stated above, it is difficult to suppose the correct conclusion. Therefore,at the end of this paper,a hypothesis about the axis of shrine is postulated.
A Japanese architect Uheiji Nagano stated a characteristic theory on the architectural style infuture Japan at the debates held in 1910. This Nagano's theory is generally called a theory of 'pure Western style', 'copying Western style', or 'Europeanism', but, such a calling does not necessarily convey the true meaning of it. The present paper shows that Nagano's theory was really an one which advocated a world common style of architecture, by analyzing the debates in detail and presuming article titled "A World-Style in Architecture" appeared in "The Builder" in 1907 was a source of Nagano's theory. Besides Nagano, there were some people who advocated such a world common style in Japan at the end of Meiji era.
This paper is the first part of the thesis on the forms of Later Hinayana Buddhist caves in India. Caves at Dhamnar are the representative group of those caves in Western Malwa region. Each plan of the principal caves of this group is unique. But two combinations of Caves IX, VII, VI and Caves XII, XI, X resemble each other. And furthermore, each combination contains a caityagrha, an assembly hall and several residential cells, which are common elements composing a general Buddhist temple complex. We may, therefore, recognize the set of these elements as the basic arrangement in this group.
The organization of the public construction and the authorized carpenters in Akita Ban have been studied. During the period from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of 18th century, the organizing system for the public construction was changed. The way to appoint the master carpenters was changed at that time following that the rank of the authorized carpenters would be risen based on their exploits not to succeed to the parents. The system so called Ohgoya department for the public construction in Akita Han, which continued to the end of Edo period, was completed at that time.