Since museum law established in 1951, many museums has been established as a central facility of social education policy in many local governments. The public museum regularly reviews the exhibition policy and maintenance the facility trying to improve the public services, but more than it is influenced by changes in the national museum policies and social situation. Recently, something difficult to maintain the current number of museums has arisen due to the declining population, deteriorating fiscal conditions, etc. Some of the public museums are being rebuilt. In this paper, by analyzing the maintenance process for the public museums in Japan based on the information of the "enkaku" meaning history, we clarify the history of the improvement of the museum in Japan and provide effective knowledge on the maintenance of the museum in the future.
Enkaku is one of the information that is open to the public on the official museum's website, and the history of maintenance is stated. In this research, we will consider based on the maintenance information written in the enkaku. First, we extracted contents written about maintenance. Next, we drew chronological tables based on the extracted information, and this is analyzed. In Chapter3, we will analyze the facility maintenance and in Chapter 4 we will analyze the name change. In chapter 5 we try to classify museum maintenance processes from the results of chapters 3 and 4.
We found the following contents. 1) In the 1970s there was a construction rush in the national and prefectural museums, after the period of high economic growth and bubble years, the number of museum established is decreasing now. 2) Maintenance contents of facilities could be divided mainly into rebuilding and relocation, extension and renovation, establish an annex. 3) Utilizing existing facilities is a well-established maintenance method, some of which preserve historical buildings, and others that effectively utilize idle facilities in recent years. 4) There are three major types of museum's name(Type.AM, Type.AAM, Type.ADM). Before the 1960s, there were many Type. AM, and gradually the number of Type.ADM increased since the 1970s. 5) We found four patterns of name change and these were reflected by changes in the museum's management policy. 6) From the analysis results of chapters 3 and 4, we grasped the type of maintenance process of eleven patterns. These patterns and the age of establishment are related. Many old museums have been often relocated and rebuilt, and more the name of Type.AM. Meanwhile, in recent years there has been a tendency that large maintenance is not done and the name of Type.ADM is large.
Thus, this research clarified part of the maintenance process of the public museums in Japan from the relationship between facility development and name change. So in the modern era when the population declines, it is necessary to consider whether the current number of museums is appropriate for each prefecture or in areas larger than the prefecture, and in some cases it is necessary to consider contraction and consolidation.
In this paper, for the afterschool childcare facility with the space composition of three sphere type that has the usable area of 60square meters, the influence on deployment of the staff's preparation and pupil's act is explained by the difference in the group scale of an event named "local cram school" during the summer vacation. About the pupils group scale and space conditions, in case of the number of pupils is 20 or less persons, the cram school programs of music, talk and handicraft are carried out smoothly. The preparation for the next program is held in another room during a program is in advance. At the same time, the pupils escape place is also secured. In the case of about 25 pupils, the cram school programs of music, talk and light handicraft are carried out in one playroom. On the other hand, two rooms are used in both heavy handicraft and physical exercise cram school. Since the preparation and settlement can be held in precedence, the usage that suited two-room type space composition is possible. However, in case that the number of pupils exceeds 25 persons, the number of programs are reduced only to study, cram school and lunch and staffs prepare desks for study before pupils visit to the facility, and change the place for lunch into playroom. By this change, the emphasis is put on the reducing of overlapping of pupils act and staff'swork in the same space. Since the cram school that carries out concurrent use of two room increases, duplication of act arises at the time of program conversion. Therefore, the device that reduces confusion by the staff's division of roles is held. On the whole, the usage that cannot harness the feature of two-room and 3 sphere type space composition that can precede preparation and settlement is increasing. Therefore, it is judged that un-suiting has arisen on group scale and space conditions. In the case of facility with usable area of about 60square meters, the proper capacity of various cram schools held in holiday childcare is judged to be about 20~25 persons.
Public houses of wooden construction in Japan more vary in specification and construction method compared with those of the other structural type. Therefore many of the local governments, particularly small governments which are in serious financial condition and whose technical officials are limited, usually have some difficulty with selecting proper construction methods for refurbishing. It is necessary to understand what kind of refurbishing projects are implemented for wooden public houses and develop the findings into proper approaches for making a long-life refurbishment plan according to not only deterioration states but also kinds of specifications and building construction method. This paper focuses on external wall refurbishments as one of representative large-scale refurbishment, and aims to clarify what construction methods for refurbishing external walls of wooden public houses were adopted by the local governments. Based on the questionnaire survey, the authors show overall situation of managing public houses from the aspect of accounting situation, documents on repair and refurbishment history and performances of various refurbishment projects. With respect to the external wall refurbishment of wooden houses, they categorized the construction methods into three types: coating, replacing and covering, and analyzed how each type is likely to be adopted in terms of region and specification of external walls. Overall, performance rate of coating method tends to be higher in western Japan, and that of replacing or covering method tends to be higher in northern Japan like Hokkaido and Tohoku region. And covering was founded to be more performed than replacing, and metal or fiber reinforced cement sidings are likely to be adopted for covering existing wall of not only dry type wall (walls covered with siding, clapboard) but also wet type wall (walls of mortar, plaster). The authors explored case of the 13 projects of external wall refurbishment by making interviews with the officials of the nine local governments and examined the records and documents relevant to planning for each project. They understand how each project was performed from planning projects to implementing construction works and describe the characteristics and problems of each type of refurbishing methods from the aspect of physical conditions of existing walls, cost composition, ancillary work and budgetary measures. The findings imply a coating method (mainly application of wooden protective paint or sprayed-type coating materials) is likely to be adopted when the deterioration state of external wall is not serious. On the other hand, when it is serious, covering, which leaves existing wall unrepair and covers with complete new brandering and sidings, is likely to be adopted rather than replacing for some merits such as lighter burden on occupants and higher applicability to both dry type and type wall. However, there are some problems in covering including remaining of deterioration risk and highly individual design for waterproof and moisture emission. were found to increase construction cost by hundreds of thousand yen per unit, it could make long-term overall cost for management reduced. Refurbishing projects with ancillary work like replacing balconies and roof refurbishment can lead a sharp increase in overall project costs. It is possible that the number of feasible buildings for refurbishment projects is unavoidably reduced depending on budgetary system of local governments. It is necessary to strategically consider construction methods for refurbishment ensuring leveling-off of project cost as well as reducing the long-term management cost.
This study seeks to contribute to the design of the environment which will support students' activities in PBL (Project Based Learning or Problem Based Learning). In the curriculum of university education, PBL is increasingly important. And learning of a new style requires an environment suitable for it. In this paper, we aim at verifying the interaction between ICT tools for information sharing and furniture layout, focusing on group work which occupies an important position in PBL. We report on 2 experiments. The experiment method and the analysis method were common in both experiments, but furniture layout was different in both experiments. The experiment method: The experiment participants were one group of 4 people. And they performed group work using the tablet devices. To the tablet device prepared for each participants, an application simulating a white board was installed. The application enabled every participants to write simultaneously on the simulated white board. On the tablet device at hand, they could display the entire white board or enlarge and display a part of it. The 2 experimental groups were compared. On one group, the entire white board, which was the same on the tablet device, was always displayed on the wide display device (46 inch) for sharing ideas. On the other group, nothing was displayed on the display device. The analysis method: The data obtained from the experiments were analyzed using the Brunner-Munzel test and Bayesian inference. They were evaluated by p-value, effect size and posterior distribution. Layout: At Experiment-A, 2 members were seated side by side on each side across the table, and the display device was set on one end where the members were not seated. The height of the display was set as the height that the member could see without looking up or looking down (Fig. 1). At Experiment-B, the display device was arranged so that it could be seen when everyone faced the front, and 4 experiment participants sat on the table with chairs (Fig. 6) Conclusion: The following findings are obtained from the 2 experiments conducted this time. 1) Display device with inappropriate arrangement not only doesn't function as an information sharing tool, but also creates a negative effect of lowering the evaluation of information browsability compared with the case of not using a display 2) The arrangement of the information sharing display which is a tool for acquiring information also affects the ease of use of the tablet device which is a tool for information transmission 3) It is possible to induce the act of directing the line of sight to other members by arranging the display From the above, it is confirmed that to realize the learning environment introducing the ICT targeted at PBL, it is necessary to consider the learning environment that takes the interdependence of space and tools.
The Nagoya University Daikou Campus is originated from the Daikou plant of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the former aircraft related war plant and the building which was used in those days is left at the campus now. The Daikou plant was the plant that took an important and central role in the development of fighter planes including Zero fighter plane, and these technological accumulations have been applied and developed in later aerospace industry, etc., and it has contributed to the rapid economic growth against the background of post-war technological superiority. In this report, I used literature documents related to Jiro Horikoshi (known for design and development of Zero fighter plane) and Junji Fukao (known for engine development), I clarified the characteristics and significance of the Daikou plant and the former main building by studying from the planned and historic process. As a result, (1) From the "Rocket Research Meeting" documents, it became clear that it was estimated and confirmed that Jiro Horikoshi had a connection with the Daikou plant and the former main building, and that building has a significance from the aircraft industry history aspects. (2) As a background, it was mentioned that Daiko plant has played a role as an important base for aircraft development and manufacturing along with the Oye plant, under the war situation. Also, from the documents of Junji Fukao, etc. (3) The high probability that the former main building is the building where the design room is located, (4)Participants of the rocket research group were stakeholders in the design department located in this design room, It was led to the estimation of (1) that it was confirmed that intimate exchanges with the design staff of the Daikou plant to which Jiro Horikoshi belonged. (5)In addition, it became clear that the Daikou plant had incorporated an advanced architectural philosophy that overturned the general plant concept at the time, based on overseas visits by Junji Fukao, and its characteristics of the former main building are contributed to estimation of (1). The reason for that is the same as the background of held the previous Rocket Research Meeting, with the expansion and deterioration of the war situation at the time, it became clear that the idea of getting out of position as a technologically backward country was reflected by improving technical capabilities with the trends of Western countries kept in mind and preparing a rational and efficient environment.
It is estimated that the population of Tokyo will be aging rapidly in the near future. In aging society, the concentration of urban functions around stations is required, especially in Tokyo Metropolis where a network of railroads has been spread. On the other hand, Tokyo has witnessed population grown in the era of urban core revival. So it is inferred that population expand into the districts which are far from station. This paper aims to clarify the living environments of the population-increasing districts out of station catchment area in Tokyo Metropolis. The results are the following : 1) The relation between population movement and distance from station in recent years. In Tokyo Metropolis, the population is increasing continuously since 2000 due to under the era of urban core revival. Analyze by distance from station, there are many districts where population had increased for three successive periods since 2000 (Study districts), in spite of the fact that the station is more than 1 km away. This trend goes against the concentration of urban functions around stations. 2) The change of residential structure caused by increase in population in districts out of station catchment area. In general, a lot of middle-aged (34-50) parenting families live in study districts. The population structure wasn’t balanced in 2000, for example, mature-aged (50-64) families or young (20-34) single-person households was the main household type in some study districts. However, the alternation of generation and the mixture of family types are happening in many study districts because middle-aged families are flowing in. Households living in owned houses are increasing and it seems that people are coming to study districts to get places of residence for a long time in the era of urban core revival. 3) The living environments classified according to change of residential structure in districts out of station catchment area. Land prices and population densities are low in study districts because stations are far away from there. Although, there aren't much difference in indices such as land prices and population densities between study districts and other districts out of station catchment area in the same city, the lands like agricultural lands, industrial lands or unused lands which have room for development in these districts are larger than other districts. By developing these lands for housing, population is growing. Regarding regional amenities received by residents, many study districts are close to arterial roads and elementary schools, but the bus usability is not good, and the commercial environments of these districts are inferior to that of other districts out of station catchment area in the same city.
In central area of Hamamatsu City, lots of planned alleys called ‘Sewari Tsuro’, which are opened backside of each site in small blocks, are remained today. These kinds of planned alleys are very strange and rare in Japan, whilst we have only the other case in ‘Rikai-sen’ of Iida City. Of course, the existence of ‘Sewari Tsuro’ in Hamamatsu City has been unknown sufficiently so far. Therefore, this study clarifies actual situation of and land use long ‘Sewari Tsuro’ empirically by interviews to municipality officer, planning documents research including past maps, field survey, and so on. It is difficult to find out the origin of ‘Sewari Tsuro’ before WWII because there are only boundary lines between sites or narrow waterway partially. Thus, we can consider that ‘Sewari Tsuro’ was completely and newly implemented by ‘Post-War Reconstruction Land Readjustment’ as the purpose for service road approaching each site from backside. Today from the result of counting ’sections included in same small block’ as one, there are 53 ‘Sewari Tsuro’s. 81.1% of all are ‘1.8～2.7m’ wide, 67.9% are ‘50～100’m long, and 88.7% are either ‘I’ shape or ‘L’ shape. On the other, most of ‘Sewari Tsuro’ are legitimated as Article 42 Section1 road of Building Standard Law, whilst they are narrow alleys. Characteristics of ‘Sewari Tsuro’ including roadside land use and building condition are classified into eight types as follows, which are the result of multi variable analysis (principal component～cluster analysis), using 10 items on attributes of physical, roadside buildings and sites, land use and approaches to each site. 1. ‘Sewari Tsuro’ approached type of mixed uses of residential and commercial, 2. Backside approached type of commercial and business uses, 3. Front approached type of commercial and business uses, 4. ‘Sewari Tsuro’ approached type with many roadside buildings, 5. ‘Sewari Tsuro’ approached type of residential uses, 6. Long ‘Sewari Tsuro’ type, 7. Specialized type for low-risedresidential uses, 8. ‘Sewari Tsuro’ few approached type with few roadside buildings. Distribution of each type to large blocks shows actual land use in central area accurately. Additionally, not only ‘Sewari Tsuro’ is functioned by connecting to usual roads but also generates complex and unique pedestrian environment by connecting to another ‘Sewari Tsuro’ mutually and forms exclusive pedestrian network. This study is for describing over all pictures and holistic characteristics of ‘Sewari Tsuro’ and there are to clarify historical origin in detail as historic study, to clarify the transition from original planning to today as urbanization process study, or to clarify utilizing situation or estimation by residents as improvement issues study as future research agenda.
This thesis intends to explore the rationale behind the adoption and abolition of Yokohama's local development exaction system (“LDE system”). LDE systems were independently and locally formulated by local governments in response to challenges they faced across Japan, and the city of Yokohama provides a leading example of a functional LDE system pursuant to which land developers were required to donate land for public use as a condition of their receiving development approval from the city government. In the mid-1960s, as Japan accelerated towards a period of high economic growth, the central government promoted the implementation of new housing developments by the private sector. These housing developments required unprecedented expenditure by local governments in order to build public infrastructure both inside and outside those development areas. At that time, Japan lacked strong national laws on the control of land use, and the city of Yokohama was uniquely vulnerable to the adverse consequences of unplanned housing developments caused by the huge influx of population from neighbouring Tokyo. In 1968 Ichio Asukata, the then socialist mayor, invited Akira Tamura, a young city planner, to the city administration to solve the town planning issues Yokohama was faced with. Japan's new Town Planning Act of 1968 did not contain provisions authorising the exaction of land. Therefore, Yokohama became the first big city to adopt an LDE system in 1968. Before its formal adoption, the city government had successfully reached an agreement with the Tokyu railway company about its duty to donate land to the public as a condition of its housing developments. Following this example, Tamura extended this concept of reaching agreements to exact public land donations across Yokohama. The terms of land-use exactions were recorded in bilateral agreements prior to development permission being granted. From its inception, the LDE system was used as an administrative guideline which ran the risk of legal challenge by affected developers. Although several lawsuits were filed, most verdicts were favourable towards local governments. However, as the economic situation deteriorated in the early 1990s, the Supreme Court issued verdicts finding in favour of housing developers. After Asukata's term in office, a succession of conservative mayors narrowed and reduced the obligations imposed under the LDE system and finally ended its use in 2004. Nevertheless, using the LDE system, the city government had acquired 307 hectares of public land by the end of the 1993 fiscal year, which was used to accommodate 150 public schools, accounting for 60% of all municipal schools opened between 1968 - 1993. The idea of development exactions persisted for nearly forty years, despite the central government issuing administrative orders to local governments instructing that they not make excessive demands of developers. Tamura wrote his doctoral thesis on this subject in 1981. Since then, no study assessing its aftermath and final abolition has occurred. This study is intended to present some idea of how local initiatives can be implemented independently by local governments in a highly constrained fiscal environment without any support from the central government.
This article considered the building of the Daisansidan-sireihonbu in Nagoya city and inspection of the damage caused by the Nobi earthquake, and I had examined the damaged situation by the photograph which existed. The Daisansidan-sireihonbu was established as Nagoya-tindai in 1873 and was renamed to the Daisansidan-sireihonbu in 1888. The building suffered damage for the Nobi earthquake, escaped the war of World War II, and existed until November, 1965. There were little information of this building itself, and the photographed points had been not pinpointed about the damaged photograph caused by the Nobi earthquake. It's following points to become clear. The brick made in Gifu prison was used for a building of the Daisansidan-sireihonbu, and J. Conder had ever inspected this brick. The building was the plane of the H type, and the roof truss center were the queen post truss, both sides were King post truss. The Daisansidan-sireihonbu suffered by the Nobi earthquake, and five kinds of damaged photographs exist. We can confirm that it fell down 4 brick walls of the end panels except for the north face of the east side according to these pictures. In addition, We were able to judge the damaged photograph indicating the building inside possessed in the Ogaki city public library where the photography point was not clear conventionally to have expected the second floor and roof truss from the first floor "Zyuikan-tyoba-syukan" room.
This paper is an attempt to clarify the structure of forms through an analysis of Alvar Aalto’s architecture. The analysis was
performed as follows. First, the architecture was decomposed into its elements. Then, these elements were classified into groups, and
the relationships between the groups were analyzed. Finally, variations in architecture were analyzed. Through the analyses of three
houses, this study found the opposing characteristics of the groups, such as Internationality and Locality, Openness and Closedness,
and these oppositions are reconciled by mediators. This “reconciliation of opposition by ambiguous mediator,” is the structure of forms,
as concluded in this paper.
1. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to clarify Hiroshi Ohe's “Ai(Ma)”. While making on many Noh theaters in the modern era, Hiroshi Ohe developed his own theory of architecture, with particular emphasis on Japanese traditional style, focusing and on its essence. Ohe's “Ai(Ma)” of his discourses has been continuously used from 1961 to 1985. Therefore, the character of the meaning and the position in his architectural thought have not been clarified. In this research, through analysis of Ohe's discourse, we offer an interpretation of Ohe's concept of “Ai(Ma)”.
2. Characteristics of “Ai(Ma)” First, in Chapter 2, three characteristics of “Ai(Ma)” are laid out; (1) temporal, (2) spatial, (3) ambiguous. Second, the role of “Ai(Ma)” as an interval sandwiched between two things, derived from his assertion that the concept of “Ai(Ma)” is reflected in the words of “Ma” and “Ma dori (floor plan)” in his architecture. Third, “Ai(Ma)” for Ohe is related to the importance of the invisible dimension as utilizing the concept of “inner problem” or “mind problem”.
3. “Ai(Ma)” related to architecture In Chapter 3, we focused on the description of concrete architectural “Ai(Ma)” that corresponded to “the question of how to express the problem of mind” as clarified in Chapter 2. “Ai(Ma)” in Noh drama has both temporal and spatial meanings, and it is hypostatized only after it includes both of them in actual architecture. In addition, Ohe concretely refers to elements that create “Ai(Ma)” as “structure” and “decoration”. The method that creates “Ai(Ma)” is “the liberation of expression goes both ways” by a combination of “structure” and “decorative material”. “Ai(Ma)” was shown to be a result that was led to this “mind problem”, to “how to put out as expression”. The “dimension of mind” and the “mind problem” cannot be instantiated in architecture without disciplined practice and repetition.
4. Position of “Ai(Ma)” in Hiroshi Ohe's architectural thought In Chapter 4, Ohe had a sense of crisis that modern architecture was losing essential characteristics and emphasizing exclusively its own internal modernist logic. Ohe's architectural thinking was guided by the necessity of discerning what was missing from modernist architecture; has ideal was to create his own modernist architecture that didn't suffer from this lack. This concept of “Ai(Ma)” was crucial to this project.
5. Conclusion Characteristics of Ohe's “Ai(Ma)” that is clarified through this paper are as follows. “Ai(Ma)” has three characteristics that (1) temporal, (2) spatial, (3) ambiguous. “Ai(Ma)” was shown to be a result that was led to this “mind problem”, to “how to put out as expression”. The “dimension of mind” and the “mind problem” cannot be instantiated in architecture without disciplined practice and repetition. Ohe's architectural thinking was guided by the necessity of discerning what was missing from modernist architecture; has ideal was to create his own modernist architecture that didn't suffer from this lack. “Ai(Ma)”is considered to be an essential thing indispensable for Ohe's architectural works.
This paper aims to clarify the conception of architecture shape on sketches by Kazuo Shinohara. These sketches were mainly drawn for his residential and non-residential works, and Shinohara made their selections to keep by himself. They show various shapes of architecture, most of which are different from the realized idea. Therefore, sketches are important materials to grasp Shinohara's conception of architecture shape. Firstly, we sorted the outline of Kazuo Shinohara drawing collection (Table 1 and 2). It contained not only sketches, but also original drawings, copy drawings and drawings for presentation. Secondly, we examined the sketches from following three aspects; contents of unit-figures which compose each sketches, number of unit-figures and the format of sheets (Fig. 1, 2 and 3, Table 3). Consequently, we found that the sketches of “House in Itoshima”, “House in Ashitaka” and “House in Hanayama No. 4” were either plan or section/elevation mostly and these all house's sites were large compared with other houses by Shinohara. On the other hand, the sketches of “House in Uehara” and “Uncompleted House Annex Project” contained both plan and section/elevation and their sites were small. Thirdly, we focused on sketches of 6 residential works having over 50 sheets. Each unit-figure of these sketches was considered whether it had a characteristic of realized idea or not, the former was categorized as Final Conception and the latter was Non-Final Conception. Various architecture shape of Non-Final conception can be recognized as representing Shinohara's perspective of creating architecture shape (Fig. 4 and 5). According to the relationship with figures and lines, Non-Final Conception was classified into 6 categories of scheme; Individual figure, Inclusion, Division, Notch, Overlap, Adjacency, Separation (Fig. 6). Inclusion and Division were categorized as Scheme of the Inner area. Notch, Overlap, Adjacency and Separation were categorized as Scheme of the Outline of the figure. Finally, the relationships of above 6 categories of Scheme in each of 6 residential works were analyzed (Fig. 7). We found Division in all of 6 examples. Inclusion was specific to “House under High-Voltage Lines” and “House on a Curved Road”, Notch was to “House in Uehara”, Adjacency was to “House in Hanayama No. 4”, Separation was to “House in Itoshima”. “House in Yokohama” was to what contains both Scheme of the Inner area and Scheme of the Outline of the figure. It didn't contain mostly Notch nor Separation and its Scheme consisted of a set of independent figures. These results suggest that Shinohara tried to make an individuality in 5 residential works of the 3rd style by using a characteristic scheme which was different from previous one. In the 4th style, Shinohara found possibility beyond the logic of modernism in juxtapositions of independent figures in contrast to the 3rd style.
Traditional houses in Western Afghanistan have domical vault roofs. Such houses are not limited to the Old City but are instead distributed throughout the municipal area of Herat. For this study, we used satellite images from 2017 to locate 11,754 houses with domical vault roofs within the municipal area of Herat and then calculated their density. Field surveys were conducted to investigate the sites with a higher density of such houses. The study identified seven high-density sites and classified them into three groups; 1) monumental, 2) pre-1960s old residential villages along canals and 3) post-1960s residential settlements at the urban fringe.
This paper presents the process that was used in market planning and the development of commercial districts in Okinawa in the prewar period. The process reconstructed the spatial configuration of major markets and clearly depicted the transformation process of commercial spaces in local cities in Okinawa prefecture. This paper used mainly historical materials derived from chronicles of local history and market research records. The conclusions of this paper are as follows.
1. Market transactions prescribed in Ryukyu society In 1879, the Meiji Government carried out the so-called Ryukyu annexation to abolish the Ryukyu domain. A market society was formed through the business style of brokers and the attraction of merchants. In market trading, the lower shizoku class wielded power. The collapse of Ohu was supposed to bring commercial freedom; however, it resulted in the reorganization of Ryukyu society. Among others, the old clothing market became a new market against this social backdrop. In other words, Naha’s market society internalized Ryukyu society.
2. Social stratification and commercial space Kiryu-syonin were merchants from other prefectures who crossed the Okinawa Islands from the 19th century to the early 20th century. They were the pioneers of street commerce, acquiring land to develop residential lots by modifying the existing residential or ocean landfill areas. The townscape of the streets in Naha were renewed, from stone-walled houses to commercial buildings. From the above, it can be seen that Ryukyu society did not form a permanent commercial space. However, the city of Naha formed a commercial area after the Meiji era. In the 1880–1890s, the urban remodeling of Naha city was rare. The city of Naha was formed from the cities of poor residents. Naha's market was based on urban residents and the surrounding people.
3. Establishment of the retail market facility In Naha, the city area was actively remodeled after the reform of the district in 1908. Among other events, the Great Fire Restoration arranged land affected by fire, while the Naha Port was renovated in the face of construction delays and a shrinking budget. The result was a retail market facility within the block that was closely tied to the urban structure. The Higashi town market plan was characterized by subdivided compartments based on different goods, and the main market building was constructed along the road with skylights on the roof top. However, the market development policy of Naha city failed because the market facilities couldn't be evaluated as a “public retail market” aimed at improving the pre-modern distribution system under the policy of the Ministry of the Interior.
4. Reconstruction of conventional markets The management of conventional markets occurred in Naha and Shuri during the Meiji period. However, local cities under the Okinawa prefecture established market management and facility improvements. The arrangement of existing markets on the road became a problem of relocation of traffic, for example, the relocation from open air markets at the beach to the remains of the village public office (Miyako, Ishigaki), the improvement of roadside markets by the local people (Shuri), and the construction of market facilities by the administration (Naha). The maintenance process of such market facilities meant spatial transformation, renewing the existing city, substituting land use, and rebuilding the street side market.
This study used a questionnaire to clarify skills and competencies recognized by leaders in community development as well as the
factors influencing the acquisition of such skills. Factor analyses were conducted to assess the leaders' mindsets, developmental
acceleration factors, leadership skills, and their ability to learn from experience. Using the latent variables extracted from results of
factor analyses, a developmental model of the leader in community development was analyzed using covariance structure analysis.
The research found that “a proactive stance to learn” influenced “leadership skills” such as “facilitation skills,” “analytical skills,” and
“creative skills” through the vehicle of “connections with other people.”