This study is to investigate and grasp how the generation who makes a new family is thinking about the family image and the living image with a background of the resident experience at the time of the infancy. The first propose of study is research about habitation experience, lifestyle and consciousness of houses that were chosen when architectural students were children. The second propose clarify the image of new homes and family lives in the near future. When architectural students were children, the houses kept privacy for children strongly, but homes have been adapted to match changes in society and life style according to the respondents more changes are desired when considering.
There are a lot of studies on 'Theatre' and 'Schools' as well. While, there were few studies on 'The spaces for school drama' in a school. In addition, there were very few studies not only on the high schools running courses and curricula for drama but also for it. Therefore, it is the objects of this study to offer the basic information for the planning, designing and reformation of the facilities for 'Educational spaces for drama' by investigation and research into schools, especially high schools which have the school drama. As the methodology of this research, the 11 high schools running the program of school drama are investigated in detail by interviews. Specially, this dissertation was focusedon the high schools, namely 'A' and 'B', which have the lessons of play as optional courses and verified the tasks of planning for 'the space of play education' based on the actual condition of utilization. The lessons in 'A' high schools have been performing mainly in 'the general classrooms'. When the space for actions was needed, the desks and chairs could not help being removed. For the exercise or performance, the hall in that school was used as the space for the lessons of play. At the case of 'B' high school, they should have to use various facilities and move a lot of equipments for lessons, because there were no facilities for play. As the results there are many problems, especially the lack of spaces for training and performance, and storages of drama equipments.
This research carries out a questionnaire survey about the actual use condition and the use consciousness of ostomates in the public toilet designed for all people of promote welfare town planning. As the result, through this research we confirm the problem that ostomates don't use the multi purpose toilet for universal design as we expect and don't think to use more preferentially than other toilets.
The aim of this report is to illustrate what contemporary Japanese architects think of city halls through the investigation of their published articles after the Second World War. Firstly, the content of each article was considered, and some descriptions about community were extracted from each theory. Then, they were abstracted into two different levels; the level of the domain of representation and the level of the subject. Secondly, the domain of representation was classified into 6 categories. Addition each relationship of those categories was analyzed. And meanings of subject were analyzed by applying the method created by Jiro Kawakita. Then 7 groups of meaning were found. Next those meanings were divided into two different types; UNIVERSALITY and LOCALITY. Thirdly, a relationship between the subject and the area of representation was analyzed. Consequently, the change of that relationship in terms of time was considered.
Many kinds of components, materials and building systems are changing according to the alteration of building systems by several reasons. However, the changes of ordinary components are rarely recorded in detail. In this study, we grasped the outline of development of staircase products in Japan. In the rapid economic growth term, various kinds of staircase products that are produced a lot and secure the stable quality began to be developed by the increase in the high-rise buildings and the houses. However, after the middle of 1970s, they came to be required the improvement of the quality for the rust or the walk sound, and the western style. In the Bubble term, the number of construction work increased. So, the constructor began to demand the easy construction method. After that, the low cost or the safety products have been developed, because of the depression and the aging society.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influences of children's space perception and fire safety knowledge on evacuation behavior in school-community complexes. The results are summarized as follows; 1) The ratio of routes away from the fire increase in proportion with the age of children. 2) More than 80% of the children do not understand whether to open or shut windows in a fire. 3) Having space perception influences the judgment of a correction to some extent. 4) Most children in a fire during recess tend to act in a group with their teachers.
This study clarified the effects generated by introduction of the innovated modular wheelchair on the activities and the behavioral patterns of the nursing home residents with deteriorated ADL. The methods utilized were a behavioral tracking survey, a questionnaire survey and observation by actigraph. The results were as follows: 1) Time of ambulation of the bedridden residents was promoted. 2) By increased time of ambulation time, the residents showed mode of counts of activities and increased number of activity counts. 3) Behavioral patterns of the residents also changed from "no ambulation per day type"to"one-time ambulation per day type".
We considered that residential setting in the facility and residents' free selection of staying place express residents' crucial needs for their place. A reclamation facility for mental defectives of GL type accommodating 50 people were taken as an object of our investigation. Firstly, we investigated the room-setting of individual's room and classified them into five rates according to the number of pieces of furniture and articles of the room. Thus the relation between the rate of room-setting and resident's attributes or aspects of daily life was analyzed. Secondly, we extended the knowledge about planning of public spaces in and out of the units according to our investigation into the settings and the observation of the state of staying there. The result shows; 1) The rate of room-setting depends on resident's gender, being autistic or not, and grade of mental retardation. 2) The public spaces in units are set according to the residents' attributes such as gender, being autistic or not, and grade of mental retardation. 3) Almost all residents at public space in units choose places to stay from which they can see staff. Therefore when planning a public space, consideration of where staff is to be located must be included. 4) At facilities with GL type, it is important to set some places where residents can stay as well as public spaces in units. 5) Especially, these places are necessary for residents who have no place without their own rooms.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the meaning of regional environment for children and youth from a viewpoint of relation to different generation's acquaintance. Investigation clarified the following things. The places where they meet different generation's acquaintances are classified into following five categories. The place (a) where they can visit at their ease, (b) which is near to their home, (c) which is their home, (d) where they must visit at fixed time, (e) where they visit after making a plan to visit. Many respondents answer that they visit these places not to meet different generation's acquaintances.
This study describes current Japanese demand for acute care in terms of the incidence of in-patients. The rates of patients have little influence on the total number of hospital beds, but do affect the number of beds used for elderly and long-term care patients. The number of discharged patients correlates to the population. We found that the demand for acute care can be forecast from the number of discharged patients. Using the number of patients discharged by national patient survey, we predict the number of in-patients in Japan that need acute care.
Various research studies about the life span of buildings have been carried out, since the life span of buildings is one of the basic concerns for land use forecast. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model that can stably estimate the value of probability that buildings will be demolished or will remain within the specific time interval. As an application of the model, we propose and examine a method that can estimate the average age of buildings within a district, using time series digital maps taken from densely built-up areas of Tokyo.
In making proposals for PFI project, we can see remarkable conduct as a specialist. Such conduct is quite different from the other design-communication, especially in housing environment design. And it is characteristic in their situated actions as "being the member." Ethno-design-method is inevitably working in such situated process practically. This paper aims to describe the ethno-design-methods which are found in their decision-making for programming, planning and designing facilities by participatory action research and analysis of conversations between members. Making proposals for PFI project develops through the collaborative practice by trial and error. The ethno-design-methods as collaborative practice were found as comprising (a) making agreeable responses to confirm explanation and intention, (b) interrupting except the end of utterance and (c) suggesting ideas or questions euphemistically.
This paper aims to clarify spatial formation and transformation of Japanese migrant fishing village of Guryongpo. Form of Guryongpo residential area is shaped by the form of coastal line. The basic road system is composed of Hon-machi dori (Main street) parallel to the coastal line and three perpendicular roads. According to these road patterns, plot of the lands in the block are formed into distinctive trapezoidal shape. Taking notice of direction of entrance and exit in Japanese style houses, They can be classified into Continuous room type, Engawa type (one side horizontal aisle), Dori-niwa type (one side vertical aisle), Inner corridor type and, Mixed type but the typical model are Engawa type and Inner corridor type. For the case of planning order, Dori-niwa type takes the form by Continuous room type plus Dori-niwa and corridor. Inner corridor type takes the form by Dori-niwa type plus Continuous room type, while Engawa type takes the form by Engawa type plus Inner corridor type. Transformation of house can be classified into two types, unification and separation of building. Unification of building can be seen in the houses directly facing the street. This kind of transformation can be seen in the combination of Dori-niwa type and Continuous room type, which the outcome is Inner corridor type. Separation of building can be seen in the house with front garden. In this type of transformation, "L" shaped roof of the house was separated into two parts, which then, each part of separated roof was altered to "L" shape again by extension. Front garden was also transformed to space for working or passageway known as "Madang".
This paper aims to clarify spatial formation and transformation of Japanese migrant fishing village the colonial period of Korea in Oenaro-do Island. The fishing village in Oenaro-do is shaped in the unique topographical structure, where river meets the sea at right angle. Consequently, the village was formed into "L" shape. The web of road is composed of three basic types of street, present coastal street, inner old coastal street parallel to the present one and perpendicular alley connecting these two roads together. According to these street pattern, plots of land in the block are formed into distinctive trapezoidal shape. Taking notice of spans in the width of building, it can be classified into one bay type, two bay type and, multiple bay type. Typical model are one bay type and two bay type. Generally, one bay type and two bay type have rectangular spatial configuration simply composed of shop, kitchen and residence respectively. Due to narrow frontage, transformation can be observed in the unification of building which can be classified into horizontal (depth) and vertical (width) unification. Horizontal unification is achieved by combination of two buildings in the row which use the same partition wall, while vertical unification is attained by combination of narrow width of two buildings in each rear wall.
This study aims to clarify the conditions of stocks and residents of the old and decaying public housing development that had developed by local government and public corporation within 1960-1970's by the case study of typical suburban city "Machida city". First, we show the development history of the series of public housing developments in Machida city and its position in Tokyo metropolitan area. Then we analyze 1;the condition and problems of the plan and space of old and decaying public housing development, 2;the compositions of household and age and its changes of the residents by analyzing the resident register. Lastly we study the measures of each public institution for old and decaying public housing.
This paper clarifies design technique and design thought of the first decision of City Planning Area in the case of 43 small and middle scale cities. The elements of area decision are population, planning population density and area division. They are related very closely each other. Area division is decided from administrative area, distance from the center of the city and zoning conception. This paper divided the methods of area decision into 6 types. Because each municipality had recognized that the decision of City Planning Area meant working area decision of City Planning Projects, they responded to government plans actively.
The purpose of this paper is to propose regulation of building shape considering the effect of the photovoltaic generation in the residential area including medium and high buildings, and reveal contribution of Shadow control for securing of photovoltaic power generation. For evaluation them, we calculate direct irradiation during a year and the peak demand period that considered a decrease by the shadow of a simple building. The results are as follows: First, it was clarified that the problem of azimuth that Shadow control was not able to secure the photovoltaic generation for a year in the direction of east and west. Second, the difference concerning the azimuth between Shadow control and securing the photovoltaic generation during the peak demand period is especially large. Third, the Shadow control is not useful by the tall building in the aspect of the photovoltaic generation amount securing.
The study is intended to research on the actual condition about Townscape formation policies and adminstration at the early stage of Townscape Policy in Korean Municipal Governments. To achieve this purpose, this paper uses questionnaire survey and interview for 16 managers of townscape in Korean Municipal Governments. Result of this study shows as follows. 1) Although decentralization has been made an attempt to Townscape Policy as a part of making new community, lack of recognition about townscape induces to urgently need to build systematic townscape policy. 2) Municipal Governments have tried to townscape control by establishing Urban Landscape Ordinance. Recently, they are making a new trial of townscape control by keeping contact with Landscape zone and District Unit Planning. 3) Because residents hardly take part in the townscape policy, Municipal Governments had to introduce actively "Ma-ul Mandulgi" as town community movement in order to direct participation of their residents.
This paper analyses of the method and all the details of applying the Readjustment of Arable Land Act through a report on the closing accounts. It was big changing time about the social system & landscape, by industrial development. It makes clear the method of the aid system to development community through the valance sheet of semi-administration financial system of arable land union. On a stone monument of 'Nishidai arable land union' was written and engraved on "all funds for business were covered the contribution by 'Nishidai inhabitants'. The main contribution was the dealing in the pond. By the filling up a pond, they could put it on sale and the result it was able to reduce the land owner's load. It makes sure to establish the bottom up power of residential independent activity. We can bring up the spirit of loving our community by independent activity and self responsibility.
In MACHIDUKURI organizations which ARCHITECTS & BUILDING ENGINEERS participate in, increase of and ability development of staff members are the most significant growth factors. And both of adohocracy and bureaucratic aspects are required for it as its organizational form. There are two patterns in development of MACHIDUKURI organization, and networking with the external environment and achievement in its activity stimulate the activity to become concrete. Furthermore, these networking and achievement increase the number of organizations it interchanges, and alter the quantity and the quality of its mission.
Keikamotsu is officially cargo service, but informally, it has been providing passenger service in Naha, Okinawa after World War Two. It is illegal for Keikamotsu to provide passenger service and although the number of vehicles has significantly decreased after the revision of law in 1985, Keikamotsu is still used today by the elderly and students as it is more convenient than buses and cheaper than taxies. This paper looks at the history, operation and usage features of Keikamotsu and examines the possibility of formally incorporating paratransit service into the local transportation system based on the experience of Keikamotsu. While conventional transportation service is in crisis in many regional small cities in Japan, this study aims to consider cost- and time-effective ways of improving local transportation system.
The paper proposes the methodology to analyze the components and elements of construction system, and to make clear the merit and demerit of each system. As an artificial system, construction is complicated and variable, and it is difficult to understand not to have the information of every aspect such as function, structure, process and organization of elements. So it is necessary to have a method to analyze whole of the system at once. "Architecture" is one of the ways to analyze artificial actions, and the general concept of "Architecture" is the composition of system that is based on the pattern of relationship between elements. Primary meaning of "Architecture" was building and construction, because they are composed of many complicated elements. Then, this logic has been advanced in many fields such as computer industry, automobile industry and so on. The main view point of "Architecture" is to understand system characteristic as modular type or integral type. This paper focuses on the elements of modular type, and analyzes the function of each element.
This report analyzed homeowners' attitudes toward rebuilding, in an effort to shed light on 1) characteristics of Japanese housing lifespan, and 2) the reasons for the shorter housing lifespan in Japan. Respondents of questionnaire were 842 Japanese and 299 American homeowners. The average age of houses torn down in Japan was about 21 years, and owners forecasted that their current house would last about 41 years. The average forecast given by American homeowners for their homes was 2.2 times longer. The three most common reasons for rebuilding are the same for both countries: wanting a house of original plan, wanting more floor space, and accommodating changes in the family. Wanting more floor space occurs 20 years earlier than wanting to redesign, but recently the latter is on an upward trend. Not being the first owner of a house is one cause of rebuilding in Japan
In this paper, we clarify how the supply-system and the planning of the official residence of the Department of the Army have changed from the Meiji era to the Showa prewar-days time. The result can be summarized as follows: 1. In the Department of the Army, the hierarchy to supply official residence was performed from the early stages of the Meiji era. But in the former half of the Meiji era, that was not necessarily persisted. 2. In the middle of the Meiji era or subsequent ones, the official residence was graded uniformly and the management method of clarifying correspondence with an official's grade and a official residence grade have been developed. 3. In 1920 the standard which will regulate the scale of the official residence according to a official's grade have come to be systematized. That has showed gradual hierarchy. 4. The plan of the official residence built in the later half of the Meiji era or subsequent ones also shows gradual hierarchy in the point of composition and interior.
Most Japanese vocational high schools having architecture course were established after 1900's. In Taisho and early Showa Era, some of these graduates of architecture course became low-ranking official architects in construction division of the Kanagawa Prefectural Government and some of them played substantial leaders' role. Especially just after the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, they had to work hard to cope with enormous demands to construct public buildings. But almost all these architects disappeared namelessly in the history. This thesis shows some of these architects' careers and works, focusing Matazo Naritomi and his subordinates.
The interior of the dome on the original form of Tokyo Station, which was finished with various decorations, was one of the most distinctive features in its design. Despite the fact, there exist a number of unknown facts on the dome design. For example, it has not been clarified yet how the relation between the design, technique, architect, or Kingo Tatsuno, craftsmen, and so on, worked together on the formation of the dome. This paper is to clarify the design of original Tokyo Station and the position of the building among the works by Tatsuno and other architects in those days.
A computer system to produce three dimensional topological layout patterns of detached dwelling is developed. 1. By the adoption of basic topological grid type, and on the basis of relationship between attribute of room units and the surroundings, the evaluation of planes can be made to obtain the valuable layout patterns. 2. By introducing definite layout condition, the flexibility of the system regarding various design conditions is improved. 3. According to the surroundings as well as the relationship between each plane in vertical direction, the performance of plans is evaluated as a whole, and practical arrangement of three dimensional plans is generated.
Recent damaging earthquakes have clearly revealed that retrofitting low earthquake-resistant structures is the key issue for earthquake disaster reduction. However, retrofitting activities are not carried out seriously especially for non-public structures. Some local governments in California, US are promoting retrofitting more successfully than those in Japan, by providing various kinds of economic incentives for it. We have investigated the current strategies for successful retrofitting promotion mainly in the San Francisco Bay Area through interviews and reference collection. By comparing strategies both in US and Japan, some clues for improving retrofitting incentive programs in Japan are presented.