This paper discusses the form of townhouses in Thailand, clarifying the process of urban formation and characteristics of living environment. The research this paper is based on tries to compare forms of shop houses in Thailand with those in other regions of South East Asia and southern China. The previous papers clarified the typology and its transformation of shop house in Bangkok, Patani and Malacca. In this paper, authors selected Phimai (Isan,Thailand) to consider the formation of urban tissues and its transformation. Phimai (Isan,Thailand) is known as a historic City with many ancient monuments traced back to Angkor Khmer period. One of major focuses of this paper is how the townhouse (shop house) was introduced in Thailand. The paper is composed by formation of housing block and typology of houses. Analyzing the spatial formation of houses, the paper suggests that two types of houses, ie. shop houses and houses with raised floor, are clearly classified and transformation process of house types.
This study aims at considering the environment of the Integrated compulsory Education school especially as the space children and students daily live, through observation of contacts between children and students mainly in free time. This study revealed the following results; The occurrence, companion and reaction of contacts are influenced by various factors about school ---for example, planning of the space, operating system. Daily happening contacts and those compeling limited reactions, these contacts have effects on relationships between children and students. It is required that environment of school provides two types of oppotunities: through which children and students can make broad relationships, but also they can control their reactions to the companion by themselves.
The space of construction a certain place has been formed by the fact that it is divided into the external space and the internal space (territory) by the material boundary of the roof and the wall open part etc. Shape has occurred in the building as a substance, the building contour which forms the boundary aspect inside and outside directly is a relationship. Because of that, the designer changes relationship by the construction contour and the fact that form of the inside and outside space is operated. In addition, as a use there is a function in the space in the building, the functional segmentation of the internal space and the external space has occurred with the segmentation. You can do the arrangement of the space where it corresponds to the respective function in those, furthermore in the material boundary the various elements which respond to function exist. We use the concept of interior/exterior that internal space and the external space and boundary are caught continually.
The spatial correlation analysis (SCA) method was proposed in order to analyze urban activities quantitatively. This paper attempts to extend the method of SCA defined in the bi-dimensional Euclidean space to the road-network space. We discuss a method for applying the spatial correlation analysis in the road-network space and illustrate the details of computation methods. As the numerical examples using actual GIS data, the comparison of results from the Euclidean distance and the network distance is shown. Also, we demonstrate some care studies using the variety of computation methods.
We investigated people in a large-scale, commercial facilities in Japan. As a result, it was clarified to be able to describe the shopping behavior in the following two states. (1)Person in state to try to go to target area (2)Person in state to wandering in shopping mall The person changes by two states and decided the route. This state variation and routing have been decided from the investigation according to acquired data. And, the space made a divergence part and a target store a network as a node. Finally, the simulation result showed good agreement with the result of the field survey. This model was able to reproduce the whole of the shopping behavior done in the shopping mall. This model can be used at the esquisse stage of architectural planning.
This paper clarified the following points in case of Touge, Wajima city where is near to the hypocenter and has sustained great damage in the stricken area of Noto earthquake in March of 2007. 1) I clarified suffering the revival situation of Noto Peninsula earthquake disaster area and the Touge village which were a study and a local characteristic. 2) In the formation process of the Touge village, I arranged a characteristic of the space structure. And I clarified traditional space structure and social structure and the connection with the present age of the village. . 3) I paid my attention to the connection with the social spatial characteristic of the Tougea village and clarified the revival from the earthquake disaster at the point in time and the characteristic of the making of revival t plan after suffering for two years.
This paper aims to investigate effective use of district plan and community rules for dwelling environment management by community associations. Firstly, the paper proposed a theoretical frame work of combined use of district plan and community rules. There are four types of combination according to nature of environmental factors and standards, binding and predictability of rules. Then, the paper applied the frame on three cases of housing estates in Yokohama city. The case study pointed out that it is important to prepare combination of rules according to clarity and diversity of cityscape and dwelling environment..
This study aims to make clear the challenges of conservation of the traditional rural landscape, through clarifying the transformation of spatial composition by a case study on Ogimachi-area in Shirakawa-village. Findings of this study are that the traditional spatial composition was maintained until the mid Showa era. At this time, residents in this area had to cultivate a farm in the rational way, so the land use is clear. But this traditional spatial composition transformed by individual needs of tourist business and improvement of dwelling environment until now. Especially agricultural lands became narrower and building lands and parking place spread. One of the challenges for the conservation is assessment the value of traditional land use and the other is integrated control of landscape to implement both resident's needs and the conservation of traditional landscape.
Urban design principles should have their own characteristics in different regions. Taken Taiyuanjie district in downtown Shenyang, China as a case study, this paper presents one scientific approach to evaluate wind conditions under different building typologies during winter season and thereby to improve the quality of outdoor activities in winter season. By using wind tunnel simulation, the analyses are applied to a series of alternative building types in typical blocks of downtown Shenyang to show how building types affect wind conditions in adjacent open spaces. For the experimental studies, models are made in the scale of 1:300 and tested in a boundary-layer wind tunnel. Tested building types include high-rise wall type buildings, high-rise tower type buildings, medium-rise buildings and existing condition in Downtown Shenyang. According to the experimental results, pedestrian level wind conditions in medium-rise buildings with uniform height are better than others. Also, we proposed design strategies for improving wind conditions in each building type.
In the Iida-Shimoina area Sericuluture was flourished from the Meiji era to the 1960s, and there still exist many huge sericulture houses. Sericulture houses are classified into four types, and this paper explains the characteristics of these four types. Among these four, “silkworm-rearing room type 2” which is distinguished by its massive structure, is the best architecture for silkworm rearing and it easy to ensure a path of flow for sericultural works. It is after the middle Meiji era that the architectures of the Iida-Shimoina area were influenced by sericulural works.
This study aims to clarify the role of kidomon (town gate) in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. This paper deals with the appearance of support with gate post. These supports are cannot be seen in screens in and around Kyoto of 16th century. In those days, gate posts are self-supported by digging holes. From the end of 18th century, we can see supports in building documents. These supports are buried about 40 % of full length under street ground and tied with gate post by nuki-boards. As the result of that, gate posts are not necessary to burry deep in the earth.
Ota-ya in Higashi-Iwase was a lodging used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han and Honjin in Toyama was a similar lodging in Toyama-Han in Edo-Era. Through the examination of historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1)Ota-ya in Higashi-Iwase and Honjin in Toyama were both composed of two parts, rooms for lord and private rooms for dweller. 2)Honjin in Toyama had two sets of rooms for lord. Such a plan was uncommon among lodgings used by feudal lord in Japan in Edo-Era.
This report will discuss about the old construction documents about guard stations in the Edo period. I point out the characteristics of the documents from the viewpoint of regulation of cutting trees, promotion of recycle of used members, and management of the life span of buildings. I calculate the life span and the amount of wooden consumption of the buildings by analyzing the figure recorded on the documents. The figure is between 24 and 80 years, and the average is about 54 years.
There are In, Den, Miya, Dai, Tei and Taku in the last word of the aristocracy residential name in Heian Period. On Hyakurensyo, how to use of these is as follows: 1. In and Den are used as the residential name of the Emperor and the retired Emperor. Den is used as that name of the women in the Emperor family, also. Miya on record is few. However, that is used as that of the women in the Emperor family and the aristocrats. 2. Dai, Tei and Taku are used as the aristocracy residential name. Taku is used as that of people except the Emperor family and the aristocrats, also 3. In, Dai and Taku are continually recorded in Hyakurensyo. Den and Tei are recorded in the latter half of that.
This paper tries to clarify the architectural relation between the old farmhouses and the old town houses in SASAYAMA city, Hyogo prefecture. Mr.OBA named the style of the town houses in SASAYAMA as ‘SETTANGATA MACHIYIA’ connected with the SETTANGATA MINKA that is the style of the old farmhouses around SASAYAMA city. But I think OBA's theory is insufficient, so I will supplement and correct his theory by the investigation of the houses in two areas of SASAYAMA city, KAWARAMACHI and FUKUSUMI.
This paper examines when and how Kaoku-zakko and the concept of “Shinden-zukuri” was disseminated. In the early 19th century, the concept of the style of ancient noblemen's residences called “Shinden-zukuri” in Kaoku-zakko was shared by intellectuals. But the word “Shinden-zukuri” is not shared by them. There are few manuscript of Kaoku-zakko. It is conceivable that Kaoku-zakko was not popular until around 1980. But Kaoku-zakko achieved recognition around that time, probably in editing Kojiruien-Kyoshobu, and was published in 1891. After that Kaoku-zakko was frequently referred, and “Shinden-zukuri” became widely used to mean the concept already known.
After the Showa enthronement, the buildings used for the ceremony were granted to places all over Japan. Upon research of receivers it is found the buildings which still exist are mainly in religious facilities. This paper shows the analysis of how these buildings in religious facilities were converted. Through the process of conversion, features and meaning of granted buildings are shown here.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the spatial formation and the functional layout of market towns, Sasanami-ichi and Akiragi-ichi along the Hagi-okan. The results are as follows; 1) The both market towns of Sasanami-ichi and Akiragi-ici were formed in the early Edo Era. 2) The houses of Sasanami-ichi were invariable through the Edo Era. 3) The houses of Akiragi-ichi increased step by step during the Edo Era. 4) In Sasanami-ich the lodging, business and transportation functions were respectively arranged in Kami-no-cho, Naka-no-cho and Kudoshi. 5) In Akiragi-ich the lodging and transportation functions were arranged in north and south side of Hagi-okan street, and the business function was scattered in Akiragi-ichi.
Nowadays the suburbs built after the World War II is now considered as heritage. Tapiola garden city is a one of the pioneer of city suburbs in Finland. It is situated in Espoo, next to Helsinki. The garden city's construction was started from 1950s, and still it is growing. The whole area is regarded as National Built Environment and also National Landscape. Although the project of stretching metro from the centre of Helsinki is now ongoing. This paper concerns how Tapiola garden city manages between conservation and development, and also the system of inventory, evaluation and city plan.
Cultural properties are vulnerable not only to disasters but also to crimes. But it is difficult to protect movable ones in historic buildings whose transformation is strictly limited. In France, two external specialists on security are assigned in the Ministry of Culture and several manuals are formulated to find out crime and disaster prevention measures. The ministry has also fixed for the national cathedrals an internal regulation which conducts to define a panic prevention procedure and a multi-year program for improving the fire safety level. The comprehensiveness of security program is thus enhanced by the professional body.
We observed contact behavior between human and things by using the RFID tags and Ring-type-RFID reader, and analyzed the behavioral trait. We drew behavior tracks as a network diagram, and constructed the method to understand the behavioral trait intuitively. Next, we considered the method that evaluates human behavior quantitatively by the centralities that had been obtained by the network analysis. As a result of the experiment, we found that “Building Utilities” were important categories in the relation between the human and the things, and that was suitable place for having the monitor function of the human behavior or installing the information interface. Because the behavioral trait can be analyzed intuitively and easily without referring to the numerical value, it is thought that the technique used in this research is useful for the analysis of the behavioral trait.